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Plate I 





Papilio cresphontes 



FIELD BOOK OF 
INSECTS 



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO 
THOSE OF NORTHEASTERN 
UNITED STATES, AIMING TO 
ANSWER COMMON QUESTIONS 

By FRANK E.^LUTZ, Ph.D. 



CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY, 
AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged 
With about 800 Illustrations, Many in Color 




G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 
NEW YORK AND LONDON 

Ubc Iknicfeerbocfeer press 
1921 

va. 



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Copyright, 1918 

BY 

FRANK E. LUTZ 

Copyright, 192 i 

by 

FRANK E. LUTZ 



The study of entomology is one of the most fascinating 
of pursuits. It takes its votaries into the treasure-houses 
of Nature, and explains some of the wonderful series of 
links which form the great chain of creation. It lays open 
before us another world, of which we have been hitherto 
unconscious, and shows us that the tiniest insect, so small 
perhaps that the unaided eye can scarcely see it, has its 
work to do in the world, and does it. 



OCT 29 1921 Rhv. J. G.Wood. 




©CI.A630046 
1 Pr 



Printed in the United Slates of America 



Vi 



PREFACE 



I am glad to have this opportunity of thanking 
those who have kindly responded to the request 
made on page 523 for criticisms and suggestions. 
As far as seemed practicable, they have been 
acted upon in this edition. All typographical 
errors that have been noticed in the body of the 
book are now corrected and new matter has been 
put in the appendix. In addition to short notes 
on a variety of subjects, there is an extensive key 
for determining the order to which an insect, 
adult or immature, belongs, a key to the fam- 
ilies of beetles, another to wild bees, and notes 
to help in the identification of caterpillars. 

The Field Book of Insects was intended for 
individuals, but so many teachers have used it in 
their classes that it may not be amiss to indicate 
a pedagogical point of view that influenced the 
choice of material. Certain families or groups 
of species were selected in each of the important 
orders for more detailed attention on the theory 
that it is well to "know a little about many 
things and much about a few." In beetles, for 
example, a general survey is given of the order 
and the Long-horns received an "unfair" 
amount of space; in the True Flies it is the 
SyrphidcB and the various House Flies; in 
Hymenoptera it is the Bumble Bees; and in 



PREFACE. 

Lepidoptera it is the Butterflies (exclusive of 
Skippers) and the Saturnid Moths. I have 
found that such a combination of general and 
special study has been very profitable and I hope 
that teachers — those in regular classes as well as 
those in such organizations as the Boy Scouts, 
the Woodcraft League, and the Agassiz Associ- 
ation — may find it equally so. The groups given 
more detailed treatment were selected partly on 
the basis of general interest and partly because 
their study did not involve technicalities that 
would be likely to discourage the amateur. 

The request for suggestions tending to make 
the book more interesting and more helpful to 
you still stands and is sincere. 

Frank E. Lutz, ' 



iv 



CONTENTS 



Introduction .... 

Collecting and Preserving Insects 

The Control of Injurious Insects 
Chiefly about Spiders 
Insects .... 

The Most Primitive Insects 

May-flies (Plectoptera) . 

Dragon-flies (Odonata) . 

Stone-flies (Plecoptera) . 

Dobson-flies, etc. (Megaloptera) 

Ant-lions, Aphis-lions, etc. (Neuroptera) 

Scorpion-flies (Mecoptera) 

Caddis-flies (Trichoptera) 

Earwigs (Dermaptera) .* 

Roaches, Grasshoppers, etc. (Orthoptera) 

White Ants (Isoptera) . 

Book and Bark Lice (Corrodentia) . 

Biting Bird Lice (Mallophaga) 

True Lice (Siphunculata) 

Thrips (Thysanoptera) . 

Cicadas, etc. (Homoptera) 

True Bugs (Heteroptera) 

Butterflies and Moths (Lepidoptera) 

True Flies (Diptera) 

Fleas (Suctoria) .... 

Beetles (Coleoptera) 

Stylopids (Strepsiptera) . 

Wasps, Bees, Ants, etc. (Hymenoptera) 

Galls . . . . 
Appendix: Additions and Corrections . 
Index: 

Habitat and Plant 

Entomological .... 



COLORED ILLUSTRATIONS 

FACING PAGE 

Plate I. — Papilio cresphontes . . Frontispiece 

Plate X. — Hetarina americana; Calcpteryx maculata; 
Perithemis domitia; and Libellula pulchella . 44 

Plate XVII. — Stagmomantis Carolina and a Phasmid 

(Manomera) ....... 64 

Plate XIX. — Dissosteira Carolina; Pterophylla 
camellifolia; Amblycorypha oblongifolia; CEcanthus; 
and Panchlora ...... 72 

Plate XXIII. — Fulgora; Scolops sulcipes; a young 
cercopid in its "spittle"; Acanalonia bivittala; 
Graphocephala coccinea; Ceresa bubalus and its 
egg-scars; Thelia bimaculata; Archasia belfragei; 
Entylia sinuata; and Telamona ampelopsidis . 86 

Plate XXVII. — Anosia plexippus; Basilarchia 

arthemis; and Basilarchia archippus . . . 116 

Plate XXVIII. — Euptoieta claudia; Argynnis cybele; 

Argynnis aphrodite; and Argynnis idalia . 118 

Plate XXXIII. — Lyccena comyntas; Lyccena ladon; 
Chrysophanus hypophl&us; Feniseca tarquinius; 
Thecla melinus; Thecla damon; Libythea 
bachmani; and Calephelis borealis . . .132 

Plate XXXVI. — Papilio turnus; Papilio glaucus; 
Papilio troilus; Papilio polyxenes; and Papilio 
philenor . . . . . . .140 

Plate XXXVIII .— Hemaris thysbe; Deilephila 
lineata; Ampelophagus myron; and Pholus pan- 
doras ........ 148 

vii 



COLORED ILLUSTRATIONS. 



FACING PAGE 

Plate XLIII. — Actias luna . . 160 

Plate XLV. — Automeris io and Dryocampa 

rubicunda . . . . . . .162 

Plate XLIX. — Haploa clymene; Utetheisa bella; Isia 
Isabella; Estigmene acraa; Diacrisia virginica; 
Apantesis nais; and Euchcetias egle . . .168 

Plate LIII. — Catocala relicta; Catocala cava; 

Catocala vidua; and Catocala ultronia . .180 

Plate LIX. — Thyridopteryx ephemerceformis; Euclea 

chloris; Sibine stimulea; and Harrisina americana 200 

Plate LXVI. — Odontomyia cincta; Tabanus ni- 
grovittatus; Chrysopila thoracica; Anthrax 
lateralis; Bombylius major; Psilopodinus 
patibulatus; Syrphus americanus; Volucella evecta; 
Bombyliomyia abrupta; and Milesia virginiensis . 248 

Plate LXX. — Musca domestica; Stomoxys calcitrans; 
Chrysomyia macellaria; Calliphora vomitoria; 
Lucilia ccesar; Sarcofihaga hcemorrhoidalis ; and 
Drosophila melanogaster . . . . .272 

Plate LXXIII. — Cicindela sexguttata; Cicindela 
generosa; Lebia grandis; Calosoma calidum; Calo- 
soma scrutator; Platynus cupripennis; Agonoderus 
pallipes; and Brachinus fumans . . .286 

Plate LXXV. — Silpha noveboracensis ; Necrophorus 
marginatus; Creophilus villosus; Tachinus 
fimbriatus; a staphylinid larva; Megilla fus- 
cilabris; Coccinella g-notata; Adalia bipunctata; 
Hippodamia convergens; Anatis iy punctata; and 
Epilachne borealis ...... 296 



COLORED ILLUSTRATIONS. 



FACING PA&E 

Plate LXXXI. — Phanmus carnifex; Cotalpa 
lanigera; Allorhina nitida; Desmocerus palliatus; 
Saperda Candida; Cyllene robinice; Chrysochus 
auratus; and Galerucella luteola . . . 332 

Plate LXXXIII. — Crioceris asparagi; Lema tri- 

lineata; Leptinotarsa 10-lineata; Diabrotica 12- 

punctata; Diabrotica vittata; Phyllotreta vittata; 

Chalepus rubra; larva of Cassida bivittata; and 

[ Copiocycla bicolor . . . . . 364 

Plate XC. — Mutitta occidentalis; Elis 5-cincta; 
Chrysis cceruleans; Eumenes fraternus; Odynerus 
birenimaculatus; Monobia quadridens; Vespa 
crabro; Vespa communis; and Vespa maculata . 424 

Plate XCII. — Psammochares atrox; Sceliphron 
cementarium; Chalybion cceruleum; Chlorion ich- 
neumonea; Sphex (incorrectly spelled on plate) 
urnaria; Bembex spinolce; Cerceris clypeata; 
Sphecius speciosus; and Crabro .... 434 

Plate XCIV. — Bombus impadens; Bombus ter- 
narius; Bombus pennsylvanicus ; Xylocopa vir- 
ginica; Nomada luteola; and Agapostemon 
radiatus ....... 450 



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Plate II 




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INTRODUCTION 

w Ten years ago I felt sure that there was 

little excuse for additional general ento- 
mologies. The market seemed full of popular, semi- 
popular and unpopular books, each apparently attempting 
the impossible — the covering of a boundless field. Since 
then a hundred, or more, new works on the subject have 
appeared and lo! here is still another because, in the 
meantime, it has been my privilege to come in rather close 
contact with the laity, having been the official answerer 
of all sorts of questions from " How much is a moth worth? " 
to " Why are bedbugs? " I take this opportunity of taking 
up some of the intermediate points. 

What ? When the publishers of this series spoke 

about a Field Book of Insects, to be a 
companion to the excellent books already published, we 
began to deal with the arithmetic of large numbers. 
There are, for example, approximately 15,000 species of 
insects to be found within fifty miles of New York City; 
more than 2,000 of these are either moths or butterflies. 
A book to enable the student to recognize all the insects 
of even this limited region would have to be as large as 
one for the birds for the whole world. The accompanying 
diagrams may win some sympathy for entomologists and 
at the same time indicate the inexhaustible field for study 
offered by insects. However, only a small portion of 
these thousands are usually noticed by the layman or, 
outside of his speciality, by the average amateur, and 
generally the interest is not so much in knowing the specific 
name as in learning the general group to which the insect 
belongs and what it does. This constitutes a general 
knowledge of insects; to go further, in most groups, one 
must become a specialist. This book refers, by specific 
name, to about 1400 different kinds of insects inhabiting 
the United States and nearly 600 of these are illustrated 
by one or more figures. If the selections were as wisely 
made as we hope they were, the non-specialist should be 
able, by its aid, to recognize, at least in a general way, 

I 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 





Families 


Genera 


Species 


Thysanura 


2 


18 


41 


Ephemerida 


I 


13 


29 


Plecoptera 


I 


14 


25 


Mallophaga 


4 


14 


100 


Isoptera 


I 


I 


I 


Corrodentia 


i 


17 


39 


Platyptera 


i 


3 


9 


Neuroptera 


6 


22 


41 


Mecoptera 


I 


4 


11 


Trichoptera 


7 


30 


56 


Odonata 


3 


43 


109 


Thysanoptera 


i 


6 


12 


Parasitica 


i 


3 


13 


Homoptera 


ii 


149 


479 


Hemiptera 


23 


205 


504 


Dermoptera 


i 


5 


5 


Ortboptera 


6 


58 


154 


Coleoptera 


77 


1,079 


3,092 


Lepidoptera 


48 


7i5 


2,120 


Hymenoptera 


81 


54i 


1,980 


Siphonoptera 


1 


4 


4 


Diptera 


53 


542 


1,661 


Totals 


331 


3,486 


10,385 



The Number of Insects in New Jersey, as recorded in 
Smith's List. The classification differs somewhat from 
the one used here. 



INTRODUCTION. 

most of the insects which attract his attention and to find 
the answer to most of the questions he is tempted to ask 
the specialist. It is not intended to be a manual of 
economic entomology although most of our relatively few 
injurious insects are included. It is intended to be an 
introductory field book to commonly observed species 
and the larger groups of insects. Although the species 
mentioned are, for the most part, inhabitants of north- 
eastern United States, many of them have a wide distri- 
bution in this country and some of them even in other 
continents. I hope, therefore, and especially since the 
generalities are more important than concrete illustrations, 
that this little book may be useful to laymen "wherever 
dispersed." You can provide your own concrete illus- 
trations, once you have the general idea. I have been 
governed in the choice of subject matter, not so much by 
what I think ought to be in a book on insects as by what 
the public seem to want to know, judging by the letters 
received and personal inquiries made at an institution 
whose motto is "For the people, for education, for science." 
Really the title might be Answers to Common Questions 
about Insects. 

We are, all of us, immensely indebted 
to those who have gone before us. The 
mass of knowledge about insects, great in reality but small 
in comparison with our ignorance, has been accumulated, 
bit by bit, by the laboring man in his Sunday strolls and 
by the highly trained investigator. Much of this has been 
told over and over; none of us can hope to prove all of the 
statements. I have drawn freely on books and papers, 
too numerous to mention, for facts which I did not pre- 
viously know— some of which I have already forgotten. 
This book is frankly a compilation and will be useful in 
proportion to the skill with which the selections were 
made and put together. The new illustrations, about 
700, have been made by Mrs. E. L. Beutenmuller, largely 
from specimens in the American Museum of Natural 
History; and those concerned with collecting methods 
and galls are copied from papers published by that institu- 
tion, which has also kindly permitted me to use much of 

3 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



its time in the work. I thank, also, the following friends 
and associates for helpful suggestions and criticisms: 
H. G. Barber, concerning Hemiptera; J. Bequaert, Dip- 
tera and Hymenoptera; Wm. T. Davis, Odonata and 
Orthoptera; E. P. Felt, galls; C. W. Leng and A. J. 
Mutchler, Coleoptera; F. E. Watson, Lepidoptera; and 
Herbert F. Schwarz, who kindly acted as a "lay 
critic." 

. . . „ At the afore-mentioned institution we 

About Names . . ; . 

were once severely criticized by an excitable 

visiting school-marm because we had labeled a number of 
exhibition specimens with their scientific names but had 
neglected to give English names to them. I had been 
trying, for some time, an interesting experiment on 
several children with whom I had been rather intimately 
associated (they were my own). The first move was to 
tell one of them that the name of a certain burly bee she 
saw in the garden was Bombus. About a week later 
there were near-tears because a neighbor insisted it was a 
Bumble-bee. Matters were smoothed over by explaining 
that Bombus was the real name for such bees and Bumble- 
bee was a nickname. There are thousands of kinds of 
native-born, United States insects which have been really- 
named but not nicknamed. I have made an effort in this 
book to record the real names correctly and have given 
the nicknames when I knew them; when I did not, I 
usually have left you the pleasure of inventing new ones. 
Often real names are no longer or harder than the "com- 
mon" names. An insect is considered to be christened 
when some student, who has found a kind which he thinks 
has never been named, publishes a description of it and 
gives it a properly formed name. If somebody had 
previously named the same kind, the prior name usually 
holds. There is a complicated code governing the matter, 
and the changing of scientific names, which has so worried 
many readers, is caused by the discovery and rectification 
of violations of this code. The shaking-down process is 
painful but ultimate stability is hoped for and, withal, I 
feel sure that the "real" names are better than the best 
nicknames. 



TAXONOMY. 



Clearly some system of filing is necessary 
in order to keep track of the hundreds of 
thousands of insect names. A business man keeps his 
reference cards or letters in groups and sub-groups. As 
his business grows he not only adds new groups but he 
breaks up the old groups into finer divisions. It is the 
same way with the arrangement (taxonomy) of insects. 
Formerly nine major groups ("Orders") were enough for 
insects, the "Class" of animals with six legs. The latest 
works divide insects into several Classes and there are 
nearly forty Orders. Not to make it too complicated, we 
will follow a moderate course and consider all insects as 
belonging to one Class, which is divided into about two 
dozen Orders. Flies, in the strict sense, have no more 
than two wings and belong to the "two- winged" Order 
(Diptera); the Order to which butterflies and moths 
belong is Lepidoptera; that to which beetles belong is 
Coleoptera; and so on. Orders are divided into "sub- 
orders" and these into "families." Lady-bird beetles 
belong to the family Coccinelidse, while carpet beetles are 
Dermestidae. Family names always end in das and sub- 
family names in nas. The next division which need 
concern us is "genus"; and then "species." The names 
of these divisions are the ones ordinarily used. The 
generic name should always be written with a capital and 
the specific with a small initial letter; they are usually 
printed in italics. Bumble-bees are Bombus; a common 
species is Bombus pennsylvanicus. Some species have 
varieties; for example: one of our beautiful butterflies is 
Papilio glaucus variety hirnus. This system is more 
than a pure matter of convenience; it aims to point out 
relationships. The species of a given genus are supposed 
to be more closely related to each other than they are to 
the species of other genera of the same family, and the 
different genera of a given family are believed to be more 
closely related to each other than to those of other families 
of the same order and so on. 

The technical entomologist will notice that the arrange- 
ment of our text does not follow absolutely any one of the 
arrangements with which he is familiar. This liberty was 
taken because it was believed that certain deviations would 

. 5 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



be more convenient for the layman, — a liberty somewhat 
to be pardoned by reason of the fact that few technical 
books agree among themselves. Brues and Melander's 
Key to the Families of North American Insects is the best, 
recent, detailed treatment of the subject. 

. Much against my inclination, I have 

Measurements gi ven measurements in inches. This has 
made it necessary to use various fractions 
and these are awkward things to get at on ordinary rules. 
In using measurements, it must be remembered that there 
is considerable variation in the size of the same species 
and, even where upper and lower limits are given, these 
limits may be overstepped by exceptional individuals or 
by many individuals in exceptional seasons or localities. 
In those illustrations which are not natural size, the aver- 
age size of the insect is usually indicated by a line near the 
figure. 

Thus early be it said that insects do not 
grow after they have attained wings. 
Small, winged flies do not grow to be large, winged flies 
even though the same kitchen window frequently contains 
all sizes. There are two main sorts of life histories, called 
respectively Incomplete and Complete Metamorphosis. 
Insects having the first kind, grasshoppers for example, 
look, when they leave the eggs, more or less like minia- 
tures of the adults except that they have no wings even if 
the adults have. Insects of the second sort may be as 
different, when they hatch, from the adult as a caterpillar 
is from a butterfly, and they usually go through a resting 
(pupal) stage before they get wings. Young insects may 
be said to grow by leaps and bounds, not gradually. 
They are largely covered, like lobsters, by a shell which 
will not stretch. All the flesh is inside of this shell, and 
when the quantity of this flesh gets too large the shell 
splits, usually down the back; the insect emerges, swells 
out, and his new skin again hardens by reason of the 
chitin it contains. This process is repeated several times 
before adult life is reached. The number of molts is 
usually very definite for each species and sometimes an 
6 



ANATOMY. 



insect, so starved that it £us not largely increased its 
flesh, will, nevertheless, carry on its accustomed molts. 
In the case of winged insects having incomplete meta- 
morphosis, the developing wings show as pads several 
stages before the adult. In those having complete meta- 
morphosis, even the fu'/l-grown larvae have no external 
indication of wings; these appear externally after the molt 
which results in the p^pa and, when the pupa molts, out 
steps the winged aduf.t. 

The Inside Mention has been made of the hard 

("chitinized") skins of insects: it is their 
skeleton and their muscles are attached to it. In man, 
the blood is sent to the lungs for a load of oxygen 
which it then carries to the tissues. Insects do things 
more directly; air is conducted to all parts of the 
body by means of a system of tubes called tracheae. 
This system usually has a number of outside openings 
(spiracles) placed along each side of the body, but there is 
none on the head. Insects do not breathe through their 
mouths. Blood completely fills the body cavity and is 
kept in motion by means of a "heart" which is merely a 
pulsating tube open at both ends. The central nervous 
system is a double, longitudinal series of ganglia connected, 
one with another, by cords. There is no brain, strictly 
speaking, for the ganglia in the thorax seem to be about as 
important as those in the head. Nerves run from each 
ganglion to nearby parts of the body. Most insects seem 
to smell by means of their antennas and some to hear 
with the same organs, but the location of "ears, " if "ears " 
exist, is various and not always known. 

The Outside All insects are divided into three parts: 

head, thorax and abdomen. In some 
larvae these parts are not distinctly marked off, but 
usually there will be no difficulty in recognizing the 
head. The thorax bears the wings, if any, and the 
true legs, if any. No insect ever has more than three 
pairs of true legs, and no other creatures which the amateur 
is -likely to notice and confuse with insects have as few 
as three pairs of legs. The part of the thorax which bears 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



the front legs is called the prothorax; the middle legs are 
on the mesothorax; and the hind legs, on the metathorax. 
The top is called the notum and the under side the sternum. 
We have, then, "pronotum," "presternum," and so on. 
The abdomen is the part of the body back of the thorax. 
In many larvse, such as ordinary caterpillars, the abdomen 
may have leg-like, fleshy props or claspers, and in many 
adult insects there are "caudal" appendages of one sort 
or another at the hind end of the abdomen. Going from 
the thorax outwards, the principal parts of the legs are 
coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia and tarsus. The tarsus is 
usually made up of several joints and usually ends in one 
or more claws. The first joint of the tarsus is sometimes 
much larger than its companions and is called metatarsus 
or basitarsus. The big joints of the leg are the tibia 
and femur. The trochanter is small and sometimes two- 
jointed. The coxa usually looks like a small part of the 
thorax. An insect's jaws chew, if they do chew, sideways, 
not up and down. The mouth parts are subject to a 
great deal of modification and in some groups, instead of 
biting, they pierce and suck. Typically, there are two 
sets of jaws: mandibles and maxillae. The latter are 
usually the more delicate and are furnished with a pair of 
feeler-like structures called palps. The lower lip (labium) 
also has a pair of palps. These two sets of palps are 
supposed to be tasting organs. The eyes are of two sorts : 
compound and simple. The pair usually noticed are the 
compound eyes and are compact clusters of single eyes 
(ommatidia). Some insects, such as certain "silver- 
fish," have not more than 12 ommatidia to each eye; and 
some hawk-moths, 27,000. The simple eyes (ocelli) are 
situated between, and usually a little higher than, the 
compound eyes. There are usually three. Finally, the 
outside of an insect's body is usually more or less covered 
with hairs. In butterflies and moths these hairs are 
largely scale-like. When descriptions refer to hairy eyes, 
do not expect too much; a lens is usually necessary to see 
these hairs. This is about all the anatomy one needs to 
start with. More will be explained as occasion arises. 



COLLECTING INSECTS. 



COLLECTING AND PRESERVING INSECTS 

The following directions are, with slight changes, thos'e 
which are contained in the American Museum's leaflet on 
How to Collect and Preserve Insects. 

When and Where to Find Insects 

- An entomologist is frequently amused at being asked 
by well-meaning friends if he found anything when he 
went out. Insect hunting is a sport in which there are 
no blanks, if you know the game. Frequently the most 
unpromising times and places are the best, for others 
have been discouraged by the outlook and you get what 
they have missed. We can never truly say that we know 
an insect's haunts until we can tell where to look for it 
every hour of every day in the year. Many insects are 
great hiders and should be looked for under bark; in 
rotten wood; under stones, dead leaves, etc.; among the 
-roots of plants; in stems and flowers — in short everywhere 
and at all times. 

Collecting Apparatus and How to Use It 

The great essentials for insect collecting were given 
each of us at birth and need only be improved by use — an 
inquiring mind, eyes and fingers. Only a very few insects 
sting to such an extent that collecting with unaided 
fingers is uncomfortable and even the swiftest fliers can 
be caught by hand when they are young or asleep. How- 
ever, certain tools are handy. They can either be made 
at home or purchased rather cheaply from dealers. 1 



1 Such as Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Roch- 
ester, N. Y.; Kny-Scheerer Co., 56 West 23d St., O. 
Fulda, 63 Fifth Ave., and Scientific Equipment Co., 
70 Fifth Ave., New York City; H. H. Brehme, P. O. Box 
432, South Amboy, N. J. ; and Williams, Brown and Earle, 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Mention of insect collecting immediately suggests a 
net. For the capture of adult butterflies, moths and other 
delicate, flying creatures this should be of the lightest 
possible material. Fine Brussels net or bobinet is used 
for the larger sizes (i to 2 ft. in diameter) and silk veiling 
for the pocket sizes. The depth of this net should be at 
least twice the diameter of its rim so that, when an insect 
is caught, a twist will fold the bag against the rim and 
leave the insect imprisoned in the lower end of the bag. 
The beginner is apt to choose too long a handle and can 
then take only long slow strokes even if he avoids getting 
all mixed up with the vegetation and interfering with 
his fellow collectors. Three feet is long enough for a 
handle. 

The sweeping net should be made of stout, white muslin, 
or light duck, on a strong rim well fastened to a handle of 
such a length that the user can just touch the ground with 
the rim of the net without stooping. The diameter of the 
net depends somewhat on the strength of the user and its 
depth may be from 1^ to 2 times its diameter. It is 
used to sweep blindly through grass, bunches of flowers, 
light bushes, etc., in a fairly certain expectation of getting 
something. Much of the material will be damaged by the 
rough handling, but it is the quickest way to get large 
numbers of specimens, and the only way to get certain 
things quickly. The tendency seems to be to make the 
handle of the sweep net too short, some on the market 
being only 6 in. long. These do not tire the arm so much 
as nets with longer handles, but you either miss the insects 
living near the ground or you get a very tired back. One 
useful trick in sweeping is to have a small cushion of 
cotton, covered with cheese-cloth or muslin, and a bottle 
of chloroform or ether. After sweeping for a few minutes 
moisten the cushion with the anesthetic, drop it into the 
net, and quickly twist up the bag so that the fumes are 
confined. In a short time even the liveliest grasshopper 
will be asleep and can be picked out and either saved or 
rejected. If rejected, they will all shortly revive and 
walk, hop, or fly away. The cushion is not strictly 
necessary as the chloroform may be put directly on the 
net after the insects are folded in the bottom. 
10 



NETS AND SIFTING. 



The third net of the complete outfit is the water net. 
The bag should be of some strong material through which 
water will run readily. The rim should be strong and 
may be either circular in outline or flattened at the side 
opposite the handle. The advantage of the flattening 
is that the bottom of ponds can be skimmed, but the 
circular rim does fairly well, as the stirring of the water 
stirs up even the insects at the bottom and they are caught 
in the return swish of the net. A great deal of mud and 
weeds will also be caught, but devices to prevent this, 
such as covering the mouth of the net with a coarse wire 
screen, do not work well in collecting insects. After 
clearing the net of mud as much as possible by wash- 
ing it through the net, dump the rest on the bank, pre- 
ferably in the sun. Some insects will probably be seen 
at once, others will appear as the mass dries out. After 
you think you have found everything, wait a while and 
look out for very small beetles. Many collectors miss 
them. 

Many, or most, of the nets that are for sale have fold- 
ing rims and jointed handles. Opinion differs as to the 
best. When, as is often the case, lightness and ease 
of transportation is an object, it is well to have but 
one handle and frame, with interchangeable bags. The 
landing net used by fishermen, in which the frame 
consists of two pieces of flexible steel that lie close 
together when not in use, is excellent. The two-jointed 
handle is better than the three-jointed one, as one of 
the joints of the former is just right except for high 
flying or deep diving quarry. In these cases add the 
second. 

A sieve is handy for getting the small insects hiding 
under accumulations of dead leaves, in moss, trash, etc. 
Two sieves with meshes of different size are handier. A 
good plan is to have a strong bag about a foot and a half 
square by two feet deep. About nine inches from the 
top sew pieces across the corners so that a piece of half- 
inch mesh wire screen can rest on them. Sift through this 
until there is quite a bit of fine material in the bottom of 
the bag and then retire to a comfortable place protected 
from the wind and spread a small sheet of white muslin or 
ii 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



canvas. Now resift, using a mesh about four or five to 
an inch. The fiat-bottomed sieves, six or eight inches 
ia diameter, which are used for making French fried 
potatoes, and the new wire pie-pans are excellent. Sift 
a very thin layer on to the white cloth and examine 
carefully the coarse stuff for relatively large things 
before it is thrown away. Be patient with the small 
stuff. Insects have a habit of "playing possum" and 
have plenty of patience themselves. They do not 
seem to like tobacco smoke. If you do, blow some 
on the litter. It will hasten matters, — at least, smokers 
think so. 

This is a good place to mention collecting forceps, 
as they are almost necessary in picking up very small 
insects as well as insects concerning whose ability and 
inclination to sting there may be some suspicion. The 
best forceps for handling very delicate insects do not 
seem to be on the market. They are made of strips 
of German silver and have small but rounded points. 
However, small steel ones do very well. Steel for- 
ceps about a foot long are handy for picking caddice 
cases, etc., out of water, but they are of little use 
in general work. Dealers also carry forceps having 
gauze-covered frames at the tips. They are meant 
for holding stinging insects while they are being ex- 
amined, but they, also, are of very little use to the general 
collector. 

A strong knife for cutting off galls, stripping bark, 
splitting infested branches, etc., is essential. A trowel is 
useful in following insect burrows or digging for root 
borers. The entrenching tool used in the army is a 
handy, all-around substitute for trowel, hatchet, and large 
knife. 

There are two chief methods of night-collecting in 
general use: "sugaring" and at light. Another, while 
not so productive of specimens, is more interesting. It 
consists in simply prowling around with lamp, examining 
the center of flowers, the underside of leaves, tree-trunks, 
etc., to find out what the nocturnal insects are doing and 
also where and how the day-flying insects are passing the 
night. 

12 



Plate III 








FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



There are about as many recipes for making the sugar 
mixture as there are for "mother's biscuits." Baking 
molasses usually forms the basis. Some additions are 
any combination, or all, of stale beer, rum, asafcetida and 
brown sugar. The mixture should spread easily but not 
run badly. It is to be applied before dusk on tree trunks, 
fence rails, and the like. Starting from some comfortable 
resting place as a base, lay out a circuitous route, "sugar- 
ing" something every few feet, and end at the resting 
place. After dark, if luck be good, the sugared strips will 
be full of moths and other insects eagerly sipping the 
sweets. Several wide-mouthed cyanide killing bottles 
(see p. 1 6) will be useful, but a net will be practically use- 
less. It is well to have a little ether in each bottle, and 
do not put a moth in a bottle until its predecessors have 
stopped fluttering. Only experience will teach how to 
catch these moths with a bottle. Some fly upward when 
disturbed and some fly straight out or sideways, but the 
majority drop a few inches before flying; so, when in 
doubt, hold the bottle slightly below the prospective 
captive. 

Light attracts many sorts of insects besides moths. 
Street and porch lights are fruitful hunting grounds. A 
lamp by an open window makes the room it is in a splendid 
trap or a smaller one can be fixed up and put "in the field." 
Plate III. shows the principle. The details vary to suit 
collectors' whims. It is not difficult to make the box 
collapsible so that it can easily be transported. An 
ordinary barn-lantern set in the center of a white sheet 
or a "bull's eye" throwing a light against a sheet hung 
over a fence or between trees docs very well. In the 
latter cases a net will be desirable but not easy to use. 
Last summer I used, with great success, a cheese-cloth 
tent with a muslin ground-cloth. The tent was A-shaped, 
about 9 x 6 ft. on the ground and 6 ft. high, with inward- 
pointing flies at each end. A lantern (or two) was placed 
inside. The outside worked like a sheet and the inside 
was a trap. Both light and sugar work best where there 
is a variety of vegetation, as where woodland passes 
into swamp or where there is an abundance of second 
growth. 

14 



TRAPS, BEATING, REARING. 



Many other sorts of traps have been devised. Olive 
bottles and fruit jars buried up to the neck in the ground 
and baited with molasses, meat, etc., are simple and 
effective. The insects caught in this way may be washed 
off and will be nearly as good as new. Boards, daubed on 
the under side with molasses or covering meat, are not bad. 
Girdled branches and cut limbs, hung up, attract wood- 
boring insects which can then be collected by beating 
them into an upturned umbrella by sharply rapping the 
limbs with a stout stick. In fact, an umbrella is a very 
useful piece of apparatus. Branches, both living and 
dead, are full of insects. The inverted umbrella catches 
what are knocked off but does not hold them for long. 
The collector must act quickly. Some collectors put a 
quill in the cork of a collecting tube as shown in Plate III. 
If the outer end of the quill be put over the insect, it will 
crawl up through the quill and into the bottle from which 
exit is difficult. If the umbrella be white, or at least lined 
with white, the insects can be more easily seen but so can 
the collector — not by the insects particularly, but by 
inquisitive humans — and the non-committal black does 
very well. 

Beating will knock down many larvae. Directions for 
preserving them are given on p. 22. Some, at least, should 
be reared and here ingenuity is of more value than volumes 
of instructions. The beginner will doubtless be inclined 
to give his charges more light and air than is necessary. 
Pasteboard shoe-boxes are excellent for large caterpillars. 
Tin boxes keep the food longer and are easily cleaned, but 
must be watched carefully or the food will mould. If the 
food-plant can be potted, a good contrivance is to slip a 
lantern globe over it, sinking the bottom far enough in 
the ground to prevent the escape of larvae in that direction 
and covering the top with cheese-cloth. Even if the plant 
cannot be grown, twigs can be kept fresh for some time by 
keeping their cut ends in a small bottle of water sunk in 
the ground and used inside a lantern globe. (See Plate 
IV.) The twigs will be held in place and larvas prevented 
from drowning if cotton be loosely stuffed in the neck of 
the bottle around the twigs. It is well to throw a thin 
layer of dirt over the cotton so that fallen larvae can easily 

15 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



get back to their food. Another device is shown, in 
section, in Plate IV. It is made of plaster of paris. The 
water at b keeps the block moist. It is useful chiefly 
for ground-inhabiting larvae or for galls. However, for 
the latter, fruit jars with moist sand or a moist sponge in 
the bottom do just as well or better. Do not forget the 
larvae living in hollow stems, dead wood and under bark. 
When caterpillars are about to molt, especially when 
they are about to change to pupae, they stop eating and 
act as though they are sick. If you are in doubt as to 
how the species pupates, it is well to give it potting soil 
covered with dead leaves and some twigs of their food- 
plant, not merely fresh leaves. A desirable, but not 
necessary, refinement of technique is to bake the soil in 
order to kill bacteria and fungi. Species which "should" 
pupate underground will get along fairly well even if they 
have no earth — much better than if they be covered with 
earth after pupation takes place, as this would pack them 
and that is injurious. 

Killing 

Up to this point but little mention has been made of 
killing insects and that was really not necessary. Insects 
can be studied alive with great pleasure and profit. How- 
ever, there are so many kinds and the differences between 
species are often so minute that it is well to kill and 
preserve at least samples. Fortunately, this can be done 
with less trouble and less injury to the balance of Nature 
than is the case with most animals or even plants. Further- 
more, the collection can be made very attractive and 
instructive without taking up much space. 

The best all-around killing agent for adult insects is 
cyanide of potassium. It should be broken into pieces 
varying in size from that of a small pea to that of a hickory 
nut, according to the size of the bottle to be used. Olive 
bottles make good medium-sized bottles, while fruit jars 
are better for large-sized moths and butterflies. Tubes, 
even as small as J4 in- hi diameter by about 2 in. long, 
are not too small for some things. Avoid bottles with 
strongly constricted necks. Avoid, also, bottles made of 
1 6 



KILLING BOTTLES. 



thin glass. There are many ways of keeping the cyanide 
in position and the bottle in good condition. The most 
general way is to pour a thin layer of plaster of paris over 
a layer (from yi to y 3 in. deep) of cyanide. However, 
since such a bottle will quickly get too moist from the 
specimens and the decomposition of the cyanide, some 
further device is almost always used.' The pieces of 
cyanide may be wrapped in soft absorbent paper or 
imbedded in dry sawdust before the plaster is poured on. 
Another way is to imbed it in dry plaster before pouring 
on the wet. A piece of blotting paper should be -fitted 
tightly over the plaster after it has "set. " See Plate III. 
Some do not use plaster but imbed the cyanide in cotton 
and cover this with a piece of blotting paper or a thin 
porous cork. A dangerous, but otherwise fairly satis- 
factory, method is to imbed a piece of cyanide on the inside 
surface of the cork and have none in the bottle itself. 
This bottle will be dry but not strong, and as the cork 
will, in time, become saturated with poison it will be very 
dangerous. It is always well to have a few narrow strips 
of loose absorbent paper in the bottle. They prevent 
injury to the insects by shaking and help keep the bottle 
dry, as they can be frequently changed. As ordinarily 
made, a bottle should be allowed to ripen for several days 
before using. If wanted at once, put a few drops of 
vinegar or a pinch of boracic acid powder with the cyanide. 
Collectors of delicate moths and butterflies frequently 
put a few drops of ether or chloroform in their cyanide 
bottles before starting out. This is to quiet the insects at 
once for the cyanide sometimes kills slowly. Experience 
will teach the collector that some insects die very slowly 
and revive after apparent death. On the other hand, 
ether and chloroform make insects brittle and too long an 
exposure to cyanide fumes changes the color of some 
insects. 

Practically all beetles and dragon flies, together with 
dull-colored, hairless insects of other orders, can be killed 
in alcohol and kept there indefinitely. Fifty % is strong 
enough for killing and 70% for preserving. Higher 
grades make them brittle. No fly, bee, butterfly, moth, 
or any green insect, Other than those previously mentioned, 

17 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



should be put into alcohol. In an emergency, kerosene, 
gasoline, or benzine, put on the thorax, will kill and give 
satisfactory specimens. Pounded laurel leaves and peach 
pits make a weak killing agent, and butterflies andjmoths 
may be killed by carefully but firmly pinching the thorax 
between the thumb and finger, one on each' side. In fact, 
many collectors of these insects pinch their captures before 
taking them out of the net. This prevents their injuring 
themselves by thrashing about. 

Mounting 

The stock method is pinning. The almost universally 
adopted pin is I K in. long, and has a very small head. It 
varies in thickness from extremely slender to as thick as an 
ordinary pin. The useful sizes are from No. o to No. 3. 
They are either plain "white" or enameled black. Much 
is to be said for both, with the voting probably in favor of 
black. At any rate, they should snap back when bent a 
reasonable amount. A pin that bends easily and stays 
bent produces profanity. Beetles are usually pinned 
through the right wing-cover. All other insects, when 
pinned, are pinned through the thorax. In the case of 
flies it is well to pin a trifle to the right of the middle line, 
as the bristles on the back are important in taxonomy and 
one side of the body should be perfect. True bugs should 
be pinned through the triangular portion of the thorax 
which is between the wings. 

Very small insects are usually mounted on the tip of 
paper triangles, a medium-sized pin being stuck through 
the broad end of the triangle. The triangles are of about 
as many sizes as there are collectors. A ticket-punch can 
be purchased which has a die suitable for cutting these 
triangles. However, if they be cut out with scissors or a 
sharp knife a variety of sizes and shapes suited to different 
insects can easily be made. The best way is to cut 
tough, rather stiff paper into strips about .4 inch wide and 
then snip off triangles from them by making transverse 
cuts. It is well to pin up a quantity of these triangles in 
odd moments and keep them on hand. When ready to 
mount, put a small bit of white shellac dissolved in alcohol, 
18 



MOUNTING INSECTS. 



or of some good elastic glue, on the tip of a triangle and 
touch it to the underside of the thorax. Some difficulty 
will be experienced in keeping the insect straight on the 
point, especially if the adhesive be too thin. The triangles 
for ants should be fairly broad at the "point," and the 
front end of the abdomen as well as the thorax should be 
supported. 

The method just mentioned is almost universally used 
for small beetles. Small flies and the like are frequently 
mounted on "minuten nadeln." These are short, very 
delicate, headless pins. Bits of pith, cork, or firm blotting 
paper (used edgewise), serve to connect nadel and a 
regular pin. The nadel may be stuck through the insect 
and then into the support. A somewhat better plan is to 
arrange a number in advance by sticking the nadel through 
the support from below, leaving the point stick up; then 
mounting can be rapidly done by piercing the insects 
from below. It is well, in this case, to stop before the 
point comes entirely through the back as then no pin 
shows and furthermore the characters on the back are not 
marred. "Minuten nadeln" have the advantage over 
glue on triangles that the glue does not always hold. On 
the other hand, they cannot be used with many hard- 
shelled beetles. Elbow pins are sometimes used but are, 
as a rule, not very satisfactory. All mounts mentioned in 
this paragraph are usually put on the left side of the pin. 

The height of the insects on the pin is important for the 
final appearance of the collection. A strip of cardboard 
whose width is y A to V 3 the length of the pin makes a 
convenient gauge. With one edge held at the head of the 
pin push the insect up until it touches the other edge. 
Or a block of wood containing a hole whose depth is }i 
to V 3 the length of the pin may be used. Devices for 
regulating the height by sticking the point of the pin into 
a gauge are not satisfactory because of the varying thick- 
ness of the specimens. 

Mounting insects in balsam on glass slides will probably 
not be taken up by the general collector unless he be al- 
ready accustomed to making balsam mounts. It is, 
however, the only satisfactory method of getting extremely 
small forms ready for study. 

19 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



In collections, butterflies and moths usually have all 
four wings expanded to their utmost and more or less in 
line with the lateral axis of the creature's body. This 
makes a nice-looking collection and is the best that can 
be done with most butterflies. However, many moths 
have natural rest positions which are not only interesting 
but save space. It is well, therefore, to expand the wings 
of the left side so that the markings on both front and hind 
wings show, but to leave the right wings in the natural rest 
position. The reason for expanding the left side, rather 
than the right, and for putting the triangles, etc., on the 
left side is that most people are right-handed. This 
arrangement makes it easy to use the pinning forceps with 
the right hand. For the same reason, when the wings on 
one side of grasshoppers, wasps, etc., are to be spread, the 
left wings should be selected for the purpose. Pinning for- 
ceps are strong forceps with broad, roughened ends and are 
useful for pushing the pins into the cork of the storage boxes. 

The most common form of spreading board is illustrated 
in Plate IV. The sides are made of soft wood. In the 
bottom of the central channel is a piece of soft cork. After 
pinning the insect, push the pin into this central cork until 
the back of the insect is nearly flush with the board. 
Then draw the wings to the desired position by means of 
forceps or of a fine needle caught in the strong front margin 
of the wings. Never use the fingers on moths and butter- 
flies, as this will rub off the scales which cover the wings 
and give color to them. The wings may be kept in position 
by means of fine pins, or bits of heavy glass, or strips of 
tracing cloth held in place by pins placed outside of the 
wings. A combination of the last two methods, glass on 
paper, is best. It is well to have a number of boards with 
grooves of different widths for use with different-sized 
insects. The same plate shows a setting board devised 
by Air. Chas. E. Sleight — and perhaps by others — for 
spreading caddicc flics and other insects when it is desired 
to have the legs spread as well. The holes running down 
the center are just large enough to accommodate that part 
of the pin which is above the insect. The wings are 
spread as before, except that now the under side is visible 
to the worker and the legs are accessible. 

20 



Plate TV 










FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Should insects get dry and stiff before they are spread, 
they must be relaxed. This is done by putting them in a 
covered jar or tin box containing water or moist blotting 
paper. A few drops of carbolic acid added to the water 
will prevent mold. Twenty-four hours will usually be 
sufficient to relax even the driest, but more time may 
sometimes be necessary. If the insect has neither scales 
nor hairs, it can be quickly relaxed by immersing it in 
warm water. 

It will be noticed that both of the setting boards illus- 
trated here give the wings a slight upward tilt. If they 
keep this position, it will not be objectionable, but they 
are not likely to do so, since the weight of the wings will 
probably drop them at least to the horizontal. Large 
insects dry more slowly than small ones and it will prob- 
ably be necessary to allow them to remain on the boards 
for about two weeks. They should certainly remain until 
thoroughly dried. No further preservation is then 
necessary, as a rule, for the fairly hard-bodied, adult 
insects. Some tropical grasshoppers have large abdomens 
full of fat and decomposing food. These should first be 
opened by an incision along the belly, the viscera taken 
out, and the abdomen stuffed with cotton. 

Broken insects may be repaired by the use of shellac 
or thin glue. 

Caterpillars may be prepared in the following way: 
Make a circular incision at the hind end, cutting the in- 
testine loose from the outer body wall. Then, laying the 
caterpillar on a piece of clean blotting paper, squeeze the 
viscera through this opening by gently rolling the cater- 
pillar with a lead pencil, beginning near the hind end and 
gradually working toward the front. After the viscera 
have been gotten rid of, for the most part, insert a straw 
and fasten the first segment of the larva to the end of the 
straw by means of a fine needle. Draw the hind segment 
up the straw until the larva is natural length and fasten it 
in the same manner. Then, inflate the larva by gently 
blowing through the straw. Since the front end of the 
straw may get plugged up, it is well to make a small hole 
in the side of the straw before it is inserted. This hole 
had best come about midway between the larva's head and 



NOTES AND LABELS. 



tail. Since inflation must be kept up until the larva's 
skin is dried, gentle heat is usually used. A tin can, with 
holes punched in it for ventilation and heated by an 
alcohol lamp, makes a good oven, or one can be purchased. 
Dealers also sell bellows, tubing, clips, etc., to make the 
work of inflating easier. However inflated, green larvae 
are apt to lose their color, for it is chlorophyll which fades 
rapidly. Slow-drying paints relax the skin and distort it. 
Therefore, if painting is done, the pigments should be 
mixed with benzine or the like. 

Field Notes and Labels 



It is only by the greatest chance that the beginner gets a 
new or even rare species on ground that has been worked 
over by experienced collectors, but even the primary class 
in entomology may add to our store of knowledge if it 
keeps field notes well. Date of capture and locality are 
considered of prime importance. They should always be 
known and kept with every specimen, but the distribution 
and time of appearance of our more common species are 
known. It is of their habits that we are ignorant. What 
do they feed on? Under what conditions are 
they to be found when young and when old, day 
and night, winter and summer? What do the}- 
do and how do they do it? Some system of 
keeping notes is imperative if your collection is 
to be worth while. 

The pin label should be small but legible. 
Certain firms make a business of printing these 
labels from small type, or the collector can make 
up a sheet by means of an ordinary typewriter 
(black ink is best) and have a block made from 
this, greatly reduced in size. From this block 
any number of impressions can be made. Any 
printer will attend to the whole business. 
Sample strips are shown in the margin. If dates 
are not printed, they should be filled in before 
cutting the labels apart. Field numbers can be 
written on the back of these labels or put on a 
separate label. The collector's name can also 

23 



Tukeit, BG. 

1911 
Tukeit, 1JG. 

1911 
Tukeit, BG, 



Tukeit, BG. 

1911 
Tukeit. BG. 

1911 
Tukeit, BG. 

1911 
Tukeit, BG. 

1911 
Tukeit, BG. 

igix 



ManatiP.R. 

Mch s'14 
ManatiP.R. 

Mch 5'U 
ManatiP.R. 

Mch 5'i4 
ManatiP.R. 

Mch 5'u 
ManatiP.R. 

Mch 5'i4 
ManatiP.R. 

Mch 5*14 
ManatiP.R. 

Mch s'i4 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



be put on a separate label. Similar labels should all 
be the same height on the pin throughout the collec- 
tion. This is easily accomplished by sticking the pin 
first through the label then into a hole of a given depth 
or cork of a given thickness, thus pushing the labels up 
to a uniform height. 

Storage Boxes and Care of Collection 

Since certain members of a family of beetles (Der- 
mestidae) are given to eating dried insects, the storage 
boxes should have tight-fitting lids. Except for that, 
almost anything will do. Cigar boxes are not bad if 
carefully watched, but better boxes can be purchased at 
reasonable prices from dealers. Glass-topped drawers 
are nice but not necessary. Whatever sort of box is used, 
the bottom, inside, should be covered with something 
which is soft enough to allow a pin to enter easily but 
which will hold the pin when it is once in. The com- 
pressed cork of the dealers is best. Sliced cornstalk is 
used by some beginners but two layers of the corrugated 
paper, such as bottles are packed in, is better than corn- 
pith. The layers should be placed so that the corrugations 
run at right angles to each other. 

In spite of precaution, Dermestids may get in ; although 
camphor balls or flaked naphthalene will help to keep them 
out. If camphor balls are used, first heat the head of an 
ordinary pin and, while hot, push the head into the ball. 
When cool, it will be solid and the ball can be pinned into 
the box. If Dermestids do get in, they may be killed by 
pouring into the box about a teaspoonful of carbon bisul- 
phide and closing the lid down tightly. Remember that 
the bisulphide is very inflammable. 

Packing Insects in the Field 

It frequently happens that the collector cannot attend 
to his catch at once, or possibly for months. Of course 
those things which are collected in alcohol may remain 
there. Butterflies and the like should be put into tri- 
angular envelopes. The manner of making these is shown 

24 



Plate V 








25 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



in Plate V. Never put more than one specimen in an 
envelope. Other insects can be packed between layers of 
cotton and cheese-cloth, with naphthalene flakes put in 
to keep out ants, etc., or they can be put in sawdust. In 
the latter case it is well to sprinkle carbolic acid on the 
sawdust to prevent mold. An excellent method of 
packing insects (except butterflies and moths) which are 
to be dried, is to make tubes of unglazed paper around a 
lead pencil, after writing the data on that part of the 
paper which comes outside. One end is closed by folding 
in the paper there, and then the tube is nearly filled with 
freshly killed insects. Finally, the other end is closed by 
folding in the paper. These tubes and the triangular 
envelopes can be packed in a cigar box and, if sprinkled 
with naphthalene to keep out ants and Dermestids, will 
keep indefinitely. Never pack moist insects in a tin box 
and never close even a wooden box tightly if there are 
many moist insects in it. Mold will result if you do. 

Identification 

For this work a magnifying glass of some sort is usually 
necessary except for the larger Lepidoptera, and even with 
these it is useful when mouth-parts, and the like, are to be 
examined. If you collect at all extensively, you will get 
many species which are not mentioned here, at least in 
sufficient detail to enable you to fix on their names. 
Separate these into their orders and, if possible, families 
and even genera. Then await your chance to consult 
more technical books, or identified collections. Possibly 
you can arrange to have some specialist identify them 
for you, but this deprives you of the pleasure and benefit 
of doing it yourself. Furthermore, specialists usually 
have more than they can do, although they frequently arc 
willing to look over collections which are not too mis- 
cellaneous for the privilege of retaining duplicates of the 
species they identify. If the species is undescribed, they 
usually wish to describe it and keep a set, one specimen of 
which is designated a "type" of that species. A very 
large majority of entomologists are kind, helpful individ- 
uals; I merely wish to say that laymen are often unwit- 
tingly unreasonable in their requests. 
26 



ABOUT KEYS. 



Such keys as are given here are, for the 
most part, simplified versions of keys in 
special, more technical, books and papers. They have 
been simplified in two ways: by leaving out forms which 
are not very likely to attract the notice of beginners or 
whose separation involves too great technicalities, and by 
using, as far as possible, easily appreciated characters 
even though they may not be, otherwise, the best charac- 
ters to use. The result of the first simplification is that 
forms will be found which do not fit anything in the key 
although they may come close to it. An attempt has been 
made to word the keys so that forms which were not 
intended to be included will not fit anywhere, thus avoid- 
ing a misidentification. This attempt has not always 
been completely successful, especially for southern and 
west-of-the-Mississippi forms. Working a key backward, 
from the name to the start, usually gives so good a de- 
scription of the form in question that it is not further 
described in the text. 

Start at i and decide which of the two 
How to Use a ( or more ) alternatives best agrees with the 
specimen; then go to the number indicated 
at the right; continue this process until a name without a 
following number is reached. Do not take too much for 
granted. If a thing is said in one alternative to be black, 
it is not necessarily not black in the other unless this is 
definitely stated. If you reach a point where neither 
alternative fits, go back to the place where you had most 
doubt concerning a choice and take the other alternative ; 
perhaps the statements were not sufficiently clear and you 
made a wrong choice. If nothing works, it would be 
kind of you to conclude that you have a species which was 
not included in the key, although the fact of the matter is 
that it is next to impossible to draw up a relatively simple 
key which will not sometimes stick in the lock. 

The Control of Injurious Insects 

This section may seem out of place in a Field Book, 
but the garden is a part of the "field" as far as insects are 

27 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



concerned. I once made an at-first-sight rash statement 
to the effect that, every year, at least five hundred species 
of insects are naturally in my back yard near New York 
City. Some day I hope to prove it. Some of these 
insects are not welcome. Although the American Museum 
has no department of economic entomology, many of the 
inquiries, which are made there about insects, concern 
methods of control. I suppose, therefore, that "you," 
also, may have unwelcome insect visitors and would like 
some hints concerning their control. 

If the injury is serious, write to your State Entomologist 
or to the Bureau of Entomology of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. They, especially the State Entomologist, 
should know about serious outbreaks; they are fitted by 
training and constant work along these lines to give good 
advice and, if the occasion demands it, personal super- 
vision. Furthermore, you have a right to do this; you 
help to pay the salaries. 

Few insects are injurious in all the stages of their life- 
history, and every one will admit that the fight against 
injurious insects should start before the injury begins. 
Mosquitoes and flies should be killed before they can fly; 
the first meal of leaf-feeders should be their last, even if 
they get that. All this requires a knowledge of the life- 
histories so that we may know the best time to fight. 
Fall or winter plowing may uncover pupae which arc 
hibernating in the ground, and kill them. If the insect 
passes the winter in the egg stage, spraying, provided 
spraying will kill the larvae, should be done just as the 
eggs hatch. Therefore, we should know when that will be. 
This your State Entomologist can tell you for your par- 
ticular locality and I can not. 

Predaccous and parasitic insects are now "the one best 
bet" in economic entomology. Why cover our vegetation 
with poison year after year if we can set insect friends to 
killing insect enemies? This, again, is work for the pro- 
fessional economic entomologist, although I have tried to 
help you to distinguish friends from enemies. 

If possible, prevent breeding. This applies especially to 
suchenemiesasmosquitoesandflies. Whyliveinawirc-and- 
\\-<><>'l cage when draining swamps, putting fish in pondsj 



INSECTICIDES. 



and similar preventive measures will control mosquitoes, 
and general cleaning up will do away with flies? Many 
insect enemies of cultivated plants breed on weeds. Either 
treat the "weeds" as cultivated plants or get rid of them. 

Insecticides may be roughly divided into four classes: 
stomach poisons, contact insecticides, repellants and gases. 

Stomach poisons are for such insects as chew vegetation. 
Nearly all of them contain arsenic in some combination 
and, if there be too much water-soluble arsenic, will burn 
the foliage. Now that insecticides are under government 
supervision, it is fairly safe to buy any standard brand 
and use it according to the directions on the package — 
these notes are for home-gardeners who would buy insecti- 
cides in small quantities and such quantities should not 
be purchased "loose.'' These directions will almost 
certainly call for lime, in order to neutralize the traces of 
soluble arsenic, and possibly resin-soap to make the poison 
stick to the leaves better. In spraying, cover every part 
of every leaf, if possible. For house-plants, an ordinary 
medicine atomizer is excellent. For garden plants, get a 
spray fitted to the number and size of the plants to be 
sprayed. Poisoned Bran Mash for grasshoppers, cut- 
worms and the like, is made by mixing i part, by weight, 
of Paris-green or London-purple with 25 parts of bran and 
enough cheap molasses, diluted to about half -strength with 
water, to make a stiff paste. 

Paris-green, etc., will poison humans if enough be eaten, 
but it is estimated, for example, that one must eat twenty- 
eight cabbages (that have been sprayed or dusted in the 
ordinary way) in order to swallow enough poison to be 
harmful. Hellebore is sometimes used because it is less 
poisonous to man and to other animals with less than six 
legs, but it is expensive and deteriorates with age. It may 
be used dry, diluted with about 8 parts of flour, or as a 
spray, one ounce to a gallon of water. If poisons arc 
applied dry, the application should be made on a still 
morning before the dew has dried. 

Contact insecticides are used against sap-suckir.g 

insects, which would stick their proboscis right through a 

layer of stomach poison and not be bothered by it. Chief 

among such insects are the aphids. Contact insecticides 

29 



■ 

FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS, 



are also effective against such leaf-chewing insects as have 
thin skins. A corrosive insecticide which is strong enough 
to kill an insect having a thick skin will kill the leaves also. 
Scale insects, except when young and scaleless, will resist 
any insecticide that leaves resist. Therefore, strong 
solutions (such as lime-sulphur) must be used on them 
before the buds break. Some contact insecticides work 
by clogging up the insects' breathing apparatus (tracheae) 
rather than by corrosion. All contact insecticides should 
be applied, if possible, directly on the insect. It is usually 
a waste to spray them on leaves that are not affected. 

Kerosene is very effective and may be applied pure 
about chicken houses and against bedbugs, but not on 
plants. For plants, an emulsion is used which can be 
purchased or may be made as follows: "Dissolve yi 
pound of hard or whale-oil soap (or I quart soft soap) in 
i gallon of boiling water. Add 2 gallons of kerosene and 
churn with a force pump by pumping back and forth for 
five to ten minutes until the oil is thoroughly emulsified, 
forming a creamy mass with no drops of free oil visible. 
This stock solution is now diluted so that the resulting 
mixture will contain the desired per cent of kerosene. 
Thus for aphids one part of the stock solution should be 
diluted with from 10 to 15 parts of water, giving from 4 to 
6 per cent of kerosene in the spray, while for a winter wash 
for San Jose scale, it should be diluted only three or four 
times giving from 16 to 22 per cent kerosene. The emul- 
sion must be thoroughly churned and should be applied 
with a nozzle throwing a fine spray" (Sanderson). 

Ordinary laundry soap, one-half pound to a gallon of 
water, is a good insecticide. Whale-oil soap is, perhaps, a 
little better. There are many brands of miscible oil 
which are very good. Lime-sulphur wash is used chiefly 
against the San Jose scale and is rather difficult to make at 
home. Pure sulphur dust is effective against "red spider." 

Pyrethrum, or Persian insect powder, is much used 
about houses as it is not poisonous and does not injure 
fabrics, but it deteriorates with age. It works by suffo- 
cating the insect. 

A tobacco tea made by boiling or steeping a pound of 
tobacco leaves and stems in one or two gallons of water is 

3° 



INSECTICIDES. 

used as a spray against aphids and other soft-bodied 
insects. House-plants may be dipped in this solution 
after it has cooled. 

Among the repellants, tobacco dust, air-slacked lime, 
soot, and even fine road-dust may be mentioned but they 
are effective only so long as the plants are covered with 
them. "Fruit trees are often painted with a thick soap 
solution containing I pint of crude carbolic acid to 10 
gallons as a repellant for the adult borers which lay their 
eggs on the bark." Tanglefoot is a sticky paste such as is 
used on fly-paper and, if a tree-trunk be encircled with it, 
crawling insects, such as caterpillars, will be kept from 
getting up. Do not be taken in by the charlatans who 
bore holes in trees and then plug them with something or 
other, on the theory that the sap will take up the poison and 
carry it to the leaves. 

The principal insecticidal gases are carbon bisulphide, 
hydrocyanic acid, and the fumes of burning tobacco and 
sulphur. Carbon bisulphide is bad smelling, and will cause 
a headache if inhaled, and is very explosive but, if used 
with caution, is good for fumigating closets, entomological 
collections, and against boring and root-feeding pests, also 
to put in ants' nests. In buildings "there should be I square 
foot of evaporating surface to every 25 square feet of floor 
area, and each square foot of evaporating surface should 
receive from one-half to 1 pound of liquid." Hydrocyanic 
acid gas is so poisonous that I will not risk giving directions. 
If you want them, write to your State entomologist or to 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. If sulphur be burned 
at the rate of two pounds per thousand cubic feet of space 
it is said to be effective against bedbugs and the like, but it 
will not kill the eggs, whereas kerosene will. Furthermore, 
it bleaches fabrics, if they be at all moist, and kills plants, 
if it be too strong. Tobacco fumes are safe ad lib. 

Farmer's Bulletin, 127 of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture tells a great deal about insecticides. This 
same Department will send you, free, a monthly bulletin 
which gives a list of their publications. Many of the 
publications have interesting accounts of insect life- 
histories and are worth having, even if the economic 
phase of the question does not appeal to you. 

3i 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Classes of 
Arthropoda 



CHIEFLY ABOUT SPIDERS 

Animals having no backbone but jointed 
legs are called Arthropoda. Some of these 
have two pairs of antennae ("feelers") and 
at least five pairs of legs; these are Crustacea and include 
lobsters, crabs, crayfish, sow-bugs, and the like. Some 
have no apparent antennas; one class of these live in the 
sea (the "king"- or "horseshoe crab") and another is, 
for the most part, terrestrial, breathing air. The latter 
class is called Arachnida and includes spiders and their 
relatives. Finally, there are three classes the members of 
which have one pair of antennae. Two of them have more 
than three pairs of legs and no wings: the Diplopoda, or 
millipedes, have two pairs of legs on each of some, at least, 
of their body segments; the Chilopoda, or centipedes, 
have only one pair of legs to a single segment. The third 
class is Hexapoda, or insects; when adult, they never 
have more than three pairs of legs but usually have 
wings. 

, . , Some of the relatives of spiders have the 

Arachnida . , c 

abdomen distinctly segmented; if there is a 
tail-like hind end, it is a scorpion of some sort ; if not, it is, in 
northeastern United States, either one of the small pseudo- 
scorpions or else a " harvestman, " also called "grand- 
father-graybeard, " "daddy-long-legs," etc., — the creature 
some of us used to deprive of most of its legs in order that 
it should point the way to our cows or to our home. 
Mites and spiders have unsegmented abdomens; mites 
have no constriction of the body between the abdomen and 
the leg-bearing portion, but spiders do. 

Many of the not-yct-acquainted consider 
spiders to be insects and for that reason 
they are mentioned here — but briefly, because they have 
no more claim to be considered insects than have lobsters, 
except that they approach insects in the matter of in- 
teresting habits: home building, prey catching, mating, 
care of offspring, devices to escape their enemies, and the 

32 



SPIDERS' SILK. 



like. Among other even more important differences, 
they have four pairs of legs; also the head and thorax are 
merged in one piece (cephalothorax). A pair of palpi 
are frequently so developed as to look like a fifth pair of 
legs. The eyes are simple, usually eight in number, and 
differing in size and arrangement in different sorts of 
spiders. The bite of all spiders is poisonous — that is the 
way they kill their food — but there is so little poison and so 
few spiders are strong enough to bite through the human 
skin, even if they would try, that spiders are not danger- 
ous. At the hind end of the abdomen are small appen- 
dages, the spinnerets, from which come fluids that harden 
on exposure to air and form silk. The silk of insects comes 
from their mouths. 

_ .. , _.„ Its uses by spiders, I mean, although it 

Spiders' Silk , , -, , , , ° . 

and its Uses nas ' 3een use( * ®Y man * or cross-threads in 
telescopes and makes a better quality of 
textile than the silk of moths. One sufficient reason 
for man's not using it in the latter way is the difficulty 
of getting enough of it. Spiders originally used silk 
only to wrap up their masses of eggs (see Lycosa, Plate 
VII). Then they took to lining their retreats with 
silk; later they built platforms outside of their retreats 
and from these developed the snares which have been the 
wonder and admiration of all ages, humanly speaking. 
These snares, even those which are orb-shaped, differ 
greatly among themselves. Most of the orb-snares are 
made by members of a single family, Argiopidae (or 
Epeiridas), and a large proportion of our spiders make 
no snare, catching their prey by stealth, fleetness of 
foot or length of jump. Silk is used by certain young 
spiders for "ballooning"; they stand on some elevation, 
spin a thread into the air and, when the wind catches 
it, sail away. This is the explanation of "showers of 
gossamer." 

„ „. „ , This is not the place to go minutely into 

The Kinds of , , . , * ., & , ,f . , , 

Spiders ™ e subject, but spiders may be divided 

into two sorts: what are called, in this 

country, tarantulas and the, strictly speaking, spiders. 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



The large, hairy, much-feared tarantulas live in the 
South and some of them build interesting trap-door nests. 
The following families are true spiders. The Dictynid^e 
belong to a group having special attachments on their 
spinning machine by which they make hackled bands in 
their webs ; most of the tangled, sheet webs on the sides of 
houses, especially at windows, are made by Dictyna sub- 
lata. The Theridiid^e have a well developed com]? on 
the hind legs to aid in throwing liquid silk over the prey 
they wish to entangle; Theridion tepidariorum is the 
house spider, the one which makes the tangled web in the 
corners of rooms where "no beaux will go." Latrodectus 
mactans, a jet-black spider marked with red or yellow, 
living under stones or pieces of wood, also belongs to this 
family and is the only spider of northeastern United 
States concerning which there is even moderate evidence 
of its seriously biting human beings. 

The Argiopid^e are the orb weavers, par excellence. 
They usually have relatively large abdomens. The 
maker and the making of a fairly typical web are shown 
in Plate VI, which is based upon an exhibit in the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History. This spider is very 
common about buildings and has had a variety of names 
of which Aranea sericata is believed to be better usage 
than the more commonly employed Epeira sclopetaria. 
She started above a on a beam or twig and dropped, 
spinning a thread as she went, to another support below 
b, fastening the thread there. She then climbed this 
thread to the upper support, crossed over to a point above 
c and dropped to a point below d, making a strand as 
before. Then, going to e, she fastened one end of a strand 
and, spinning it behind her, went across by way of the 
upper support to /. She then went to the upper support 
and dropped to this e-f strand, fastening the new line at 
h; this pulled e-f up slightly. The next strand which she 
put in was from i to a point on the lower support below j; 
pulling this line made another angle in e-f, as did the 
following one from k to b. These last two strands were 
fastened near their center by a bit of silk and the remain- 
ing radii were put in by moving about on the foundation 
of the web. The next step in the operation was a laying 

34 



Plate VI 




The Weaving of aWeb 

35 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



down of the primary spiral which is shown as ending at /. 
All of these threads consist of smooth, tough silk which is 
not sticky. From this point on the spider uses the sticky 
threads which constitute the real snare. All the details 
of spinning the web vary but the putting in of first sticky 
threads is very irregularly done. In the figure given here 
it may be followed from m to n. From n she continued 
in a regular spiral until the primary spiral of smooth silk 
was reached. She then cut away the outer portion of the 
primary spiral, so that she might have more room for the 
snare. This process of cutting away the primary spiral 
and putting in the sticky spiral is shown, in the fourth 
figure, about half finished; and finally there is the complete 
web with nearly all of the primary spiral removed. Nearly 
every species has its own distinct way of making webs 
and there are so many species of this family which are 
commonly noticed (especially the females when they are 
swollen with eggs) both because of their beautful colors 
and of their interesting webs, and some of the species are 
so variable, that not all of the probable questions can be 
answered. The spider an inch or more long, marked with 
spots and bands of bright orange and usually seen in the 
late summer hanging on an orb which is decorated with a 
zig-zag band of silk is Miranda aurantia, also called Ar- 
giope riparia. A slightly smaller, light yellow spider with 
narrow transverse black lines on its abdomen is Metar- 
giope trijasciata and also puts a zig-zag in its web. Some 
species (Micrathena gracilis is shown in Plate VII) of this 
family have spine-like processes on their abdomens but 
Aranea is a fairly safe generic name to give to most of the 
orb-weavers generally noticed. 

The Thomisid/E, or crab-spiders, have the two front 
pairs of legs relatively heavy and long; they run sideways. 
They spin no snare and the white or light yellow, some- 
times with a light red band on the sides, Misumena vatia 
(see Plate VII) is frequently seen sitting in flowers, 
concealed by its resemblance to the flower and waiting | 
to catch the insects which come for pollen. The flat, 
lustrous, parchment-like egg sacs often observed on stoncs| 
in pastures belong to Castianeira descripta, one of the 
Clubionid^e. Agelena ncevia is responsible for the flat| 

36 





Micrathena 
gracilis 



Misumena 
vatia 




Salt ic us 
"senicus 




Lxjcosa and Eqq-sac 




Spirobolus mar^natus 




'Scungera lorceps 

37 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS, 



horizontal webs which frequently almost completely 
carpet our lawns but are usually only noticed when 
covered with dew. It is one of the Agelenid^e. Another 
member of this family is Tegenaria derhami, a spider which 
lives with man from the Frigid zone to the Tropics, making 
a flat sheet, which is often dust-covered, in the corners of 
cellars, barns, and the like. The Lycosid^e are, figura- 
tively speaking as well as literally translating their name, 
Wolf -spiders. For the most part, they build no snare but 
secure their prey in the chase. Some species dig tunnels 
in the earth for hiding-places. A female is shown in 
Plate VII carrying her egg sac; after the young emerge 
they will ride on their mother's back, completely covering 
it, until, by the process of eating each other and any other 
food they can secure, they are able to shift for themselves. 
Finally we come to the Attid^e, Jumping Spiders, of small 
size, numerous in species and replete with interest because 
of their beauty, their mating habits, their occasional 
mimicry of ants and other things concerning which you are 
referred, first of all, to Nature. If you see a small spider ' 
springing about, sometimes sideways or backwards, on a 
fence rail or the sunny side of a building, it is probably an 
Attid (possibly Salticus senicus; see Plate VII) and will 
repay further study. 

The large, commonly observed Spirobolus 
Diplopoda (piate yiI) ig a typical Miniped> There 

are a number of smaller species in our gardens. These 
creatures feed on vegetable matter and are absolutely 
harmless. When disturbed, they curl up into a spiral 
and sometimes exude a defensive fluid. 

The bite of all Centipedes is poisonous and 
Chilopoda . . r . , 

that of large species is dangerous. I he 

only common sort in the North is Scutigera forceps (Plate 

VII). It lives in houses, feeding upon flies, cockroaches 

and other insects. Dr. Felt says "its presence in a house 

should be welcomed, since it is capable of inflicting no 

injury aside from a somewhat poisonous bite, the latter 

being extremely rare." I confess that any found in our 

house get stepped on. 

38 



SILVER-FISH OR FISH-MOTH 



INSECTS 



For certain distinctive characteristics of insects see p. 32 
and the sections on anatomy in the Introduction. 



The Most Primitive Insects 

These were, not long ago, all put in a single order: 
Aptera, or "wingless." They are now divided into four 
classes, including Thysanussa and Collembola, and seven 
orders ; but the user of this book is not apt to notice more 
than one or two species. 

Two hundred and fifty-odd years ago 
Hooke wrote concerning the Silver-fish 
or Fish-moth: "It is a small Silver-shining Worm or 
Moth, which I found much conversant among Books and 
Papers, and is supposed to be that which corrodes and 
eats holes through leaves and covers; it appears to the 
naked eye a small glittering Pearl-colored Moth, which, 
upon the removal of Books and Papers in the Summer, is 
often observed very nimbly to scud, and pack away to 
some lurking cranney, where it may the better protect 
itself from any appearing dangers. Its head appears big 
and blunt and its body tapers from it towards the tail 
smaller and smaller, being shaped almost like a carrot." 
If such a creature is eating your wall paper, starched 
curtains or clothing, photographs or other belongings, 
your sorrow may be mitigated by your interest in seeing 
the most primitive insect you are likely to observe without 
special effort. Insects of this and related classes never 
have and never have had wings; they just grow up, from 
new-born to adult, with scarcely as much change as occurs 
in the growth of a dog. The species just mentioned is 
Lepisma saccharina (Plate VIII). It is a "moth" only 
because it eats furnishings and clothing. A related species 
(domestica) is abundant in some bake shops and old 
kitchens, running about even in hot places, whence its 
Old English name: Fire-brat. 

39 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



~ „ . , Frequently the surface of still pools is 

Lollembola x , , ., 

covered by a mass of tiny dark specks of 

insects which spring about, when disturbed, without even 

denting the surface film. Sometimes similar creatures 

are seen on the snow during bright spring days, becoming 

a nuisance in maple-sugar camps by getting into the sap. 

These are Collembola or Spring-tails — grotesque-looking 

creatures which, when at rest, keep the "tail" curved 

under them and jump by straightening out. See Smin- 

thurus aguaticus in Plate VIII. 

PLECTOPTERA; EpHEMERID^; 

The family name of May-flies (see Plate VIII) comes 
from the same Greek root as does "ephemeral" and, 
although the term would fit the adult lives of most insects, 
it does forcibly apply to many of these, the three-weeks 
winged life of Chloeon dipterum being exceptional. How- 
ever, though the winged stage may last but a day — or, 
better, a night — their lives from egg to adult are, insectly 
speaking, among the longest, some taking three years for 
their development. A female drops two packages, each 
of which may contain several hundred eggs, into the water ; 
the packages break almost immediately and, after some 
time, there hatch from the eggs larvae with gills along each 
side of the abdomen and three (as a rule) tail filaments. 
According to the species, these larvae may swim rather 
freely, or make burrows in the mud, not swimming at 
all, or — the sort you are most likely to notice — crawl 
about on the under side of submerged stones. Some 
feed on vegetable matter; others are carnivorous. These 
larvae molt frequently, twenty times having been recorded 
for one species, but the chief change is the gradual appear- 
ance of wing pads. The young of insects having, as these 
do, incomplete metamorphosis are usually called nymphs 
instead of larvae, although this term is sometimes re- 
stricted to the stages in which the wing pads are quite 
evident. The full-grown nymphs crawl out of the water, 
frequently in crowds; the skin splits down the back of 
each and the freed creatures make short flights. But 
molting is not over yet. Nature loves exceptions, perhaps 
40 



Plate VIII 




Sminthurus 
aquQticus 



Lepisma 
SQccharina domefstica 




^f\Jmph 



-M 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



"lest one good custom should corrupt the world," and 
these insects molt after they have obtained functional 
wings. The adult form is now reached and thousands 
may join in a joyous dance which often leads to an heirless 
death, if near human habitations, for they seem unable to 
resist the attraction of bright lights. Even under normal 
conditions some species dance a part of a night, mate, 
lay eggs, and die before morning. Fish eagerly devour 
the adults which fall on the water; and a favorite dry-fly, 
"gray drake," of fishermen is made in imitation of these 
insects. Plate VIII shows a typical form, Ephemera 
varia, but some species have much smaller hind wings or 
even none. The males have much larger compound eyes 
than have the females. There are about a hundred 
species in eastern United States, the identification of 
which is rather difficult. The ambitious student is 
referred to Bulletin 86 of the New York State Museum. 

Odonata 

The Dragon- and Damsel-flies have been called "Devil's 
Darning-needles" and accused of sewing up the ears of 
bad boys; "Snake-doctors" or "Snake-feeders" on the 
theory that they administered to the needs of reptiles; 
and "Horse-stingers" on the equally mistaken notion 
that they sting — since no human had ever been stung, 
horses must have been. As a matter of fact, they are 
dangerous only to other insects, but since Odonata have 
relatively strong biting jaws, the larger species may give 
you a gentle nip if you put your finger in their mouth. 
All members of this order live in water until they get wings 
and the aquatic young catch their prey in a very different 
manner from that practised by the aerial adults. The 
flying "dragon" darts back and forth with swift, well- 
controlled motions, scooping up its game in a "basket" 
formed by its six extended legs and the front of its thorax ; 
the young, however, are sluggish and lie in wait for the 
unwary. When their chance comes, a curious thing 
happens: jaws seem to shoot out from the mouth and snap 
up the victim. Really, it is a jointed lower lip which is 
extended, and the "jaws" are hooks on its end (see Plate 
4-2 



Plate IX 




•r> 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



IX) ; the real jaws are attached near the base of this lip. 
Odonata have incomplete metamorphosis but the pre- 
adult stage, although active and showing wing cases, does 
not at all resemble the adult, differing in but little except 
size and the presence of wing-pads from its appearance 
when newly hatched. About 300 species are known in the 
United States. Bulletins 47 and 68 of the New York 
State Museum give technical keys by Needham for most 
of the species of New York as well as details concerning 
the curious sexual organs and other matters of interest. 

ZYGOPTERA 

This suborder includes the Damsel-flies, those Odonata 
whose young breathe by means of three leaf-like gills 
placed at the hind end of their slender body; the adults, 
when at rest, hold the wings edge up and parallel with the 
body (see Lestes, Plate IX). They are not as strong 
fliers as are the "dragons, " and the}' are more frequently 
seen flying tandem. In fact, a male often grasps with the 
pincers on the end of his body the thorax of a female and, 
flying in front of her, accompanies her on the egg-laying 
excursions, even going under the water with her when she 
descends to place eggs inside the stems or leaves of sub- 
merged plants. It seems to me that the males are of real 
assistance on such occasions: the legs of Odonata are not 
well fitted for walking so that it is difficult for them to 
crawl up through the water's "film" (surface tension); 
the joint efforts of both sexes gets the male through and 
he then uses his wings to pull the female out. 

As will be seen in Plate X, only the male 
americana Ruby-spot is jeweled. Adults are to be 

found late in the season, fluttering about 
streams or clustered on the overhanging branches. The 
young cling to plants growing in the current or, sometimes, 
to those along the edge of large ponds. 

The members of this large, widely dis- 

Lcstcs 

tributed genus (Plate IX) are usually 
abundant in marshes and about shallow pools which 
contain standing vegetation. Needham has noted that 

44 



Plate X 




HetofermQ 

q mericartQ 






Calopteryx 



mocuiQtQ 



1-* % 



% 



? 1 Periihemis 
ilomitiQ 



* y 




Libellula pulchella 



DRAGON-FLIES. 



L. unguiculata places the eggs in aerial parts cf plants 
which are growing in pools that usually dry up in mid- 
sommer; the young, instead of hatching as soon as they 
are developed, stay inside the eggshell until the plants 
die, toward the end of the season, and drop into the now 
well-filled pool; development then goes on so rapidly that 
:idult stage is reached before the pool dries up the 
next summer. Probably, however, some of the species 
lay their eggs under water. 

The figure in Plate X despicts a female 

lopcerjrz Black-wing : the male has no white spot near 

the outer end of the front margin of the 

wings and his wings are darker than hers. Adults of 

this genus (probably Agrion is a better name) usually keep 

:• to ditches or small streams in rocky woods. The 

female maculata, unattended by the male, lays her eggs 

in the submerged stems of aquatic plants. The young of 

this species have a light band on eacn leg and gill-plate. 

ANISOPTERA 

Adults of this suborder, the Dragon-flies, when at rest, 
hold their wings flat and extended at right angles to the 
. (See Anax, Plate IX.) The young do not have 
prominent external gill-plates but the lower intestine is 
thin-walled and they breathe by absorbing air from the 
water, which they draw in and expel through the anus. 
The young are stout-bodied in comparison with those of 
Damsel-flies, and, while the latter swim by sculling, using 
their gills as oars, the young Dragons shoot themselves 
forward by forcibly expelling the water from the rectum. 
This may be seen by placing one of them in a saucer with 
just enough water to cover the hind end of its body. The 
adults are, perhaps, the strongest fliers of all insects. 
There are two families, each with subfamilies not all of 
i :h are mentioned here. 

MSCHSIDM 

The adults of the subfamily Gomphins are usually 
clear winged and have bodies striped black and green or 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



yellow; they do not seem to fly as much in pure sportive- 
ness as do some of their relatives. The females, especially 
in June, skim the surface of ponds and streams, striking 
the tip of their abdomen into the water. At each dip 
gelatin-covered eggs are deposited; the gelatin dissolves; 
the eggs drop to the muddy bottom; and there, covered 
with silt, the wide, flat young lie in wait for their food. 

Needham calls the subfamily ^Eschninae "the largest, 
fleetest, and most voracious of our dragon flies." Many 
of them hunt well into twilight. The young are clean, 
slender-bodied, active climbers among green plants along 
the borders of ponds and streams. The following are 
two of the common species. 

This species (Plate IX) is found in China, 
junius Siberia, throughout the Western Hemi- 

sphere from Alaska to Costa Rica, and in 
various Pacific Islands. The clear wings are at least two 
inches long; the thorax and head are bright green; and 
in front of the eyes is a round, black spot surrounded, first, 
by a yellow ring, and, then, by a ring of dark blue. The 
young are sure to be found by those who look for them 
and the dry shell, out of which the adult came during the 
night, is frequently seen clinging to the stems of plants 
which grow out of or near water. 

„ . , This species (Plate XI) might be con- 

Epiaeschna . «.,,,.. « . ■ , 

heros fused with A . junius except that it is larger 

and has a T-shaped, instead of a round, 

spot in front of its eyes. It is the largest of our dragons 

and one which frequently gets into buildings. 

LlBELLULID^E 

Some of our commonest species belong here and they 
are collectively called Skimmers from their habit of sailing 
back and forth close to the ground or water. They 
frequently rest on bare branches or tall grass stems and 
seem ever ready to dart after a fly or to drive off another 
Dragon poaching on their preserve. The females do not 
place their eggs in plants but either drop them loosely or 
46 



Plate XI 




Ubellula semifasciata 



47 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



hang them in gelatinous strings on aquatic vegetation. 
Such a string may contain more than 100,000 eggs. 

This species (Plate XII) of the subfamily 
Epicordulia Cordulinae is called Water-prince. It will 

pnnceps . 

test your skill with the net, as it is a splendid 

flyer and rarely at rest. Adults are to be found from May 

to midsummer along muddy, reed-grown banks. The 

young live on the bottom among detritus or on submerged 

logs. Not being good climbers, the nymphs usually seek a 

broad supporting surface, even some distance from the 

water, when they are ready to split down the back and 

free the adult. The female flies alone when depositing her 

eggs and makes her dips some distance apart in open water. 

The remainder of the species mentioned here belong to 
the subfamily Libellulinas. 



The Amber-wing is one of the smallest 

™ s ni 

domitia 



of our true dragon-flies and may be easily 



recognized by reference to Plate X. It 
flies, rather slowly and clumsily, in May and June, fre- 
quently resting, and hiding completely if a cloud but cover 
the sun. 

_.. „ , Individuals of this genus are common 

Libellula . ™ 

and conspicuous. The young are elongate, 

tapering, and provided with hairs which collect a conceal- 
ing covering of silt. L. pulchella (see Plate X) frequents 
ponds; the females do not have the spaces between the 
spots so white as do the males. L. scmifasciata (Plate 
XI) appears even before the middle of May, usually about 
woodland brooks. The basal portions of the wings of L. 
luctuosa (Plate XII) are brownish or black; the outer 
portions are clear except that the old males have the 
middle chalky white and the females have brownish tips. 

This frequenter of ponds and ditches, the 

frimac^ta White-tail (Plate XI), usually holds its 

wings slanting forward and downward 

when at rest. The females and young males have the 

48 



Plate XII 




49 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



brown body marked with yellow, but the old males are 
powdered with white. 

. Three of our most beautiful small species 

belong to this genus. C. eponina (Plate 
XII) is adult in late June and early July along the borders 
of ponds and in the neighboring fields. C. elisa has a 
small rounded spot of brown on each front wing just 
beyond the place where eponina has a brown band. C. 
ornata (Plate XII) is found along the Atlantic coast from 
Maine to Florida. 



Many of the species of this large genus 

have brilliant red bodies. They frequently 

fly far from their marshy home. The only one of our 

common species which has wing markings is S. semicinctum 

(Plate XII). 

PLECOPTERA 



All observant trout fishermen have noticed on the stones 
in rapid streams hordes of flat larvas (nymphs) clinging 
tightly or scuttling from place to place. They usually 
belong to this group (see Plate XIII), as may be told by 
the two tail filaments, two tarsal claws and the thread- 
like gills, if any, at the bases of the legs. There is only 
one family, Perlid^e, the common name being Stone- or 
Salmon- flies. They never have gills along the sides of 
the abdomen, although there may be gills at the bases of 
the tail filaments; the thoracic gills are not large and the 
smaller species have none at all, depending upon the 
thinness of the skin on their underside for the transfer 
of oxygen. Since the breathing apparatus is so poorly 
developed, they are largely confined to well-aerated water. 
They feed upon other aquatic animals and are eagerly 
eaten by trout, making excellent wet bait. Especially 
during the first warm days of spring, the full-grown nymphs 
crawl out on stones or logs and the adults leave the 
nymphal skin, which, complete even to the lining of the 
main tracheae and of the fore-gut, is hooked to the molting 
place. The adults are gray or greenish, usually with two 

50 



Plate XIII 




Corydalis 
cornuta 



51 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



tail filaments, hind wings larger than the front ones and, 
in some cases, with curious reminiscences of their former 
life in degenerate gills at the bases of the legs. A single 
female may lay as many as 6,000 eggs, dropping them 
either promiscuously into the water or done up in a loose 
packet. Less than a hundred species have been described 
from North America. 

Megaloptera 

This "pigeon-hole" in the classification of insects 
contains the former Neuropterous family Sialididag. As 
an Order, it now has two families of its own: Sialidid^e 
(in a limited sense) and Corydalidje. Before telling 
about the only species concerning which I have actually 
been asked by laymen, I will slip in a few words about some 
of its relatives. This order is probably more primitive 
than Neuroptera and its members differ from Neuroptera 
in having the hind wings broad at the base and folded, 
fan-like, when at rest. Species of Sialis (the only genus 
in Sialididas) are called Alder-flies or Orl-flies and differ 
from other members of the order in having no ocelli. 
Their larvae are aquatic; carnivorous; each of the first 
seven segments of their abdomen bears a pair of five- 
jointed appendages, and a similar (but longer and un- 
jointed) appendage forms a kind of tail. The larvae live 
buried in the bottom of streams but they crawl out and 
bury themselves in above-water earth to pupate — all 
Megaloptera have complete metamorphosis and so do 
pupate. The Corydalidae differ from the Sialididae by 
having three ocelli, when adult, and two hooked fleshy 
projections, instead of a single "tail," on the hind end 
of the abdomen of the larva. The family is divided into 
genera, two of which concern us: Chauliodes, in which 
the adults have the hind corners of the head rounded, and 
the larvae have no hair-like tufts at the bases of the lateral 
filaments of the abdomen; and Corydalis, in which the 
adults have the hind corners of the head sharply angled 
and the larvae have hair-like tufts at the bases of the lateral 
filaments. The species of Chauliodes are called Fish- 
flies. The adults are grayish or brownish, with whitish 

52 



NEUROPTERA. 



spots or bands, and have feathered antennas. The larvae 
are aquatic, but do not favor swift streams. Pupation 
takes place out of the water, in rotten logs or in the earth. 
Now we come to the creature laymen ask about. 

I can not give all the nicknames and 
Cory s have no preference; some of those I have 

heard are Dobson-fiy, for the adult, and, 
for the larvae, Hellgrammite, Dobson, Crawler, Hell-devil, 
Hell-diver, Conniption-bug, and Arnly. Others have 
been published, but when I read this short list to my ten- 
year-old she said "It must be an awful-looking thing." 
Whatever its appearance (Plate XIII), the larvae make 
irresistible bait for bass and many of us have turned over 
stones in swift streams looking for them with that end in 
view. In the May or June that the larvae a^e full-grown, 
a matter of probably three years, they crawl out on the 
bank and pupate under stones, the adult? emerging several 
weeks later. Now, the male is not as terrible as he 
looks. Those long jaws are to embrace the female when 
mating. The female's jaws are short, stubby and much 
more likely to pinch. Two to three thousand eggs are 
laid in a whitish, rounded mass on a leaf, or some other 
object, which overhangs a stream. 

NEUROPTERA 

As previously mentioned, the Sialididae and Corydalidae 
are considered by many authorities to be Neuroptera. 
Neuroptera, in a limited sense, are not only terrestrial but, 
in some cases, inhabitants of the dryest deserts. Meta- 
morphosis is complete. There are eight or ten interesting 
families but members of only two of them are commonly 
noticed by laymen. 

The following is a key to certain of the Neuroptera. 
i. Antennae enlarged toward the tip; club-shaped, or 

with a terminal knob Myrmeleonid^:. 

Antennae without terminal enlargement 2 . 

2. Front legs fitted for seizing prey, stouter than the 
other legs; attached to the front end of an extremely long 
pro thorax. Some, at least, of the larvae live parasitically 

53 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



in the nests of spiders and wasps, and pupate there with- 
in a silken cocoon Mantispid.e. 

Front legs not thicker than other legs and not fitted 
for grasping 3. 

3. Wings with few, simple veins, and covered with a 
whitish powder. Minute and rare insects whose larvae 
feed on aphids Coniopterygid^e. 

Wings with many veins and not covered with whitish 
powder 4. 

4. Wing-veins all ending in a succession of symmetrical 
forks. Chrysopid^e (antennae threadlike) and Hemero 
biid.e (antennae either like a string of beads or comb-like) . 

Wing-veins meeting the outer margin of the wing 
in straight lines. Insects now put in the order Megaloptera 
(P- 52). 

The "common" name, Ant-lion, given 
to members of this family is a translation 
of the real name and both are poor, for one could scarcely 
imagine a lion digging a trap in which to catch its prey. 
The ant-lion's trap is ingenious; it is a pit made in sand or 
loose soil. The larva is hidden at the bottom (see the 
cross-section shown in Plate XIV). When an ant or some 
other insect steps over the edge, it tumbles into the waiting 
jaws below, often being assisted in its downfall by a 
shower of sand thrown up by the hidden lion. Pupation 
takes place, underground, inside a spherical silken cocoon. 
The adults are delicate, gauzy-winged creatures which are 
frequently attracted to lights ; in fact, they were so common 
as to be troublesome one summer when I was collecting 
moths in the arid Southwest. A favorite place for the 
pits of some species is underneath shed roofs. 

In his Book of Bugs Harvey Sutherland 
Chrysopidae . . . , . „. n-r , 

says of the Aphis-lion: Its mother, the 

golden-eyed lace-wing fly, is a dear, sweet thing, that you 
would think fit only to go on an Easter card, so pale and 
aesthetic are her Hght-green wings. But her children are 
such regular little ' divvels ' that she dare not lay her eggs 
in one mass, for the first one out would eat up all the rest. 
So she spins a lot of stalks of stiff silk and sticks one egg 

54 



Plate XIV 





Mi]rmeleoni& 



55 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



on the end of each, thereby giving each young one a 
chance for its life." The captious would remark that a 
given egg and its stalk are arranged before another stalk is 
made, but the final effect is the same (see Plate XIV). 
The principal genus of this family is Chrysopa, including 
about a dozen species in most parts of the country but the 
species all look pretty much alike. They come every year 
on my honeysuckle and I bring more from the fields and 
turn them loose in my garden. I have never considered, 
carefully, the moral side of such an action but I am sure 
the owners of the "fields" would tell me I was welcome 
if I showed them the Chrysopa — they wouldn't know what 
a splendid help these insects are in keeping down aphids 
(plant lice). One Sunday afternoon I tried to see how 
many such pests a single Chrysopa would eat; I have 
forgotten what the count was when I stopped but I know 
that I got tired before the aphis-lion did and I turned it 
loose on the honeysuckle to keep up the good work. The 
larva spins a delicate silken cocoon in which to pupate; 
the cocoon opens like a box when the adult is ready to 
emerge. The odor of the adult is not always as delicate 
as the appearance; they are sometimes common about 
lights so that you can easily determine this yourself. 

The larvae of Hemerobiid/E are also "aphis-lions"; the 
adults have brownish or smoky wings instead of greenish. 

Mecoptera 

Adult males of the genus Panorpa (see Plate XV) have 
a pair of claspers at the end of their abdomen by means of 
which they hold the females while mating. These claspers 
and the turned-up slender body suggest the sting of a 
scorpion, hence the common name Scorpion-flics, but they 
are harmless. The larvae, as far as known, are carnivorous 
and live on or just below the surface of the ground, es- 
pecially if it be moist. All the adults of this order have 
beak-like mouths and, if they feed at all, are probably 
carnivorous. Certainly, adults of Bittacus (Plate XV), 
although they look something like craneflics with too many 
wings and appear to be asleep much of the time, wake up 

5* 



TRICHOPTERA : CADD1CE=W0RMS. 



in time to catch unwary flies; but the small (less than .25 
in. long) species of Boreus, which have no wings and are 
found on the snow in the Northern States, must find poor 
picking there. 

.TRICHOPTERA 

These insects have an incidental interest in being near 
to the ancestors of butterflies and moths, but they need 
no reflected glory to give them an appeal. They have 
complete metamorphosis, and, although the adults are 
aerial, the larvae and pupae are aquatic. The name of the 
order signifies "hairy winged"; the hair is, however, often 
difficult to see without a lens and sometimes it is almost as 
scale-like as in some Lepidoptera. The adults are fre- 
quently attracted to our porch lights, with many people 
passing for moths that hold their wings trimly against the 
sides of their bodies and have very long antennae. The 
larvae are popularly called Caddice- or Caddis-worms— 
the term coming from a German word for "bait" because 
they were used for that purpose. In these days of dry 
flies the adults serve as models for such favorites as the 
Duns. Most of the larvae make portable houses for 
themselves (see Plate XV). Phryganea interrupta and 
Platycenlropus maculipennis ; both living in still water, use 
light material, the former clipping pieces of leaves and 
neatly fastening the edges together, the latter cutting 
small sticks in short lengths and arranging them crossways 
of its body. Molanna cinerea, Notidobia americana (case, 
a narrow cone), Psilotreta frontalis (a similar case but 
blunter, nearly cylindrical), and Helicopsyche annulicomis 
all live in running water and build of sand. Halesus argus 
also lives in running water but weights the case of sticks 
with stones and shells, not always being careful to select 
unoccupied shells either. Inthese and many other such 
instances, the larvae go about with only their heads and 
legs sticking out of their homes and are ever ready to 
withdraw even those on approach of danger. The 
materials used in constructing the cases are fastened 
together with silk; when time for pupation comes, the 
whole case is anchored with silken cords to some undcr- 

57 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



water support, the ends are covered with a loose silk 
netting and the change occurs in the privacy of the larval 
home. Polycentropus lucidus builds a stationary, tunnel- 
like dwelling in the silt where the current is slight and 
species of Hydropsyche build stone ones, which are anchored 
to larger stones in places where* the current is swift. 
With the possible exception of Hydropsyche, caddice- 
worms seem to be vegetarians. Hydropsyche may be 
carnivorous and Hydropsyche analis has long been an 
object of interest with those who know. Its larva lives 
in the very swiftest of streams in a rather rude, but firmly 
fastened, hut of pebbles and debris; not far from its door 
it makes a net (see Plate XV) between small stones or on 
the top of some large stone where it is in the current's 
sweep. This net is always placed across stream and its 
top is often framed with sticks. Now all H. analis needs 
do, when hungry, is to go out of its hut and eat whatever 
food the net has caught. On such excursions it keeps 
hold of a strand of silk which has one end fastened to the 
door so that it can pull itself back if the current should 
loosen its footing. Pupation takes place in the larval 
dwelling, but how about the adult? Most insects slowly 
work their way out of the pupal case and then rest for 
some time until their wings are dry and strong. This 
would never do for H. analis, nor for many other species of 
Trichoptera, since fish would snap them up even if the cur- 
rent did not overpower them. It is said that the pupa leaves 
its protective case, swims to the surface, and instantly the 
adult shoots out of the pupal skin and flies away. 

The classification of adult caddice-flies is not easy and, 
as the chief interest is in the larvae, the following key, 
based on larval characters, is given. It is a modification 
of one in Bulletin 47 of the N. Y. State Museum and 
includes the principal families. 

1. Head bent downward at an angle with the body; 
tubercles usually present on the basal abdominal segment; 
gill filament, when present, simple (except in some Limno- 

philidac), lateral fringe usually present 2. 

Head in line with the main axis of the body ; tubercles 
and lateral fringe absent; gill filaments, when present, 

branched 5* 

58 



Plate XV 





Pctnorpa 
nebulosa 



BtTtacus 
striqosus 



Mantlspa 

brunneQ 




Net oj 
Hydropsyche 




HqUsus arqus 





|||§? Platycentropus 

IS 



maculipennis 



Molanna 
cinerea 



HW 



Phylocenfropus 
lucidus 



Helicopsyche 
annulicornis 



Phryganea 
1 nterrupt a 




Caddice, Cases 



59 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



2. Hind legs not more than twice as long as the front 
legs 3- 

Hind legs more than twice as long as the front; ab- 
dominal constrictions slight. Cylindrical case of sand and 
small stones Leptocerid^e. 

3. Head longitudinally elliptic, at slight angle with the 
body; only head and pronotum chitinized; abdominal 
constrictions deep; hind legs slightly longer than the front. 
Case of vegetable matter laid longitudinally and forming 
a spiral, widening at the anterior end Phryganeid/E. 

Head oval to round ; usually more of the thorax than 
the pronotum chitinized ; abdominal constrictions slight. . 4. 

4. Lateral fringe well developed. Cases various 

LlMNOPHILID^E. 

Lateral fringe slightly developed. Case of sand or 
small stones Sericostomatid/E. 

5. Abdomen much thicker than the thorax. Case 
kidney-shaped, of small stones; or flat and parchment- 
like Hydroptilid.e. 

Abdomen little, if any, thicker than thorax 6. 

6. Hind legs about the same length as the front ones. 
No portable larval case Hydropsychid.i:. 

Hind legs a little longer than the front ones. No 
larval cases Rhyacophilid.i:. 



The ancestral tree of insects is buried to 
The Ances- beyond the origin of the branches in the 
oblivion of the past. We have been look- 
ing at the lower part of certain branches and on one 
of them we got rather close to the roots when we were 
examining "the most primitive insects." Partly for 
convenience, but also because the branches are so tangled 
and their points of union are so hidden, we have not kept 
to a single branch. When we were at the Trichoptera, 
we were near the point where one of them blossoms out- 
into Lcpidoptera. It is believed that incomplete meta- 
morphosis is one of the signs of primitiveness and we will 
now go down near the trunk again but in another part of 
the tree. Rather than start with forms not usually not iced 
by any but professionals, we will begin with earwigs: 
60 



DERMAPTERA: EARWIGS. 



Dermaptera 



The name of the order alludes to the skin-like, really 
leather-like, front wings. Another name which is some- 
times used is Euplexoptera and alludes to the skill with 
which they fold their hind wings. Grant Allen, in his 
essay on Those Horrid Earwigs, has written entertain- 
ingly of this matter. The}" sometimes come to porch 
lights but are not really common with us. Of the nick- 
name, Allen says: "It is called earwig, gossips will tell 
you, because it creeps into the ears of incautious sleepers 
in the open air, and so worms its way to the brain, where, 
if you will believe the purveyors of folk-lore natural history, 
it grows to a gigantic size, 'as big as a goose's egg,' and 
finally kills its unhappy victim. It is true, science knows 
nothing of this form of brain-disease; it has tried the case 
before an impartial tribunal and the earwig has left the 
court without a stain on its character." 

Earwigs are easily confused with Staphylinid (and some 
other) beetles because the front wings of neither cover the 
body, but earwigs may be distinguished by their having 
pincers on behind (compare Plates XVI and LXXV). 
These insects are nocturnal; by day they live under stones, 
in decayed wood, in earthworm burrows and the like. It 
seems to be a mistake about their feeding on plants ; they 
are probably entirely carnivorous and go on plants to look 
for dead or living insects to eat. The mother sits on a 
cluster of eggs like a brooding hen in order to guard them, 
not for incubation since insects are "cold-blooded." The 
young resemble their parents except that they have no 
wings and they are said to stick rather closely to mother 
for some time after they are hatched. All the common 
species in the Northeast are transatlantic introductions. 
Anisolabis maritima measures nearly, or quite, an inch in 
length when adult and lacks wings. It is found under the 
wash-up on the sea beach. The antennal joints of For- 
ficula are cylindrical; auricularia, common in England, is 
one of several species found in greenhouses here. The 
antennal joints of Labia minor (Plate XVI) are wider at 
the apices than at the bases ; it is our most common inland 
species. 

6 1 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Orthoptera 



For the sake of simplicity, and to conform with other 
books you may see, we will include roaches, mantids, and 
walking sticks in this order, calling them families, although 
good authorities consider each of them to be a separate 
order. The earwigs Were formerly classed as Orthop- 
tera but are now generally conceded the rank of an 
order. All have incomplete metamorphosis. A useful 
paper for students in the Northeast is by B. H. Walden, 
Bull. No. 16, State Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey of Con- 
necticut. 

Blattid;e 

These are the Roaches. I like the spirit in which 
Sutherland views these none too well liked creatures: 
"If the test of nobility is antiquity of family; then the 
cockroach that hides behind the kitchen sink is the true 
aristocrat. He does not date back merely to the three 
brothers that came over in 1640 or to William the Con- 
queror. Wherever there have been great epoch-making 
movements of people he has been with them heart and 
soul, without possessing any particular religious convic- 
tions or political ambitions. It is not so much that he 
approves of their motives as that he likes what they have 
to eat. Since ever a ship turned a foamy furrow in the 
sea he has been a passenger, not a paying one certainly, 
but still a passenger. But man himself is but a creature 
of the last twenty minutes or so compared with the cock- 
roach, for, from its crevice by the kitchen sink, it can 
point its antennae to the coal in the hod and say: 'When 
that was being made my family was already well- 
established.'" 

This hyphenate was named by Linnaeus 

B la long before the war and he probably did not 

germanica . . ... . 

mean to insinuate anything, although 

certain "scientific gents" have played such tricks. As a 
62 



Plate XVI 




Blattella , 

qermaniCQ 



Periplaneta americana 



m 




P. Qustralasioe 





Blotta orientalis 
63 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



matter of fact, this household guest probably accompanied 
our ancestors when they moved into Europe from Asia. 
It got the name of Croton-bug because it first attracted 
general attention in New York about the time Croton 
water was put in. Perhaps the most interesting thing 
about the species is the way the mother carries around her 
package of eggs sticking out of the hind end of her body 
(see Plate XVI). 

Linnceus is responsible for the geographic 

latta ,. name of this species too, and also of the next 

onentahs 

and the next. He was a sort of Mrs. w lggs. 

Only the male of the Oriental Roach (Plate XVI) gets 

functional wings — a rather common arrangement among 

insects and one which does not seem quite fair as it means 

that the lady must walk when she wishes to establish her 

family in a new place. Perhaps the "black beetle" (!) 

did start from the Orient; like most of the roaches which 

are directly associated with man, it is now cosmopolitan. 

„ . , This genus is occasionally brought to our 

Penplaneta .■ . _ ° 

attention by the large, trim P. amencana 

(Plate XVI, which also shows an egg-capsule) from the 

South. Sometimes we see P. australasia, not so elongate 

and wearing yellow shoulder stripes lengthwise of its 

front wings. 

Those who go afield find species of Ischnoptera under 

loose bark, independent country folk which never live in 

towns. In the tropics, there are not only roaches which 

are much larger than ours but also species which seem more 

beautiful to us; one such genus is Panchlora (Plate XIX), 

members of which frequently make the trip north in 

bunches of bananas. By the way, in addition to eating 

our food, clothing, etc., roaches help us kill our bedbugs, 

if we have any. 

MANTID/E 

One of the favorite attitudes (sec Plate XVII) of these 
creatures is supposed to be devout and has given them the 
name of "Praying Mantids." I hate to go against 

64 



Flate XVII 




A P h a 5 m i d 
(Mcmomera; 



MANTIDS AND WALKING STICKS. 



authority but the pose does not seem to me devout and I 
know that the mantis is seeking whom it may devour; 
see those big eyes and especially those spines on the jaw- 
like front legs. Please do not accuse me of punning when 
I suggest that they be called " Preying'Mantids. " Other 
names are Devil's Rear Horses and Soothsayers; while,- in 
the South they are believed to poison stock with the 
brownish fluid from their mouths and are called Mule- 
killers. They are the only insects that can look over their 
shoulders. Our northern native species (Stagmomantis 
Carolina) does not get farther north than southern Xew 
Jersey. It is 2 or 3 in. long ; the males and some females 
are grayish brown except for the body and feet which are 
sometimes greenish; the females may be wholly green. 
The egg-mass shown in Plate XVII is a trifle small. The 
European Mantis religiosa has apparently established 
itself in central New York. Including the wings which 
extend beyond the tip of the abdomen, it is about 2}^ 
in. long; it is either brown or green. The Oriental Para- 
tcnodera sinensis is now fairly common about Philadelphia 
and is being introduced into other parts of the country. 
It is quite large, especially the female, attaining a length 
of y/i in. or more; the broad, green, front margin of the 
front wings is sharply separated from the much larger 
brown portion. The egg-mass of sinensis is shaped like a 
short, broad cornucopia; the eggs are protected by a 
brownish substance somewhat like dried foam. Several 
other species occur in the South. All are very beneficial 
since they destroy large numbers of injurious insects. 
They are quite harmless to man and, indeed, make good 
pets. 

Phasmid^e 

In the tropics, where this family, the Walking Sticks, 
is at home, many of the species have wings, but the north- 
ern representatives, Diapheromera femorata and Manomera 
blatcJdeyi, are wingless — sticks without leaves (see Plate 
XVII). These curious insects, which may be either 
brown or green, are not really rare as far north as Xew 
York, but, as the}' look so like twigs and never fly, they 
s 65 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS, 



are rarely seen by the layman except when they are so 
unusually abundant as to be destructive. They feed on 
the leaves of almost any sort of tree. The shot-like eggs 
are dropped singly and promiscuously to the ground where 
they lie over winter, or possibly over two winters. I once 
found these insects so abundant in a Pennsylvania locality 
that the trees were all but stripped of leaves and the 
dropping eggs sounded like rain. 

The remainder of the Orthoptera typically have the 
hind femora enlarged and thickened for leaping. 

Acridim: 

By remembering that the antennae are always much 
shorter than the body, one has no difficulty in recognizing 
this family of Grasshoppers. The migratory Rocky 
Mountain Locust (Melanoplus spretus), which occasion- 
ally has been so destructive in our West, and the Biblical 
locusts, which were eaten with wild honey, belong here. 
Some species make a rasping sound by rubbing their hind 
legs against their front wings (tegmina); others rattle, 
while flying, their hind wings against the tegmina. These 
sounds are primarily amorous serenades and Nature's 
serenades without attentive ears would be even more 
curious than the ears for which the grasshoppers perform. 
In this family there is an auditory organ on each side of the 
first abdominal segment, just above and back of the places 
where the large hind femora start. Notice the clear round 
spot on the next grasshopper you catch. Short-horned 
grasshoppers, as a rule, lay their eggs in clusters, under- 
ground (Plate XVIII); perhaps you have noticed, in the 
fall of the year, females along the path with their abdomens 
sunk to the base in a small hole which they had made by 
pushing aside the earth. 

. . These small grasshoppers, the Grouse 

Locusts, are distinguished from their rela- 
tives by their pronotum extending back to, or beyond, the 
tip of the abdomen. There are numerous species, some 
of which are quite variable and one of which {Acrydium 
ornatus) is shown in Plate XVIII. Four genera may be 
separated as follows: 

66 



Plate XVIII 





Grasshopper 
Eqg Mass 



Acrudium ornatus 




Schistocerca omericana 




Truxalis brevicornis 




Spharagemon bolii 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



x. Antennae with 21 or 22 joints Tettigidea. 

Antennas with 12 to 14 joints 2. 

2. Pronotum with a high, arched, median longitudinal 
ridge Nomotettix. 

Top of pronotum rather fiat, median ridge low 3. 

3. Vertex of head not projecting beyond the eyes„ 

Paratettix. 
Vertex of head projecting in front beyond the eyes. ... 4. 

4. Pronotum reaching to the eyes Neotettix. 

Pronotum not reaching the eyes Acrydiitm. 

It is difficult to distinguish, in all cases, 
1 a -rr 35 with certainty between this and the next 

subfamily. The Truxalinae have no spine 
on the prosternum (or at most an oblique tubercle) and 
they typically have receding chins. Plate XVIII shows 
a rather extreme, type, Truxalis brevicornis; the antennas 
are flat at the base and pointed at the apex; side ridges of 
pronotum straight; general color either green or brown. 
This species inhabits moist places. Pseudopomala also 
has flattened antennas and a very oblique face but its 
prosternum has an obtuse tubercle. In Eritettix the an- 
tennal joints just before the end are thicker than the 
others and the apical spur on the inner side of the hind 
tibias is twice as long as the other spur. In Mermiria the 
space between the mesosternal lobes is almost linear in its 
narrowest part and the metasternal lobes touch. Some 
other genera (in which, as in these, the .head is shorter 
than the pronotum and not distinctly elevated above it, 
may be separated as follows: 

1 . No small depressions (" fovcoke ' ') on the upper surface 
of the head between and in front of the eyes or, if present, 
invisible from above; face very oblique 2. 

Such fovcolae present and visible from above ; face less 
oblique 5. 

2. Hind tibia with 18 to 21 spines on the outer margin. 
Syrbula. S. admirabilis: male, about 1 in. long; ground 
color usually brown; yellow on face, base of antenna, an 
oblique line from each eye, lower sides of pronotum and 
parts of hind femora. The female is about 1.5 in. long: 

68 



GAY-WINGED LOCUSTS. 



usually greenish ground-color; a reddish brown stripe, 
bordered with black, extends from top of head to back of 
pronotum. 

Hind tibia with not over 15 spines on outer margin. . . 3. 

3. Antennae about, or more than, 1.5 times as long as 
head and pronotum together; a median ridge on upper 
front of head. Chlcealtis. C. conspersa has yellowish or 
brown general color; length, nearly 1 in.; front wings of 
female only about half as long as abdomen. Eggs are 
laid in soft wood. 

Antennae shorter; no such distinct ridge 4. 

4. Upper margins of sides of pronotum longer than sides 
are wide, and parallel. Dichromorpha. The general color 
of the male viridis is dull brown and the length is about 
.7 in.; the female is either brown or bright green and at 
least 1 in. long; front wings usually not as long as the 
abdomen. 

Sides of pronotum relatively broader and top margins 
squeezed together in the middle Orphulella. 

5. Median ridge of pronotum rather high and sharp, cut 
plainly in front of middle Mecostethus. 

Median ridge not so 6. 

6. Apical spurs on inner side of hind tibiaa equal in length ; 
ridges on sides of top of pronotum distinct throughout. 
Chortliippus. Our common species is curtipennis. 

Lower apical spur about twice as long as the upper; 
side-ridges distinct only in the middle. Ageneotettix. 
Not common east of the Mississippi. 

These differ from the preceding sub- 
family in not having, as a rule, such receding 
chins; some of them differ from other grasshoppers in 
having parti-colored hind wings, and some in also having 
crests on their pronotums (see Plate XVIII). They are 
the ones which make a noise when they fly and sometimes 
a male will hover in the air above a female and rattle away 
for dear life, meanwhile showing off his gay hind wings. 
When at rest on the ground, with the hind wings covered, 
they are very difficult to see because of their protective 
coloration. Dissosteira Carolina (Plate XIX) is one of 
the commonest species; the color of its tegmina varies 
. 69 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



from blackish, through brown and reddish, to yellowish. 
The sand-colored species, with pale yellow and black hind 
wings, so common on the shores of the Atlantic and of the 
Great Lakes, is Trimerotropis maritima. In Arphia the 
crest is not notched. In Psinidia (antenna? of male longer 
than the hind femora, basal joints strongly flattened; our 
common species is fenestralis, whose black-bordered hind 
wings vary from pale yellow to red), Trimerotropis, and 
Circotettix (hind tibiae dusky towards base and at tip), the 
crest is notched twice. Some of those with only one notch 



i. Disk of hind wing nearly transparent, uncolored 2. 

Disk of hind wing opaque or colored 3. 

2. Pronotum roof -shaped and front margin angulate. 
Chortophaga. Our common species is viridifasciata; it 
may be either green or brown. 

Pronotum flat on top except for the prominent crest 
which is higher in front than behind; front margin of 
pronotum square-cut. Encoptolophus. In sordidus the 
base of the hind wings is yellow; hind tibiae with a pale 
ring near the base. 

3. Body robust; lateral ridges of pronotum extending in 
front of the principal groove and not cut by it. Hippiscus. 

Not so 4. 

4. Hind wings black with a pale border. . . .Dissosteira. 
Hind wings yellow at base with a dark median band. 

Scirtetica marmorata (tegmina marbled with grayish and 
dark blotches; hind femora dark at apex and with 3 dark 
bands) and Spharagemon (Plate XVIII). 

Acrididae with the pronotum not extcnd- 
Locustinae . ,..,,- , . , 

ing to near the tip of the abdomen but with 

a prominent spine on the prosternum (the underside of 
the first segment of the thorax) are grouped in this sub- 
family. There are numerous species and even the common 
ones cannot be satisfactorily differentiated without going 
into technicalities. Schistocerca americana (Plate XVIII) 
is one of the largest in size and strongest in flight of our 
grasshoppers; another species is called damnified, a name 
which sounds good to him who chases these " Bird-locusts" 
70 



LONG-HORNED GRASSHOPPERS. 



in the hot sun. Melanoplus femur-rubrum is the extremely 
common, red-legged grasshopper of our fields, very similar 
to M. spretus. The fat, clumsy, short- winged "Lubber 

Grasshopper" of our Southeast is Romalea microptera 
and the almost wingless Lubber of our Southwest is 
Bracliypeplus magnus. 

i. Tegmina, especially of females, over an inch long. 

Schistocerca. 

Tegmina rarely an inch long 2. 

2. General color green, in life; the least distance between 
the eyes less than i}4 times the width of the second an- 
tennal joint. Hesperotettix. The least common of these 
four genera. 

Usually brownish; eyes more widely separated 3. 

3. Dorsal surface of pronotum not twice as long as the 
average breadth, the sides constricted at the middle. 

Melanoplus. 

Dorsal surface of pronotum relatively longer, the sides 

not constricted at middle Paroxya. 

Tettigoxiid.e 

A proper nickname for the Acrididae is "Locusts." This 
used to be very confusing since the scientific name of the 
long-horned grasshoppers, which are not "Locusts," was 
Locustidae. It was recently discovered by some of those 
whose business it is to find out such things that "Locusti- 
dae" is not good usage. The matter is still sub judice but 
I prefer the less confusing one. The Long-horned Grass- 
hoppers may be distinguished from crickets (Gryllidae) 
by the fact that their wing-covers slope down on the sides 
and are not flat above except for a short space near the 
base. Both families have long antennae; the males of 
both sing or, better, fiddle by rubbing their wing covers 
together; and both listen with "ears" which are situated 
near the upper part of the tibiae of their front legs. 

Among those genera having hind wings, Scadderia 
(tegmina of nearly equal breadth throughout) and Ambly- 
corpha (tegmina widened at the middle) have no spines on 
presternum or vertex but have one on each side of the 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



tip of the hind tibiae. In Pterophylla the tegmina is 
broadly expanded in the middle and the pronotum is 
crossed by two distinct grooves. 

Few have not heard the masculine debates 

Pterophylla ag to whether Katy did or didn > t but many 

camelhfolia , , : . . , . ' . J 

do not know, by sight, either the disputant 

or Katy, both of whom usually stay high in trees. Plate 

XIX shows the male; the musical apparatus is at the base 

of the tegmina, and the leaf-like wing-covers themselves, 

broadly curving entirely around the body, act as sounding 

boards. The female's wing-covers do not have the thick 

rasp-veins at their bases; and at the hind end of her 

abdomen is a stout scimitar-like ovipositor with which she 

places her eggs in the bark of various trees. In many of 

the older books this species is called Cyrtophyllus concavus, 

ana has been nicknamed the True Katydid. 

The "folia" part of the scientific name 
Amblycorypha refers to the leaf . like appearance of the 
oblongifolia 

front wings. Nearly all of the Katydids are 

typically green, but, like some other green insects, they, 
and especially this species, have brown or pink "sports" 
(see Plate XIX). The figure is of a female and shows the 
ovipositor. The "Oblong-leaf" and the other relatives of 
the True Katydid often live in low bushes. 

Under this general head we may group 

Meadow numerous species of Neoconocephalus (rather 

Grasshoppers , f .; 

large, green or brown species, with the 

front of the head more or less prolonged into a cone, and 

with spines on the underside of the front and middle 

femora), Orchelimum (usually an inch, or slightly more, 

long; females have stout and curved or sickle-shaped 

ovipositors), and Conocephalus (smaller, as a rule; the 

ovipositor is slender and straight; prosternal spine very 

short ; see Plate XX). Some authors class Neoconocephalus 

with Katydids rather than with Meadow Grasshoppers 

and, as a matter of fact, these insects are rather partial to 

bushy fields. The name Conocephalus is apt to cause 

some trouble to those who consult books which were 



Plate XIX 



k - 



\ 



Dissosteira 
Carolina 



^ 






- 



Pterophyllo cameUijoliQ 




r 



y 



^mblijcoryphQ oblonQijolia^^ 






p 



CEcanthus 



anchlora 



CRICKETS. 

published more than several years ago; it refers to what is 
called in them Xipkidium, and Conocephalus in such 
books refers to what should be called Neoconocephalus. 
The members of all three genera have the habit of dodging 
around to the other side of the grass-blade or weed-stalk 
when you approach, rather than trusting to night. They 
place their eggs, by means of their sharp ovipositors, in 
the leaves of grasses, pith of twigs, and in similar situations. 

All grasshoppers are wingless when they 
Wingless are y OUn g hut the members of certain 

Grasshoppers , ' , 

genera do not get wings even when mature. 

Ceuthophilus (see Plate XX) is the most common genus, 
especially in the Northeast, and its members have been 
nicknamed " Cave Crickets " ; but they are not crickets and, 
while some species live in caves, the majority live in 
cellars, under the floors of out-buildings, under stones, in 
hollow logs, and the like. For some reason they are also 
called "Camel Crickets." Atlanticus is a genus usually 
found under fallen leaves in woods; its male members still 
retain remnants of the front wings, and, by using these, 
they are able to make sounds. Kellogg says of the 
"Jerusalem Crickets" {Stenopelmatus) which live on the 
Pacific Coast that they are large, awkward, thick-legged 
creatures with "baby-faces." 

Gryllid^e 

One of the points of distinction between the long-horned 
grasshoppers and Crickets was given in the discussion of 
Tettigoniidae ; another is that the ovipositors of crickets, 
when long, are needle-like. The musical apparatus of the 
males (see Plate XX, which shows also an "ear" on a front 
leg) occupies a relatively larger portion of the wing-covers 
than it does among the Tettigoniida?. Many of the 
species, especially of Nemobius, Gryllus, and Gryllotalpa, 
occur in two forms: one with short, and one with long, 
functional hind wings. 

G These creatures, the Mole-crickets (Plate 

XX), have curiously enlarged front legs, 

which are used in excavating their burrows; the hind 

73 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS, 



femora are slender. These insects are almost never seen 
above ground except at the mating season when they are 
sometimes attracted to lights. They usually live in rather 
damp soil and, in some countries, do great damage tr- 
eating the roots of seedling crops; this is true of the 
"Changa" in Porto Rico. The female has no prominent 
ovipositor but places her eggs in a loose pile in her burrow. 
A related genus, Tridactylus , contains species less than 
.4 in. long; the front tibiae are not broadly expanded but 
have three or four spines at the apex; hind femora slender; 
tarsi with only one joint. 

The large, black species belong to the 

cdck F Jts ld genus Gr y llus ( Plate XX ) ' the usuall Y mor e 

numerous, small, brown species are Nemo- 
bins. The males of both chirp by rubbing the file on the 
under side of one wing against the roughened surface on the 
upper side of the other. Nemobius is almost altogether 
vegetarian but I have never quite forgiven the omnivorous 
Gryllus for eating holes in a bathing suit which was left 
on the beach to dry. Both genera place their eggs singly 
in holes which they make in the ground with their sharp- 
pointed ovipositors. Gryllus is relatively tame; and not 
only may you watch the male chirping in a desultory 
fashion near his retreat (such as a burrow or under an old 
board), or angrily challenging another male to battle, or 
passionately entreating a female, but you may make pets 
of them. A lantern globe set on soil in a flower pot makes 
a good cage ; feed them lettuce, moist bread and, especially 
if you have a numerous family the members of which are 
inclined to eat each other, some bone meal; if you wish to 
incubate the eggs, water the soil about as you would for 
plants. Most of the individuals pass the winter as eggs 
but some hibernate as almost-mature nymphs. The 
"Cricket on the hearth" is a light-colored European 
species (Gryllus domesticus) which is sometimes found in 
greenhouses and dwellings in this country. 

_ . There are numerous species of these 

CEcanthus . , .... 

delicate, greenish or greenish-white musi- 
cians, the Tree-crickets. One of the principal specific 

74 



Plate XX 




Conocephalus 




Ceuthophilus 




A Crickets 
Musical apparatus 




Gryllotalpa boreahs 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



characters is the shape and arrangement of the black dots 
on the two basal joints of their antennas. However, as is 
the case with other groups of Orthoptera, each species has 
a tune of its own (the tempo depending on whether it is 
night or day, sunshiny or cloudy, warm or cold). Some 
students have become so expert in Orthopteran music 
that they have detected new species by ear even though 
careful study was needed to corroborate their opinions as 
to the taxonomic distinctness by discovering other char- 
acters. In this genus, the male (Plate XIX) seems to 
have gone largely to music — he has broad front wings but 
a relatively small body. The female, whose wings are 
wrapped closely to her body, lays her eggs in such stems 
as those of the raspberry. 

Xabea, a related genus, has no spines on the hind 
tibiae; first joint of antennae with a blunt tooth. In 
bipunctata the hind wings are nearly twice as long as the 
tegmina; the creature is pinkish, the female having two 
black spots on each tegmen (front wing). Anaxipha has 
the second tarsal joint distinct, flattened vertically, and 
heart-shaped ; exigua is less than .3 in. long. 

ISOPTERA 

The White Ants are not ants at all but more closely 
related to the other insects shown on Plate XXI or to 
roaches. Their greatest development is in the tropics. 
Our principal species (others occur in the South and West) 
is Termes flavipes. It nests in or under old logs and 
stumps, more rarely in the decaying wood of houses. Both 
males and fertile females (queens) have wings which they 
shed after their marriage flight. The males soon die but 
the queens live on and become swollen egg-layers. A 
large part of the offspring are sterile, wingless females, of 
which there^are two kinds: ordinary workers and soldiers. 

CORRODENTIA 

There are two families: Atropid^e, in which the adults 
have no ocelli and the wings are absent or, at most, a single 
pair of small ones present; and Psocid^e, in which ocelli 

76 



Plate XXI 




Worker Soldier 

Termes fhvipes 




Mentip6h patlidun. boculus 



Phthinus 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



are present and wings are well developed. Of the Atro- 
pidse, two species are rather common in old books and on 
dusty shelves: Troctes divinatorius (Plate XXI) and A tropos 
pulsatoria. These creatures are supposed to make a 
ticking sound, hence the name Death-watch, but this is 
doubtful. They are also called Book-lice. The Psocidae 
may be found in groups on bark, each cluster often being 
covered with a fine silken net spun from their mouths. 
Their common name is Bark-lice. 

Mallophaga 

Little need be said here about the Bird-lice, except to 
refer to Plate XXI which shows a common Chicken-louse 
{Menopon pallidum), a Pigeon-louse (Lipeurus baculus), 
and the egg of a louse on the peafowl. Completeness 
demands a few words about unpleasant creatures, but 
even these are interesting. Is it not curious that a given 
species of insect should be confined to the feathers of a 
single species of bird or the hairs of a certain sort of 
mammal? This is the case with many Mallophaga. In 
other cases, the same species of Mallophaga is found on a 
given kind of bird in the Old World and on a related bird 
in the New World, indicating that evolution has been less 
rapid in the parasite than in the host. The winglessness 
of these insects is undoubtedly a secondary matter — a 
"degeneration" due to parasitism. Unlike the true lice, 
they do not suck blood but have biting mouth-parts and 
feed on hair, feathers, and epidermal scales. Metamor- 
phosis is incomplete. Really these creatures are not bad 
looking if one views them dispassionately and the egg of at 
least one of them (see the picture which was redrawn from 
Bastin's Insects) is most striking. 

SlPHUNCULATA 

The True Lice have been shifted about somewhat in the 
scheme of classification. Some put them as an appendix 
to the Hemiptera. They are small, wingless parasites of 
mammals, including man. Their eyes are either absent or 
much reduced; their beak is fleshy and unjointed; their 

78 



LICE AND THRIPS. 



tarsi are single- jointed, forming a claw at the end of the 
tibia. Another scientific name for them is Parasita. 
Three species (Plate XXI) attack man: Pediculus capitis, 
the common Head-louse; -Pediculus vestimenti, the usually 
rare Body-louse, Clothes-louse, or Gray-back; and Phthirius 
inguinalis, the Crab-louse which prefers the arm-pits 
and pubic regions. Liberal and repeated applications of 
mercurial ointment are "indicated" for the last-named. 
A fine-toothed comb and keeping the hair greased with 
vaseline are usually effective in killing off capitis. A more 
suddenly effective remedy is to rub kerosene in the hair at 
night, wrap the head in a cloth, and wash out the kerosene 
•the next morning; repeat in two or three days. Most of 
the true lice which attack other animals, such as sheep, 
hogs, oxen, rabbits, rats, and the like, belong to the genus 
Ilcematopinus. 

Thysanoptera 

The narrow insects, usually black and rarely more than 
.04 in. long, which are often seen in flowers, belong to this 
order; also the Onion-thrips {Thrips tabaci) and Thrips 
in general, some of which are called Black-flies by gar- 
deners. The wings, if any, are very narrow and fringed 
with long hairs. The feet are bladder-like. The mouth is 
fitted for sucking but is lop-sided, only the left mandible 
being developed; the head is held in such a position that 
the mouth-parts are pressed against the under side of 
the thorax and concealed. The young are much like the 
adults but there is a quiescent stage, just before the 
mature one, which is very pupa-like and during which no 
food is taken. Some species (both sexes or only one) 
never or rarely have wings and sometimes males are 
absent or rare, the eggs developing without fertilization. 
In these respects they are like aphids, for example. Some 
species live under bark and in decaying vegetation. 



79 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Hemiptera in General 

In the older system of classification "Hemiptera" 
included insects which are now considered by some good 
authorities as more conveniently classed in three orders, 
including Siphunculata (p. 78). They all have sucking 
mouth parts, if any, and, with certain exceptions, incom- 
plete metamorphosis. The other two orders (or suborders) , 
which have jointed beaks, may be separated as follows: 

Each wing of the same texture throughout and usually 
sloping, roof -like, at the sides of the body; beak arising 
from the hinder part of the lower side of the head; the 
head so closely joined to the thorax that the bases of the 
fore legs touch the sides of the head Homoptera. 

Each front wing with the base usually more or less 
thickened, the extremity thinner; wings lying flat on the 
back, when folded, the membranous tips overlapping; 
beak arising from the front part of the head ; bases of front 
legs not touching the sides of the head. . . .Heteroptera 
or Hemiptera, in the limited sense (p. 95). 

Homoptera 

Members of this group differ so much among themselves 
that several families will probably soon be classed as 
separate orders. The following key is a modification of 
the one given by Brues and Melander. 

1. Active, free-living species; beak plainly arising from 
the head; tarsi 3-jointed; antennae very short, with a 
small, terminal bristle 2. 

Females often inactive or incapable of moving ; beak 
appearing to arise between the front legs, sometimes 
absent in males; tarsi, if present, 1- or 2- jointed; antennas 
usually well developed (sometimes absent), without 
conspicuous terminal bristle 6. 

2. Our species, usually, at least .5 in. long; three ocelli on 
top of the head ; antennae with short basal joint, terminated 
by a haix-like process which is divided into about 5 joints; 
front femora thickened and generally spined beneath. 

Cicadid^e (p. 82). 

80 



KEY TO HOMOPTERA. 



Our species less than .5 in. long; usually not more than 
two ocelli, and front tibiae not enlarged 3. 

3. Antennae arising from below the eyes; ocelli placed 
beneath or near the eyes, usually in cavities of the cheeks ; 

pronotum not unusually developed FuLGORiDiE 

(p. 85) in a broad sense. 

Antennae arising from in front of and between the eyes ; 
ocelli (rarely absent) not usually below the eyes 4. 

4. Pronotum extending back over the abdomen 

Membracid,e (p. 84). 
Pronotum not extending over the base of the abdomen. 

5- 

5. Tibiae smooth, the hind pair with one or two 
stout spines and with a cluster of spinules at the 
apex CERCOPiDiE (p. 86). 

Hind tibiae with two rows of spines beneath 

ClCADELLID^E (p. 86). 

Leaf -hoppers of which Jassinae is the principal subfamily. 

6. Hind femora much thickened; antennae long, 5- to 
10- jointed, last joint with two fine apical bristles; front 
wings somewhat thicker than the hind, often rather 
leathery ; pad between the tarsal claws prominent, bilobed. 

Chermida (p. 86). 
Hind femora not much larger than the others 7. 

7. Tarsi 2-jointed, the basal joint sometimes reduced, 
the outer joint with two claws; wings, when present, four 
in number; mouth-parts usually well-developed in both 
sexes 8. 

Tarsi, when present, 1 -jointed, with a single claw; 
females always wingless, often without legs and usually 
covered with a more or less well-developed scale; males 
usually with a single pair of wings which lie flat, one above 
the other; antennae of females absent or having up to II 
joints, of males 10- to 25-jointed Coccro^ (p. 91). 

8. Wings usually opaque, whitish, clouded or mottled 
with spots or bands; body more or less mealy; tarsi with 
2 nearly equal joints; tip of tibiae with a number of short 
spines; a pad-shaped or spine-like process between the 
tarsal claws Aleyrodid^e (p. 90). 

Wings transparent, though sometimes colored; tarsi 
2-jointed, the basal joint sometimes very much reduced; 
6 81 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



body not mealy, but rarely with waxy wool; process 

between the tarsal claws absent or nearly so 

APHIDIDiE (p. 87). 

ClCADID.E 

These are called Cicadas, Harvest-flies, and Locusts. 
The eggs are laid in twigs ; the newly-hatched young drops 
to the ground and, burrowing into it, feeds by sucking the 
juices of roots. It lives in this way for some time (the 
length depending on the species), its appearance changing 
but slightly. Finally, it digs out by means of its enlarged 
front feet, crawls on a tree-trunk or some such thing, splits 
down the back and liberates the adult. The adult male 
"sings," often very loudly and shrilly, by vibrating 
membranes stretched over a pair of sound-chambers 
situated, one at each side, near the base of the abdomen. 

This is the Periodical Cicada or Seven- 
lbicma teen-year Locust. As a matter of fact, it is 

septendecim 

a Thirteen-year Locust in the South. The 
adult has the same general shape (Plate XXII) as its 
relatives but its eyes and the principal veins of the wings 
are red. There is nothing mystical in this color or the 
W on the wings, although the sudden appearance of the 
adults in large numbers has been supposed to foretell war. 
For about sixteen years, in the North, the young suck at 
the roots of plants. Toward the end of this period scale- 
like rudiments of wings appear. In the spring of the 
17th year the nymph makes its way to the surface of the 
ground by a smooth firm tunnel. Sometimes, especially 
if the soil be moist and leaf-covered, it constructs a 
"chimney" over the exit-hole. Then, from late May to 
early July, it and the other members of its brood crawl 
out singly or in droves and, fastening on some support, 
disclose the adults which have a week or so of aerial life 
to recompense them for the long period of preparation. 
There are a score, or more, of different broods, each of 
which has a rather definite — often restricted — distribution 
and time of emergence. Suppose there are three such 
broods in your neighborhood. One of them (that is, the 
82 



Plate XXII 




TibicinQ septendecim 




A Cicadid nymph 




ticodid Tibicen 
egg-scars SQ y> 

83 



Cicada 

hieroqlyphica 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



adults) may have appeared in 191 1; its next appearance 
would be 1928. Another might be 19 16, 1933, and so on; 
while the third might be 1919, 1936, and so on. As a 
matter of fact, these are actual broods although they may 
not be the ones of your neighborhood. However, the 
example shows that we may have Seventeen-year Cicadas 
oftener than every seventeen years, to say nothing of the 
possibility of laggards or extra-spry individuals, in the 
various broods, which do not appear on schedule time. 

There are numerous other species of this family. It 
might be noted that the name Cicada tibicen, of many 
books, as applied to one (or all !) of our Harvest-flies, is an 
error, Cicada tibicen probably being a tropical species. 
The differentiation of species is based largely on the form 
of the male genital plates, although there are size- and 
color-differences and an attentive ear can detect differ- 
ences in song. Of the genus Cicada (as now limited, = 
Tettigia), the small hieroglyphica (Plate XXII), with an 
almost transparent abdomen, may be found in pine 
barrens, and is our only species. Plate^XXII also shows a 
common species of Tibicen which is fairly typical of its 
genus, the common one in our region. The somewhat 
similar Okanagana is more common in the West than with 
us. 

Membracid^; 

The Tree-hoppers have been aptly called]Insect Brownies. 
If you doubt the aptness see Plate XXIII or, better, look 
at a number of species, full in the face, through a low- 
power lens. The prothorax is variously modified and, in 
some of the tropical species, the modifications are very 
extraordinary. The young differ from the adults in being 
more normally shaped. Many of these young and some 
of the adults excrete "honey-dew," much as aphids do, 
and are eagerly attended by ants for the sake of this fluid. 
All of the species suck plant juices and the eggs are usually 
laid in the tissues of the food-plants. They are called 
Tree-hoppers because most of the species live on trees and 
low bushes, hopping vigorously when disturbed. They 
are best collected by beating them into an upturned 
84 



FULGORID/E : LANTERN-FLIES. 



umbrella but the collector must act quickly or they will 
hop out again. 

A synopsis of the genera, by Goding, is given in Trans- 
actions of the American Entomological Society, vol. xix. 
Plate XXIII shows a few of the many species. Ceresa 
bubalus, the Buffalo Tree-hopper, is often injurious to 
young orchard trees, especially apple, by reason of the 
scars made in the bark when the females lay their eggs. 
If a simple slit were made, it would not be so bad but there 
are two slits at each place, crossing beneath the bark and 
so killing the intervening part. Most of the young leave 
the trees to feed on nearby weeds. 



FULGORID.E 

The prothorax of the Membracids is over-developed but 
the Fulgorids have gone to head. Fulgora lantemaria 
(Plate XXIII), of the American tropics, is an extreme type 
and one of the insects which is commonly sent to the 
Museum as a great rarity. It is shown here partly because 
it illustrates the truth that weird-looking things are not 
always rare; and also because it and some of its relatives 
have given the common name of Lantern-flies to the 
family. There are circumstantial stories concerning the 
luminosity of Fulgorid heads and categorical denials of 
these stories. The Noes probably have it but, at any 
rate, the name sticks. Plate XXIII shows also Scolops 
sulcipes, which is fairly common in our region on grass 
and other plants, especially where the ground is somewhat 
moist. Other species, such as Acanalonia bivittata (Plate 
XXIII; pink specimens are not uncommon), have a more 
normal head and frequently look like small moths. Such 
species are often covered with an easily rubbed "meal" 
and, in the tropics, there are species which bear so many 
and such large filaments of a waxy substance that other 
insects live in the excretion. The eggs, as far as I know, 
are laid in plant-tissue but although there are many 
species even in our region — more south of us — they have 
not been well studied. Later authors split the family into 
a number of separate families or subfamilies. 

85 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



CERCOPID.E 



The Frog-hoppers or Spittle-insects get their common 
names by being broad, squat, hopping creatures whose 
young live in masses of white froth (Plate XXIII), sucking 
sap. "The spittle is a viscid fluid expelled from the ali- 
mentary canal of the insects and beaten up into a froth 
by the whisking about of the body. What advantage it 
is to the young insects is hard even to conjecture; it cer- 
tainly is not known ' ' (Kellogg) . Possibly it is a protection 
against drying out and it is said to harden into a protective 
shell when the insect molts. 

Cicadellim: 

These are the Leaf-hoppers. In the South, the species 
which attack cotton have been named Sharpshooters and 
Dodgers. All of our numerous species are small and occur 
on vegetation of various kinds, especially grasses. Doubt- 
less the small amount of sap taken by each of thousands 
of individuals amounts to a great deal per acre of grass- 
land, vineyard, and orchard. Plate XXIII shows Grapho- 
cephala coccinea. This family has been called Jassidae. 

CHERMID.42 

The Jumping Plant-lice are usually described as re- 
sembling miniature Cicadas. The antennae are long and 
the wings are transparent. Some of thespecies, especially 
of the genus Pachypsylla, produce galls, while others feed 
in exposed situations on the leaves. Probably the most 
injurious species is the Pear Psylla, Psylla pyricola. It 
was introduced from Europe about 1832. "Usually the 
first indication of the pest is the presence of large quantities 
of honey-dew, secreted by the nymphs, with which the 
foliage becomes covered, and which attracts numerous 
ants. When the psyllas are numerous the leaves and fruit 
become coated with this sticky substance and it even drops 
from them like rain and runs down the trunk. ["Weeping 
trees" are caused by a number of different Homoptera.j 
A blackish fungus grows on the honey-dew and is always a 
86 



Plate XXIII 






- - 




f n f c 71 r «v n i c o c r. ! n e d 

i~ M ^ O U W I \J J| 

Ceres: t . ■:: - 



LeresQ 



m 




ArchasiQ 
beljraqe 



I neliQ DimacuiQiQ 

■ Entqlia 

*nuato Telamona anr^elopsidib 




PLANT-LICE. 

good indication of the presence of the psylla. . . . The 
adult is about one-tenth inch long, of a reddish crimson 
color with brownish-black markings, bronzy eyes and dark 
wing-veins. . . . The egg is about one-eighteenth inch 
long, hardly perceptible without a lens, and orange- 
yellow in color. It is pear-shaped with the small end drawn 
out into a long thread" (Sanderson). 

Aphidid^; 

In his memoir on insects affecting park and woodland 
trees Dr. Felt has a section which he entitles "The Battle 
of the Weak or Interesting Facts about Aphids." The 
title is striking and true. These creatures (Plate XXIV) 
are called Plant-lice, Green Flies, Blight (from the damage 
they do) and other things also. They are among the most 
injurious, the most interesting, and the most puzzling of 
insects. It would be difficult to improve on some of the 
many general accounts of their life cycle; as Dr. Felt has 
just been mentioned, his summary may be quoted: " Many 
of the species pass the winter in what we know as the 
winter egg, which is usually deposited in crevices of the 
bark or at the base of buds or branches, where it remains 
during the winter. The young hatch therefrom in some 
cases at least at about the time the foliage begins to 
develop and in other instances not till well toward mid- 
summer, establish themselves at some favorable situation 
and begin to draw nourishment from the unfolding tissues. 
These young are all females and in the language of science 
are known as 'stem mothers.' They usually begin to 
produce young in a few days after hatching from the egg 
and these are also females and in turn produce others. 
This method of reproduction is what is known as agamic 
or asexual and differs from the ordinary in that males have 
no part in the process. A number of generations may be 
produced in this way, the adults being wingless, and after 
a time, usually at the end of a certain number of genera- 
tions, winged females develop. These latter forsake the 
original, usually by this time crowded, food-plant and 
either fly to similar ones in the neighborhood or, as in the 
case of some species, betake themselves to entirely different 

87 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



plants, where another series of wingless agamic or asexual 
generations are brought forth. This may continue for 
some time and after a certain number of generations the 
plants again become crowded, winged females are produced 
and there may be a return migration to the original food 
plant, where one or more generations may be produced 
and ultimately perfect males and females, which latter 
pair and deposit eggs in crevices of the bark or other 
shelters, as stated above, and remain unhatched over 
winter." 

This changing from one mode of reproduction to another 
and from one food plant to another, together with still other 
complications, is very confusing. Lichtenstein has noted 
twenty-one different forms assumed by Phylloxera quercus 
in its life-cycle. It is probable that the four hundred or 
so forms which have been described from the United 
States as distinct species include phases of a smaller num- 
ber of real species, but it is certain that many species are 
still undescribed. 

A common species on apple is Aphis mali. Professor 
Webster said concerning it: "It would appear almost 
visionary to advocate spraying apple orchards in mid- 
winter to protect the wheat crop, but nevertheless one of 
the most serious enemies of young fall wheat passes its egg 
stage on the twig of the apple during the winter season." 
The Woolly Apple-aphis, Schizoneura lanigera (Plate 
XXIV), secretes a waxy substance, which accounts for 
its name. It is often seen on twigs and around wounds, 
clustered in bluish-white masses that look like mold, but 
the individuals which are probably doing the most damage 
are feeding upon the roots where they cause gall-like 
swellings. Phylloxera vastatrix is one of the few Ameri- 
can insects which have become injurious in Europe. 
With us it forms galls on grape leaves (see p. 470) but 
is not usually found on the roots; in Europe it rarely 
attacks the leaves but forms galls on the roots, causing 
them to decay. 

Aphids excrete a sweetish substance, called honey-dew, 
which is much sought after by ants. In fact, aphids arc 
called "ants' cows" and many species of ants go to con- 
siderable trouble to care for them. . A variety of Lasins 
88 



Plate XXIV 




Aspidiotus ancylus Aspidiotus jorbesi 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



niger is an ant which attends to the Corn-root Aphis, 
Aphis maidi-radicis. During the winter this ant stores 
the small black eggs of the aphis in its nests, moving them 
from place to place as the weather changes. The eggs 
start to hatch in early spring and the ants uncover the 
roots of smart weed and of other plants in order to pasture 
their cows. When, however, corn is planted, they transfer 
the aphid stock to the corn roots, including such winged 
aphids as may have developed and strayed from the fold. 
A female aphis does not lay many eggs as compared 
with insects in general, but development is so rapid (ten 
days is not unusual, the eggs frequently hatching before 
they are laid so that birth is given to living young) and 
there are so many generations a season that the end result 
would be extermination of all life by the destruction of 
vegetation if it were not for counteracting agencies. Some 
aphids are protected by ants, some by waxy secretions, 
some by foldings and galls produced in leaves and other 
parts of plants by their presence, but all are injured by 
damp weather, by fungi and by insect enemies. Among 
the latter might be mentioned Coccinelidse, Syrphidae, and 
Chrysopidae, which, together with less important enemies, 
devour them from the outside. But we should not over- 
look the Chalcididae, which feed internally. Look at the 
aphid colonies on a rose bush and you are almost certain to 
see the dried shells of individuals which have been para- 
sitized by these, our friends, a small hole in each showing 
where the Hymenopteron had emerged. 

Aleyrodid^e 

This is the White-fly family. Aleyrodes vapor ariorum 
(Plate XXIV) is the species most often found on house- 
plants. The adults of both sexes have four wings and 
seem to be covered with flour ; their wing expanse is usually 
less than an eighth of an inch. The young somewhat 
resemble scale-insects. As seen through a lens, they are 
rather pretty, usually shiny black with white, wax-like 
rods and tufts. Each egg is mounted on a small, curved 
stem. Probably the majority of the American species arc 
still un described; they rarely appeal to amateurs and, for 
the most part, they are of little economic importance. 
90 



SCALE=INSECTS. 



COCCID.-E 



"The family includes a number of quite different -looking 
insects, as the True Scale-insects or Bark-lice, the Mealy- 
bugs, and others for which we riot even have a popular 
name. They are a very anomalous family, and the 
species differ very greatly in appearance, habits, and 
metamorphoses from the other allied families already 
described. Even the sexes of the same species differ as 
much in the adult stage as do the members of different 
orders. The males, unlike all other Hemiptera, undergo a 
complete metamorphosis, but possess only a single pair of 
wings. The hind wings are simply represented by a pair 
of club-like halteres, as is the case in the Diptera or Two- 
winged Flies. Each of these halteres is furnished with a 
hooked bristle, which fits in a pocket on the upper wing 
on the same side. The males possess no mouth. . . . 
The female is always without wings and has either a scale- 
like or a gall-like form, and is covered with larger or 
smaller scales of wax, which may be in the form of powder, 
of large tufts or plates, of a continuous layer, or of a thin 
scale. Beneath this protecting substance lives the insect. 
. . . All scale-insects are plant-feeders, and like the 
plant-lice obtain liquid food by means of suction. But 
not all are injurious, as some furnish dye-stuffs, shellac, or 
wax" (Lugger). 

All scale-insects are injurious to the. plants upon which 
they feed, but what Prof. Lugger meant was that, as far 
as man is concerned, the harm which certain species do is 
more than counterbalanced by the benefits we derive 
from them. The manna which fed the Children of Israel 
was honey-dew secreted by a scale-insect. It is still 
eaten. Shellac is derived from the scale of Carteria lacca 
in India and the insect itself contains a red substance 
called "lake." Before the present extensive use of aniline 
dyes, coloring matter was derived from a number of 
different species of Coccida:, especially from the Cochineal 
Insect, Coccus cacti, of Mexico. The natives of the island 
of St. Vincent make necklaces from the encysted pupae of 
Margarodes, calling them "ground-pearls." 

9i 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Coccidae sometimes produce living young and reproduce 
without sexual union, but these phenomena are not so 
general as among the Aphididae. A single female Coccid 
may give birth to thousands of young, but these do not 
reach maturity as quickly as do the plant-lice. The males 
of many species of scale-insects are unknown, probably 
because their small size and short life have caused them 
to be overlooked, rather than because they are rare or 
absent. 

Three of the subfamilies are of especial economic im- 
portance to us; they are the Dactylopinae or Mealy Bugs, 
the Coccinas or Soft Scales, and the Diaspinae or Armored 
Scales. 

Dactylopinae 

The female Mealy Bug undergoes but little change of 
form as it matures and it is able to move about. No real 
scale is formed, at most a sort of cottony sac, and this 
usually only when the insect is nearly full-grown. 

A common species in greenhouses is P seudococcus cilri. 
The oval body is bordered by a white fringe and covered 
with a mealy deposit. The eggs are laid under the female 
in a loose nest of sticky, white fibers in such quantities 
that she is forced to stand on her head in order to feed. 

Phenacoccus acericola frequently occurs in great numbers 
on maple leaves. The female is light yellow but covered 
with a mass of powdery, slightly stringy, white wax about 
three times her own bulk. 

Various species of Kermes occur on oak. The adult 
females are relatively large and look like galls. 

Coccinae 

The Soft Scales are iisually of considerable size as com- 
pared with other scale-insects; their surface is rather 
waxy and their form more or less convex. Such "scale" 
as they have is merely the thickened surface of the insect 
itself and not a separate structure. 

Females of Pulvinaria secrete a mass of cottony material 
in which they place their eggs. P. innumerabilis is the 
92 



THE SAN JOSE SCALE. 



common Cottony Scale of maple, and, to a lesser extent, 
of elm, grape, Virginia Creeper, and other plants. When 
common, the ground or pavement beneath them becomes 
covered with a black, sticky substance, the honey-dew, 
upon which a peculiar fungus grows. 

Eulecanium is a large genus, some members of which 
are likely to be found in every yard that contains fruit. 
The females lay their eggs under their bodies but do not 
secrete a cottony covering. E. nigrofasciatiim is the 
Terrapin Scale of the peach and other trees. E. pruino- 
sum is the Frosted Scale of fruit and forest trees. Tulip 
trees should be examined for E. tulipiferce; it is one of the 
largest Soft Scales of our region. 

Several species of Saissetia are frequently found on 
palms, ferns, and other house-plants. 

Diaspinae 

These are the scale-insects. Their body is covered by a 
shell, which is composed in part of moulted skins and in 
part of a secretion from the body itself. 

With good reason, this (Plate XXIV) 

Aspidiotus is the scale most often inquired a bout. It 

permciosus . 1Y -,.. - T , , . „ 

is the .Pernicious or ban J ose, and is so small 

(about .06 in. long at most) that it is not usually noticed 
until it has become destructively abundant. Felt says: 
' ' Trees which have been badly infested for some time have 
a rough bark covered with dark gray, scurfy patches, and, 
if this be scratched with a knife or finger nail, an oily 
yellowish substance will be crushed from the living insects 
under the scales. This insect breeds so rapidly that it is 
not uncommon to find large numbers on a tree previously 
comparatively free. In that event the bark may be 
literally covered with recently established scales and not 
appear very rough. There is, however, a peculiar, granu- 
lar look, and those familiar with the bark of a rapidly 
growing tree are aware that some change has taken place. 
There is nothing like a good magnifier in these case.-, 
and, if this shows hundreds of circular, black or dark gruy 
objects, with dot and ring, or lighter gray, yellowish 
marked scales, send a sample of the bark to somebody 

93 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



competent to identify the trouble. Cutting into the 
bark under a San Jose scale is almost sure to reveal a 
reddish discoloration of the green tissues beneath. . . . 
The winter is passed by this insect in a partly grown, 
dormant condition. Vital activities are resumed with the 
approach of warm weather, and the first outward indications 
of life are seen in the appearance of winged males and later 
of the crawling young, the latter of which appear in this 
latitude [New York] toward the last of June. . . . The 
females continue to produce young for a period of about 
six weeks, each averaging about 400, or from nine to 10 
every 24 hours. This is an ovo-viviparous species. That 
is, the eggs develop within the mother and the young are 
born alive. They rnay be seen as tiny yellow specks escap- 
ing from under the maternal scale, from which they wander 
in search of a favorable place to establish themselves. 
. . . The development of the scale begins, even before 
the young has selected its feeding place, as very minute, 
white, waxy filaments, which spring from all parts of the 
body, rapidly become thicker, and slowly mat down to 
form the circular white scale with a depressed ring and 
central elevation. . . . Thus the round of life may be com- 
pleted, as determined from a study of the female, in from 
33 to 40 days. The detailed studies made at Washington 
show that four full generations are developed normally 
in that latitude and that there may be a partial fifth." 
The fact that this insect lives on a great variety of woody 
plants makes eradication difficult; we must spray more 
than the few trees we care about. If you have it, notify 
your State Entomologist and do not trust to Jim Jones 
around the corner, who says he can kill it for you. It is a 
native of eastern Asia; San Jose, California, is connected 
with it merely because the specimens upon which the 
first scientific description was based came from there. 

Lepidosaphes ulmi, called Mytilaspis pomoriim in many 
publications, is the Oyster-shell Scale. It infests a variety 
of trees, including apple, and is well described by its com- 
mon name, although the oyster-shell shape is not entirely 
diagnostic. The small end of the tapering, slightly curved 
scale is usually yellowish. See Plate XXIV for it and 
other species. 

94 



TRUE BUGS. 

HETEROPTERA 

Or True Hemiptera 

For the general characteristics of the True Bugs see 
p. 80. In the following key rare families have been omitted ; 
see Brues and Melander, or Parshley in Psyche, Vol. 
XXII. Nymphs may usually, be distinguished from 
wingless adults (such as occur in certain families) by the 
fact that most nymphs have two pairs of pimple-like 
stink-glands near the middle of the back of the abdomen. 
When the basal part ("corium") of the front wings is 
thickened, the apical unthickened part is called the "mem- 
brane"; the triangular area, when present, at the tip of the 
corium is called the "cuneus." 

1. Antennae shorter than the head and usually nearly or 
quite concealed; living in or near water 2. 

Antennae longer than the head (if sightly shorter, 
the eyes and ocelli are absent), usually free, rarely (Phy- 
matidae) lying in a groove 8. 

2. Ocelli present ; littoral ; not .5 in. long 3. 

Ocelli absent; aquatic 4. 

3. Antennae hidden; front legs stout, formed for grasping; 
broad, squat, roughened bugs with prominent eyes. 
Gelastocorid^e, also called Galgulidas and Nethridae. 
These predaceous Toad-bugs frequent muddy banks. 
Gelastocoris ( = Galgulus) is our principal genus (Plate XXV) ; 
the front tarsi have 2 claws. Mononyx of the West and 
Nerthra of the South-east have but 1 claw on these. 

Antennae not hidden; front legs slender, as long as 
middle ones, formed for running. Ochterid^e. Re- 
sembles the preceding in form and habits. Ochterus is our 
only genus. 

4. Hind tarsi without distinct claws (except Plea, 
p. 102) ; front legs not specially formed for grasping 5. 

Each hind tarsus with 2 claws; front legs formed for 
grasping 6. 

95 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS, 



5. Body flat above; top of head free from pronotum; 
front tarsi flattened, 1 -jointed, without claws, edges 
fringed; beak with not more than 2 joints, hidden 

CORIXID/E (p. 99). 

Body convex above and pronotum overlapping the 
head; front tarsi normal, 2-clawed; beak 3- or 4-jointcd 

NOTONECTID^E (p. IOO). 

6. Membrane with veins 7. 

Membrane without veins. Naucorid^e. They re- 
semble Gelastocoridae (3) but do not have prominent eyes, 
and crawl about on submerged plants. Pelocoris is our 
only genus. P. femoratus is about .4 in. long; pronotum 
shinjr yellow or light brown, marked with numerous dark 
spots; front wings dark brown with a light shoulder-area. 
Ambry sus occurs in the West. 

7. Apical appendages of abdomen long and slender, not 
retractile; hind legs formed for walking . . . Nepid^e (p. 100). 

Such appendages short, flat, and retractile; hind legs 
flattened for swimming Belostomid^e (p. 99) . 

8. Head shorter than thorax, including scutellum 9. 

Head as long as entire thorax; body and legs slen- 
der Hydrometrid^e (p. 104). 

9. Last tarsal joint divided, claws back of tip; front 
wings, if present, of rather uniform texture throughout. . 10. 

Last tarsal joint not divided, claws at tip 11. 

10. Middle and hind legs very long, close together 
and distant from the front pair; beak 4- jointed but the 
first joint short Gerrid^e (p. 103). 

Middle and hind legs not very long, more equally 
spaced; beak 3-jointed Veliid^e (p. 103). 

11. Antennae 5-jointed 12. 

Antennas 4- jointed (Do not count either the tubercle 

which bears the antennae or the minute intermediate 
segments which are sometimes present) 13. 

12. First and second antennal segments thicker than 
the others; minute bugs living on surface of water. 
HEBRiDiE. Hebrus, our only genus. 

First antennal segment thick, second slender; scu- 
tellum rather large 27. 

13. Prosternum with a median, longitudinal, striated 
or granulated, stridulatory groove visible in front of front 

96 



THE FAMILIES OF TRUE BUGS. 



coxae, receiving the tip of the beak, which is 3-jointed, 

short, and strong; length not less than .2 in. 14. 

Prosternum without a stridulatory groove; size 
large or small 16. 

14. Body very long and slender, almost thread-like 
Emesid^e (p. 108) . 

Body not so 15. 

15. Terminal segment of antennae thickened, front legs 
stout and much modified for grasping; membrane with 
numerous veins; tarsi 2-jointed Phymatid^e (p. no). 

Terminal segment of antennae thread-like; front 
legs usually much like the others ; membrane with few veins; 
tarsi 3-jointed Reduviid^e (p. 107). 

16. Front wings wholly membranous and, for the most 
part, with a dense network, sometimes resembling 
lace; cheeks raised, forming a groove which includes 
the base of the beak; tarsi 2-jointed; flat bugs of small 
size Tingidid^e (p. 1 10). 

Not such insects 17. 

17. Beak really or apparently 3-jointed 18. 

Beak 4-jointed; first segment sometimes short 22. 

18. Body convex below, flat or slightly concave above; 
often wingless; small, aquatic, predatory bugs, usually 
found on floating vegetation. Mesovelihxe. Mesovelia 
mulsanti, our only species. 

Not such insects 19. 

19. Tarsi 2-jointed; broad, flat bugs, living under bark; 
head produced between antennae; abdomen broader than 
the closed wings Aradid^e (p. 1 12). 

Tarsi 3-jointed 20. 

20. Ocelli present 21. 

Ocelli and wings usually absent or rudimentary; 

parasitic on vertebrates Cimicid^e (p. 106). 

21. Front wings with a cuneus, membrane without long 
closed cells, sometimes without veins; small, predatory 
bugs Anthocorid^e. 

Front wings without a cuneus, membrane with 4 or 5 
long closed cells; adults always fully winged; small flat- 
tened bugs with large, projecting eyes. .Saldid^e (p. 102). 

22. Ocelli absent 23. 

Ocelli present 24. 

7 97 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



23. Membrane with two large cells at base from which 
extend about 8 branching veins; no cuneus; rather large, 
strong bugs Pyrrhocorid^e (p. 1 10). 

Membrane with one or two small cells at base, rarely 
with longitudinal veins ; distinct cuneus ; first joint of beak 
rarely shorter than the head Mirid/e (p. 105). 

24. Front legs modified for grasping, the tibiae and 
usually the femora armed with rows of numerous, closely 
set, fine spines; first joint of beak very small. Nabid^e, 
the Damsel-bugs. They are usually yellowish or black, 
rather flattened, predaceous, and found on flowers or 
leaves. Nabis ( = Reduviolus and Coriscus) is our principal 
genus. 

Front legs usually much like the others; first seg- 
ment of beak usually longer than wide 25. 

25. Body very slender; antennae elbowed, the first 
joint long and clubbed, the last joint spindle-shaped; 
head constricted in front of the eyes; femora clubbed 
Neidid^e (p. 1 12). 

Not such insects 26. 

26. Antennae usually inserted on or below a line drawn 
from the eye to the base of the beak; membrane usually 
with 5, simple veins LYGiEiD^E (p. in). 

Antennae starting from well up on the sides of the 
head; membrane usually with numerous, forked veins 
arising from a transverse basal vein (these veins sometimes 
hard to see) Coreid^e (p. 113). 

27. Scutellum nearly flat, narrowed behind 28. 

Scutellum very convex, covering nearly the whole 

abdomen 29. 

28. Tibiae usually with no (or very fine, short) spines 

Pentatomid^e (p. 113). 

Tibiae with rows of strong spines. Cydnid^e. Some- 
times classed as a subfamily of Pentatomidac. 

29. Pronotum round in front and nearly straight behind ; 
margins of scutellum with furrows in which the edges of 
the wings fit when at rest; tibiae strongly spinose. Sub- 
family Thyreocorinae of Cydnidae; has also been called 

CORIMEL.ENID.E. 

Pronotum hexagonal; margins of scutellum without 
furrows; tibiae not strongly spinose. So tellerip.v. 
98 



AQUATIC HEMIPTERA. 



These are sometimes classed as a subfamily of Pentatomi- 
dae. Some species are large and brightly colored but they 
are not usually common. 

Corixid^e 

The Water-boatmen (most boatmen are that kind) 
swim "right side up." Compare Notonectidse. They 
are slightly heavier than water and rest on the bottom or 
on aquatic plants, but when they come up for air, the 
surface tension is sufficient to hold them at the top without 
much effort on their part. At such times, they float in a 
horizontal position, taking air directly into the thoracic 
spiracles and renewing the supply of air which is carried 
by hairs when they dive. It is said that these insects, 
while submerged, but especially at night, make a tolerably 
loud and sustained noise by rubbing their beak with their 
front legs. The eggs are usually fastened on, not in, 
submerged objects; the eggs of certain specie in the lakes 
near the City of Mexico are so abundant that they are 
gathered by the Mexicans and used for food. This family- 
is predaceous and its members, like their relatives, are 
attracted, in their nocturnal flights, by light. The princi- 
pal genus in our region is Arctocorixa — Corixa of most 
publications (Plate XXV). 

Belostomid^e 

This family contains the Giant Water-bugs; also called 
Electric-light Bugs because the adults are frequently 
noticed flying about electric lights. Some of the tropical 
species are the largest of Hemiptera, being four and five 
inches long. The broad, flat hind legs and the flat body, 
with a keel in the middle underneath, well fit them for 
aquatic locomotion. The sharp-hooked front legs and 
the short, powerful beak make their predatory habits not 
to be depised by even fair-sized fish. They lurk on muddy 
bottoms, often slightly covering themselves with mud or 
leaves, ready to dart out after the unwary. Before men- 
tioning one of the interesting habits of some of them we 
must, unfortunately, note a change in names: the generic 
name, Belostoma, which has been used in most publications, 
should be Lethocerus, and Zaitha becomes Belostoma. 

99 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



In this sense, the females of Belostoma, and of certain 
other genera, fasten their eggs onto the backs of the males. 
It is said that the males do not take kindly to this procedure 
but that they can not help themselves. 

i. Hind tibias much broader than middle ones; front 
coxae little longer than broad 2. 

Hind tibiae little, if any, broader than middle ones; 
front coxae at least twice as long as broad. All of our 

species are less than 1 in. long * Belostoma. 

2. Margins of front femora with a longitudinal groove 
in which the tibiae lie when folded. Lethocerus, of which 
americanus is our common species: it is about 2 in. long. 

Margin of front femora without such groove. Benacus 
griseus (Plate XXV). 

Nepid^e 

The long respiratory tail of Water-scorpions is not 
fully developed until the molt which gives them wings. 
It is perfectly harmless; all the sting these creatures have 
is at the other end, their beak. We have two genera, 
both of which are aquatic and predaceous: the body of 
Nepa is oval, flat, and thin ; that of Ranatra (Plate XXV) 
is linear and cylindrical. They are sluggish creatures, 
crawling but not swimming, often remaining motionless 
for hours on the muddy, leaf-covered bottom of their 
favorite haunts and rarely, if at all, coming to lights. 
Their eggs, which are placed in or on submerged objects, 
are furnished with filaments at one end, seven in Nepa 
and two in Ranatra. The only species of Nepa is apiculata, 
which is about .75 in. long, not counting filaments. R. 
americana, about 1.25 in. long, is our most common species 
of Ranatra in the East. 

NOTONECTID^E 

The Back-swimmers are shaped somewhat like an over- 
turned boat, but they overturn themselves when they are 
in the water. They are lighter than water and normally 
rest at the surface, floating head-down, with the tip of the 
abdomen piercing the surface-film, their long hind legs 
extended like sweeps ready to send them swiftly to safety 



Plate XXV 




ArctolcorixQ 
intetVupta 






Gel Qstocoris 

oculcitus 




Benacus 
griseus 



Lyqus 
pratensis 




Notonecta 
und-ulata 



Poecilocapsus 
1 i neat us 



Ranatra 

americana 





Reduvius 
personatus 



Gerris 
remigis 




Anlus cri status 



IOI 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



or food. They do not breathe through their tail but from 
it the air passes through hair-covered channels to spiracles 
on their thorax. Small hsh and other aquatic animals 
are easy prey, and the suctorial beak will pierce even the 
careless collector's fingers. Doubtless the pearly color 
of their backs, which, as they swim, is seen against the 
sky, and the dark of their under (upper) side helps them to 
approach their victims and to avoid becoming victims. 
The adults fly well and are frequently attracted to lights. 
During the winter they sometimes may be seen swimming 
about in the shallow water in which they habitually live, 
even though it be covered with ice. It is said that these 
insects, by rubbing their front legs together, make a noise 
like the word "chew," twice repeated. The eggs, are 
placed in the submerged stems of aquatic plants. The 
adults of Plea striola are only about .06 in. long; it is the 
only species of that genus. Our other species are much 
larger and, for the most part, belong in Notonecta (Plate 
XXV)'. 

Saldidje 

This family has been called Acanthiidae, but a techni- 
cality rules out the use of that name. Furthermore, its 
use would be confusing, as the Saldidas have no intimate 
connections with bed-bugs but live on the shores of lakes 
and rivers. Uhler, one of the master Hemipterists, wrote: 
"In the present family we have types which like Galgulus 
[Gelastocoris], make holes for themselves, and live for a 
part of the time beneath the ground. Like the members 
of that genus too, a majority of them inhabit damp soils, 
and are often found in countless numbers on the salt or 
brackish marshes of our sea coasts. Their manner 
strongly recalls that of the tiger-beetles that inhabit the 
same places. When approached, or in any way disturbed, 
they leap from the ground, arise a few feet into the air, 
by means of their wings, and alight a short distance away, 
taking care to slip quickly into the shade of some protecting 
tuft of grass or clod, where the soil agrees with the color 
of their bodies." They feed chiefly upon the juices of 
drowned insects. There arc numerous species of Saldula, 
the principal genus of our region. They are rather soft in 
102 



WATER-STRIDERS. 



texture, with small head and prominent eyes. Their 
size is never large and their color is black, sometimes 
marked with white or yellow. 

Veliid^e 

These have been called Broad-shouldered Water-striders 
(see Gerridas). Rhagovelia obesa is very common in some 
localities, preferring swift streams. It is black, about an 
eighth of an inch long, and usually wingless. Rhagovelia 
plumbea lives on the Gulf of Mexico, near the shores. 
Members of this family are more given to going into the 
water than are their relatives and they may sometimes be 
seen running, back downwards, on the under side of the 
surface film. 

Gerrid^e 

The family name of this group of Water-striders or 
Pond-skaters has usually been given as Hydrobatidae. 
Unfortunately there have been considerable changes in the 
taxonomy of Hemiptera, as you will notice, and no agree- 
ment has yet been reached. One system is to make the 
Veliidse, Mesoveliidse, and Hydrometridee subfamilies 
of Gerridas. Of Gerridas, in the narrow sense, and now 
put in the genus Gents, one common species {marginatus) 
has often been listed in the genus Limnotrechus, and 
another (remigts, Plate XXV), in Hygrotrechus. These 
two species and their less common relatives may be seen 
skating about on the surface of ponds or of the less rapid 
parts of streams, often jumping up and landing again 
without breaking the surface film. They go about on the 
two hinder pairs of legs, pushing with the middle pair, 
steering with the last, and holding the front pair up so as 
to be ready to grasp their food, which consists of either 
living or dead insects and the like. Why are they able to 
run on the surface of water? Because their hairy legs 
are not wetted and so, with the slight pressure of the 
insect's little weight, they dimple but do not break the 
surface film. A greased needle will float for the same 
reason. Both winged and wingless adults of the same 
species occur. Eggs are laid at or just beneath the 
surface of the water on almost any solid object. Adults 
103 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



occasionally go under water; they hibernate and some- 
times come out in warm winter days to stretch their legs. 
If you desire to bring home alive for your aquarium 
species of this and related families, use for the purpose a 
dry box or one in which there is some damp moss; they 
frequently drown if carried in a pail containing water. 
The following key includes the genera most often noticed 
in our territory. 

i. Body oval, less than 3 times as long as broad; 

pronotum not longer than broad 2. 

Body elongate, more than 4 times as long as broad; 
pronotum much longer than broad. Gerris 3. 

2. Second segment of antennae longer than either third 
or fourth segment Metrobates hesperius. 

Second segment of antennas shorter than either third 
or fourth segment Trepobates pictus. 

3. Antennas longer than head and pronotum together; 
hind tibiae and tarsi, together, much longer than middle 
tibiae. Subgenus Limnoporus, species rufoscutellatus. 

Antennae shorter than head and pronotum together; 
hind tibiae and tarsi, together, but little longer than middle 
tibiae .4. 

4. First segment of antennae nearly the same length as 
fourth. Subgenus Gerris, of which marginalus is a common 
species. 

First segment of antennae considerably longer than 
fourth. Subgenus Aquarius, of which remigis is our 
common species. 

HYDROMETRIDiE 

This family has also been called Limnobatidae and the 
type, as well as our only, genus is then called Limnobates 
instead of Hydrometra (see also Gerridae). The common 
name is Marsh- treaders. Hydrometra martini (also called 
lineata) is not rare but is not often seen. It is not quite 
.5 in. long, very thin, and walks very deliberately over the 
water and projecting plants. Quoting Uhler again, 
"They delight to remain at rest, with perhaps a single claw 
hooked to some projecting object. When disturbed they 
move very slowly, and seem disposed to save themselves 
104 



SOME INJURIOUS BUGS. 



rather by concealment among rubbish and tangled growths 
than by active movements. The young forms are so 
very slender that they can only be detected with great 
difficulty in the places to which they resort." 

MlRID^E 

These are what have generally been called Capsidas. 
It is one of the largest families of true bugs and a very 
bewildering one to the students who would attempt to 
classify the species. Most of them are leaf -feeders but 
some are predaceous. The eggs of many, at least, have two 
filaments at one end, which project from the plant-stems 
in which they are laid. 

The ground-color of the very common 
^nsis Tarnished Plant-bug (Plate XXV), ranges 

from dull brown to yellowish-brown, and 
its markings are also variable. Typically, the head 
is yellowish with three narrow-reddish stripes and the 
following markings are yellowish: margin of pronotum, 
several longitudinal lines on it, a V on the scutellum, the 
legs, and a spot at the apex of the thickened part of each 
front wing. This insect is very destructive of a large 
range of vegetation from strawberries to fruit-trees. 
Adults hibernate in rubbish and appear in early spring. 
The punctures, made for the purpose of sucking juices, 
seem to have a poisonous effect on buds and leaves. Pro- 
bably the eggs are laid in plant-tissues. 

The Four-lined Leaf-bug (Plate XXV) is 
Poecilocapsus dark n (yellow after dea th), with the 

lmeatus , „ . ■ . . ' 

head, forepart of the pronotum, and under- 
side of body, orange-red. There are four, more or less 
continuous, black, longitudinal lines on the pronotum 
and front wings. While particularly injurious to currants 
and the like, it attacks many different plants. "The 
presence of the pest is indicated by the appearance of the 
peculiar brown depressed spots on the tender terminal 
leaves in early summer. As the attack continues, whole 
leaves turn brown, curl up, become brittle, and are torn 

105 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



or broken by the wind. The young shoot is checked and 
frequently droops and dies. The buds of dahlias and 
roses are often blasted." The vermilion nymphs hatch 
from overwintered eggs placed in slits, cut lengthwise 
into the stems of the plants, each containing six or more 
eggs. The adult stage is reached about the middle of 
June. 

Halticus uhleri is one of the smallest species of the 
family; black with yellow on legs, antennae, and, as scale- 
like tufts, on the front wings. They hop like flea-beetles 
and feed on a variety of garden-plants. Some individuals 
are short- winged. 

Some Mirids slightly resemble ants in shape and have 
yellow spots so placed as to increase the resemblance by 
giving them the appearance of having narrow waists, but 
it is difficult to prove that this resemblance is of any use 
to them. 

ClMICID/E 

Most of us have had experience with one member of this 
family, although many do not like to talk about it. Per- 
haps no other insect has been given so many euphemistic 
names, but the one which is most generally understood is 
plain Bed-bug. In fact, that is a translation of (or, is it 
the other way around?) its scientific name, lectularius. It 
belongs to the genus Cimex, which has also, improperly, 
been called Acanthus. A description of its appearance 
and smell is unnecessary, especially in a Field Book; it is 
never found afield, under bark and the like; those are quite 
different creatures. It is also confused with the creature 
which closely resembles it and is often found in the nests 
of swallows; that is CEciacus vicarius ( = hirundinis) and 
rarely bothers man. The number of generations a year 
of lectularis depends on the temperature and food-supply; 
there are, normally, only one or two and it is not true that 
"they become grand-fathers in a night." Kerosene in all 
the bed-room cracks and crannies will do the trick but, 
especially in the spring, the treatment should be repeated 
in order to kill those which were unhatched at the time of 
the first application and may have been protected by the 
egg-shell. 

1 06 



KISSING BUGS. 



Reduviid.e 

Some of the Assassin -bugs are rather striking creatures; 
nearly all are fairly large and some are gayly colored. 
They are predaceous, feeding chiefly on the juices of other 
insects. 

As the "Kissing Bug" this creature 
Reduvius (plate xxy) received considerable news- 

personatus . , 

paper space some years ago. Another, and 

better, common name is Masked Bed-bug Hunter. It 
often enters houses where it and its young feed on bed-bugs. 
Especially the young have many sticky hairs to which 
dust and other small particles adhere, making the mask. 
Many Reduviids have these sticky hairs and should not 
be put in a collecting bottle together with delicate insects. 
If personatus bites humans, as it rarely does, a very painful 
wound is caused, so that the newspaper stories have some 
basis in fact. 

A southern species of similar habits, but much more 
given to sucking human blood, is Triatoma (= Conorhinus) 
sanguisuga. In the South, it is called the Big Bed-bug. 
It is about an inch long; black, marked with red on the 
sides of the prothorax, at the base of the apex of the front 
wings, and at the sides of the abdomen ; the head is long, 
narrow, cylindrical, and thickest behind the eyes. It is 
said that the effect of its bite may last for nearly a year, 
and it is probable that attacks which are attributed to 
spiders are really the work of this insect. Out-of-doors, it 
feeds on insects, including grasshoppers and potato beetles. 

Another species which has been accused of being a 
kissing-bug is Melanolestes picipes. It is black; about 
.6 in. long; the head well drawn out in front of the eyes, 
behind which is a tranverse, impressed line; the prothorax 
is more or less bell-shaped and divided into two lobes; 
the legs are short, the femora stout, and each tibia has a 
large pad at its apex. In nature it is often found hiding 
under stones and boards. 

Abinmcrus crassipes is about .6 in. long; rather broad; 
black, the pronotum, scutellum, and abdomen margined 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



with red. It is usually found on pine trees, feeding on 
plant-lice and young caterpillars, often holding them 
down with the front feet as a dog does his bone. 

Pselliopus ( = Milyas) ductus is about .5 in. long; waxy- 
yellow with numerous, conspicuous, black rings on its 
legs. Like many other Reduviids, its eggs are glued to 
the bark of trees and covered with a water-proof 
substance. 

Arilus cristatus (Plate XXV) varies from less than an 
inch to 1.5 in. in length; the middle of the pronotum has a 
longitudinal elevation something like a chicken's comb; 
general color grayish black, slightly bronzed. It is called 
the Wheel-bug. The nymphs are red, with black marks. 
They are our friends, if we do not handle them carelessly, 
as they use their beaks with good effect on many kinds of 
caterpillars and other injurious insects. 

Sinea diadema is about .5 in. long; brownish; front 
femora, head, and pronotum largely covered with short 
spines. It is often found on the flowers, such as goldenrod ; 
although it eats injurious caterpillars, it does not hesitate 
to attack stinging insects and so is not especially welcome 
near bee-hives. 

Emesid^e 

These Thread-legged (not all are) Bugs should probably 
be placed as a subfamily of Reduviidae. The following 
are our more common forms. 

1. Front tibiae and tarsi, together, not shorter than the 
front femora 2. 

These, together, shorter than the front femora 3. 

2. Eyes large, very prominent, when seen from the side 
occupying the whole side of the head .... Luteva Carolina. 

Eyes small, little prominent, when seen from the side 
occupying not more than half the side of the head . . . Ploi- 
ariola, of which errabunda is the common species. 

3. Front tarsi i-clawed Barce. 

Front tarsi 2-clawed. Usually Emesa brevipennis 

(Plate XXVI). The front legs are formed for grasping, 

much like those of the Praying Mantis, while the rest of the 

108 



Plate XXVI 





Phymata erosQ 




Corythuca 
arcuata 




Blissus 



Myodocha 



ieucopterus Ll ffi 5erripes 



Anoso 
ristis 




MurqontiQ Euschistus 
histrionico varioloriys 



Mormideo 
luqens 



109 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



insect suggests a delicate Walking Stick. It is called 
longipes in many publications. When full grown, it is 
usually at least 1.3 in. long, with wings only about a fourth 
as long as the legs. The ground-color is brownish, with 
the upper surface of the abdomen reddish and a few pale 
spots on each side of the head; the front legs more or less 
banded. It is said to feed chiefly on spiders. 

Phymatid^e 

The two genera may be separated as follows: Scutellum 
short, head with a bifid prolongation above the insertion 
of the antennas, Phymata; and scutellum very long, extend- 
ing to the tip of the abdomen,, head without such pro- 
longation, Macrocephalus. We have but few species of 
Ambush Bugs. Phymata erosa (Plate XXVI) is the one 
most likely to be collected. Like most of the others, it 
conceals itself in flowers, where it captures various insects, 
including large butterflies and even bees. The front legs 
are short but very powerful, and apparently its beak is 
quite deadly. The generic name means "tumor" and was 
probably suggested by the projections from the body. 
The somewhat knobbed antennas fit in grooves under the 
sides of the pronotum. This species is greenish-yellow, 
marked with a broad black band across the expanded 
part of the abdomen. The female is about .4 in long; 
the male somewhat less. 

Tingidid^e 

The adult Lace-bugs are small, delicate and, under a 
lens, beautiful insects; in most of the species the front 
wings and other parts, including expansions of the pro- 
thorax, are like fine lace. Furthermore, they lack the 
unpleasant odors of many Hemiptera. They are usually 
found on the under sides of leaves. The eggs are often 
placed near the leaf-veins. Some species, at least, hiber- 
nate as adults. Plate XXVI shows Corythuca arcuata, 
which is common on oaks. Piesma cinerea is our only 
species of the subfamily Piesminae; they have ocelli (other 
Tingidids do not) and the membrane has no net-work, 
no 



THE CHINCH. BUG. 



Pyrrhocorid.e 



These are called Red-bugs but they are not the creatures 
(mites) which get in human skin and cause red sores. 
Our commonest species is Euryopthalmus ( = Largus) 
succinctus. It is about .5 in. long 'and rather stout; 
brownish black above, with red on the margins of the 
prothorax, outer margin of front wings, trochanters, and 
bases of femora; a fine bluish pubescence underneath. 
The young are brilliant steel-blue, with reddish legs, and a 
bright red spot at the base of the abdomen. Some authori- 
ties say it is a plant-feeder and others that it feeds mainly on 
insects and was "found to be very useful in California 
by eating the destructive cottony cushion scale, at one 
time threatening to destroy entirely the orange groves of 
that state." Perhaps it does both. The Cotton-stainer 
of the South is Dysdercus suturellus. 

Lygmudm 

About 200 species have been listed from America, north 
of Mexico. The family has also been called Myodochidae. 

Most of us have heard of the Chinch- 
BHssus b (piate xx VI) , and all of us have helped 

leucopterus * -. «« 1 , 

pay for it. These pests have cost the 

United States about half a billion dollars. The worst 
injury has been to small grains and corn in the Mississippi 
Valley but frequent injury is done in the East, especially 
to timothy meadows which have stood for several years. 
It is black and white except for the red legs and bases of 
the antennae. Most of the adults occurring between the 
Rockies and the Alleghanies have normally long wings; 
in the South, East, and along the Lakes to northern 
Illinois, short-winged individuals are usually the more 
common. The young are yellowish or bright red, marked 
with brownish. Adults hibernate in clumps of grass or 
under rubbish. In early spring the females lay their 
yellowish-white eggs (up to 500 each) on the roots or at 
the bases of stalks, usually of grasses and grain. Even 
the long-winged adults do not fly much but usually walk 
from field to field. The first annual generation matures 
in 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



in early summer, and eggs are then laid on the unfolding 
leaves of corn if these are available. This brood matures 
in August and September. 

Oncopeltus fasciatus is about .6 in. long; red and black, 
the black above being a spot covering most of the pronotum 
and scutellum, a broad band across the middle of the 
closed wings, and the membranes. Lygceus kalmii 
(Plate XXVI) — and other species — has the same colors 
but the black on the pronotum is at the front, the wings 
next to the scutellum are black, and the middle band does 
not go all the way across; it is about .5 in. long. 

Myodochus serripes (Plate XXVI) "is rendered very 
comical by the swinging of the long antennae with their 
thickened apical joint, while running over the ground 
among stones and rubbish of its favorite haunts. Mead- 
ows and rich soils in thin woods furnish it with needed 
shelter, and there it may be found throughout the entire 
year, half concealed by bits of twigs and dead leaves, or 
stowed away beneath the loose fragments of rock which lie 
scattered over the ground" (Uhler). The long, slender 
neck is quite distinctive. 

Neidhxe 

The Stilt-bug family has been called Berytidae and has 
also been classed as a subfamily of the Coreidae but it is 
probably more closely related to the Lygaeidse. There 
are but few species, Jalysus spinosus being the most 
common. It is about .3 in. long, with a very slender, 
pale body, and long, slender legs. It is rather sluggish 
and usually found in the undergrowth of oak woods. At 
first sight it suggests a tawny crane-fly. 

Aradid^e 

These Flat-bugs are responsible for the notion that 
bed-bugs live also under bark and that they then may 
have wings. They are dark brown or black and the 
reddish, wingless young do look like bed-bugs. They 
probably feed on fungus. A good way to collect them is 
to knock dead sticks together over a white sheet. This 
jars off the insects and they can be seen more readily. 
112 



THE SQUASH.BUQ. 



COREID.E 



The Squash-bug family is an extensive one. Most of 
the species have an unpleasant odor, and there is a tendency 
to have the edges of the abdomen raised so that the wings 
lie in a depression. 

The Squash-bug (Plate XXVI) is known 
to most gardeners who have grown any 
of the squash family. Its chief claim to 
scientific fame is that it was used prominently in the 
development of our present knowledge concerning the 
germinal relations of sex. The pronotum and the thick- 
ened parts of the front wings are speckled brown, the side- 
margins of the pronotum are yellowish; the hind femora 
do not bear a row of spines. Adults spend the winter, 
as well as the summer nights, under rubbish. The oval, 
pale-yellow to dark eggs are laid in irregular clusters, usually 
on the under side of leaves. The young are rather gregari- 
ous and gay with their crimson legs, head, and front part of 
thorax, but these change to black as they grow. In the 
North the adult stage is reached about August. 

The following rough notes may be helpful in the North- 
east. A brownish species about .4 in. long, without a 
row of spines on the hind femora, but with a leaf -like 
expansion on each antenna, is probably Chariesterus 
antennator. Species of the largely predaceous Alydus 
are usually fully .5 in. long, slender and have a row of 
spines on the hind femora. The following are usually 
more than .6 in. long and have spines on the hind femora: 
Archimerus and Euthochtha galeator have more or less 
cylindrical hind tibiae; Acanthocephala and Leptoglossus 
have leaf -like expansions of the hind tibiae. 

Pentatomid^e 

The name of Stink-bugs has been fastened on this family, 
possibly because some of the species are responsible for 
giving raspberries a bad, smelly taste once in awhile. 
Another name is Shield-bugs, on account of the large 
scutellum. Psyche, Vol. XXII, contains a synopsis of the 
family with keys to the New England species by Parshley. 

8 113 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



See the key (p. 98) for Scutellerinae (Shield-bugs), 
Thyreocorinse (Negro-bugs), and Cydninae (Burro wing- 
bugs). 

The Asopinae have the first joint of the beak largely 
free and relatively short and thick; there is a spine on the* 
basal abdominal segment. A common genus is Podisus 
(Plate XXVI), in which the pronotum is sometimes 
extended into a sharp spine on each side. 

The northern subfamily, Acanthosominae, have but 
two joints in each tarsus; the following subfamilies have 
three tarsal joints. 

The Graphosominae have a broad scutellum, which is 
blunt at the apex and extending back to near the tip of the 
abdomen. Podops is our only genus, and cinctipes (over 
.25 in. long, 2nd to 4th antennal joints darker) is our 
common species. 

The principal family, Pentatominae, has the scutellum 
smaller and more or less narrowed apically. The following 
belong here. 

Brochymena (quadripustulata is a common species with 
us) has a shallow groove on the underside of the abdomen 
and the beak extends back of the posterior coxae. They are 
broad, rough, brown species, .5 in. long and live on trees. 
They look like bits of bark and are best obtained by beating. 

A medium-sized brown species with an angle on each side 
of the pronotum, behind, is usually a Euschistus (Plate 
XXVI). The first segment of the rostrum is not much 
thicker than the second, and all the tibiae are grooved. 
Chlorochroa uhleri is a bright green bug, about .5 in. long, 
with yellow side-margins and a yellow tip to the scutellum. 
Bright green bugs larger than this are usually Acrosternum. 
Mormidea lugens is shown on Plate XXVI. 

The popular interest in Murganiia histrionica (Plate 
XXVI) is indicated by its long list of names, among which 
are Harlequin Cabbage-bug, Calico-back, Terrapin- 
bug, and Fire-bug. It is shining black or deep blue, 
profusely marked with red. It feeds on cabbage and 
related plants, wild and cultivated. The white eggs, 
which are placed in a double row, look like small barrels 
because of their two black bands and a white spot. Adults 
hibernate. 

114 



BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS. 



LEPIDOPTERA 



Most students of insects start by collecting Butterflies 
and Moths and some people act as though adult Lepidop- 
tera are the only "bugs " worth looking at. It is true that 
most butterflies and many moths are among the beautiful 
things of this earth, when they are mature, but still 

"And what's a butterfly? At best, 
He's but a caterpillar, drest." 

and, until you get the right viewpoint, caterpillars are not 
so pretty. Personally, I think the craze for Lepidoptera 
is overdone. Compared with many other insects, they 
are uninteresting; the adults are not given to doing things 
much more exciting than flitting about, mating, and laying 
eggs in a relatively common-place way. However, it is 
only in comparison with some of the other insects that 
they are uninteresting — 

"How happy could I be with either, 
Were t'other dear charmer away!" 

and, as this little book aims to obey vox populi, I have 
given Lepidoptera what seems to me relatively large — 
but all too small — consideration. Unless otherwise stated, 
the descriptions of larvae refer to full-grown specimens, 
younger ones differ somewhat; and "food" means the food 
of larvae. 

The scientific name of this Order means " scaly- winged " 
and refers to the fact that the hairs which cover the wings 
are flattened or scale-like. It is these scales which give 
color to the wing, as may be seen in Plate I which shows 
the wings of one side denuded. ^ We may accept two sub-, 
orders: Rhopalocera and Heterocera. The "cera" in 
these names means "horn" and refers to the antennae; 
the "Rhopalo" means "club," and the "Hetero" means 
"otherwise, " in the same sense as when we say " Orthodoxy 
is my doxy and heterodoxy is another kind of doxy." 
v Butterflies have club-shaped antennae, a knob at the 
extreme end, and belong to the Rhopalocera. Moths 
are Heterocera: some of them, especially the males, having 
feathered antennae; some having thread-like antennae; 

"5 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



some having a swelling in their antenna? near, but not at, 
the end; while a few rare tropical species have orthodox 
butterfly clubs. NThe pupae of butterflies are not protected 
by cocoons as are those of some moths and are usually 
called "chrysalids" (singular: " chrysalis ").N Butterflies, 
as a rule, fly only by day when but few moths are stirring. 
\Butterflies usually hold their wings erect, when at rest,, 
while moths hold them flat or fold them against the body. 

RHOPALOCERA 

\ * Butterflies of the United States are grouped in five 

( families: Nymphalidas, Erycinidas (p. 130), Lycasnidae 

(p. 131), Papilionidse (p. 134), and Hesperiidas (p. 142). 

Nymphalid^e 

^ The adults of both sexes in the Brush-footed Butterflies 
have the front pair of legs so small as to be useless for 
walking and often quite inconspicuous. M'The chrysalids 
hang head-down with the tail fastened in a pad of silk. 

^ The Monarch (Plate XXVII) is the 
Ano f ia species which gathers in large flocks at the 

end of summer and together they move 
south, coming back in the spring as stragglers.^ The male 
has a small black patch on one of the veins on the upper 
side of each hind wing; this is a pocket containing scent- 
scales, a sachet bag. NThe adult is "mimiced" by Basil- 
ar chia archippus. N The easily recognized larva feeds on 
milkweeds, fearless of birds because of its acrid taste. 
"^ The pupa in its "green house with golden nails" is to be 
found hanging on the same plants or on some near shelter. 
This strong flier is rapidly becoming world-wide in dis- 
tribution. Some authors use Danais for the generic 
name and a formerly used name for the species, archippus, 
is apt to be confused with the specific name of the mimic. 
Anosia berenice (The Queen), somewhat like plexippus 
but with the ground-color a rich brown, occurs in the 
Southwest and southward. 

^ The Anosias belong to the subfamily Euplceinas. In 

the Gulf States there is a narrow-winged species (The 

116 



Plate XXVII 




Ano5io plexippus 




orthemis orchippus/^ 





THE FRIT1LLARIES. 



Zebra, Heliconius charithonius), brownish-black striped 
with yellow, belonging to the subfamily Heliconiinae. 
This interesting group abounds in the American tropics; 
its members are supposed to be very distasteful to in- 
sectivorous vertebrates, and therefore to be models for 
numerous mimics. 

The following (top. 127) belong to the subfamily Nym- 
phalinae. 

Dione vanilla (Gulf Fritillary) comes as far north as 
Virginia; its wing expanse is about three inches; reddish 
brown above with black spots, of which a row along the 
margin of each hind wing are circles enclosing brown, 
and three near the middle of the front margin of the front 
wing are circular, each enclosing a white dot; below it is 
gloriously spangled with silver. 

The upper side of the Variegated Fritillary 

Claudia ** iS Sh ° Wn in PlatG XXVIII; the Under Side 

is not silver-spotted. The larvae feed on 

pansies, violets, mandrake, passion-flower, Portulacca, 

and other things. The chrysalis is white and black, with 

sightly gilded tubercles. 

The Regal Fritillary usually prefers 
Argynnis swampy meadows. The male differs from 

the female (Plate XXVIII) in having the 
submarginal row of spots orange, instead of cream, and the 
black margin of the front wings less pronounced. Eggs 
are laid in the fall and the young larva? live over winter. 
They feed on violets ; are black and yellowish red ; and have 
two rows of yellowish, black-tipped spines on the back, 
and black spines with orange bases on the sides. The 
chrysalis is brown, variously marked. 

Note (Plate XXVIII) the broad yellow- 
Argyiinis ^ j Dan( ^ near ^ e( w Q f ^ m^er side of 

cybele 

the hind wings of the Great Spangled 

Fritillary. The larvae feed on violets and hibernate while 
still young, frequently having eaten nothing but their 
egg shells. When full grown, they are a rather velvety 
black with black, sometimes orange-based, spines. Th& 
chrysalis is a mottled dark brown. 

117 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Note (Plate XXVIII) the absence of a 

rgynnis broad yellowish submarginal band on under- 

apnrodite . . 

side of hind wing, but usually there is a 

narrow one and it is often difficult to tell aphrodite from 

cybele; they may hybridize. The life history, immature 

stages, and range, much like cybele. 

The Mountain Silver-spot is much like 
rgynnis ^ Q preceding species but is smaller, and 

atlantis - , . , , 1 • , \ 

darker at the base of the wings both" above 

and below. On the upper side there usually is present 
a narrow black border to all the wings and on the hind 
pair the black spots in the middle are connected to form a 
very narrow irregular band. Below, the submarginal 
band of yellow on the hind wings is paler. The males have 
a decided odor of sandal-wood. In early stages and life 
history it is similar to aphrodite but it is more confined 
to mountainous regions especially in the Southeast. 

There are many other species of this genus in the West, 
all rather difficult to identify correctly; and Brenthis (q. if.) 
is often united with it. A. diana of the Southeast is 
interesting because the male has the outer third of the 
upper side of the wings orange while the female is black with 
blue spots. As a rule, larvae of this genus have the front 
spines the longest; they feed chiefly at night. The chrysa- 
lids have a forked head. 

Although the upper side of the Silver-bor- 
Brenthis dered pritillary is tawny with black mark- 

ings and resembles B. bellona, the species 
are easily distinguished by the fact that myrina is rich in 
silver spots on the under side of the wings (Plate XXIX). 
Its larvae feed on violets, and after hibernating get to be 
about an inch long ; they are dark olive brown with lighter 
markings and are covered with fleshy spines. Chrysalis: 
dark with darker spots and somewhat curved forward. 

See Plate XXIX and the description of 

Brenthis myrina. The Meadow Fritillary has no 

bellona ., , , _ ... , . . , 

silver underneath. Its life-history is much 

like that of myrina. 

The chrysalids of Brenthis have two rows of conical 

n8 



Plate XXVIII 




Euptoi&ta cloudia 



Arqqnnib aphrodi 




A r q ij n n i s i d q 1 1 a 




THE CRESCENTS. 



tubercles on their backs. B. montinus is interesting be- 
cause it is found only on, or near, the summits of the White 
Mountains; the underside of the hind wings is much darker 
than in myrina and the silver spots are not so large or so 
numerous. 

See Plate XXIX and discussion concern- 

Phyciodes • Melitcea harrisi. M The wings of the Silver 

nycteis * °. , 

Crescent are tawny-orange, lighter on the 

under side, and marked with black; the hind wing, below, 
is largely silvery white; the usually imperfect "crescent" 
is along the margin. The larvae, which feed on sunflowers 
and other Compositae, are brownish-black with a rather 
conspicuous orange stripe along each side; many rather 
short, black, hairy spines. > : Although the larvae hibernate, 
they do not seem to construct a shelter; probably they 
crawl into a "ready-made." 

The variable Pearl Crescent has two 
broods: those adults which come from 
over-wintered larvae are (among other 
differences) brighter and with more distinct light markings 
on the under side (variety marcia, Plate XXIX) than those 
which develop during the summer. By chilling the pupae 
we can cause some of the summer brood to be marcia. 
The larvae feed on asters and are black with yellow spots 
above, yellow side-stripes, - and yellowish spines. The 
slightly angulated chrysalis has brownish creases on a 
light ground-color, and, on the middle of the abdomen, 
a slight transverse ridge. 

Phyciodes batesi differs from tharos by having heavier 
black markings above and by the lack of conspicuous 
dark markings on the lower side of the hind wings, these 
being almost uniformly pale yellow. There are many 
other species in the West. 

The adult Baltimore (Plate XXIX) is 

e.i aea found in swampy meadows during June 

and July. The wings are nearly black, 

marked with red and pale yellow. The larvae, which feed 

chiefly on Scrophulariaceae, are dark orange, ringed with 

black, and covered with short hairy spines. They hatch 

119 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



in late summer and are gregarious, spinning a silken tent 
in which they pass the winter; in the spring they scatter 
and become full grown by June. The chrysalids have a 
rounded head, sharp tubercles on their backs, and are 
whitish with dark and orange markings. 

Resembles Phyciodes nycteis on the 

Mentha upper side, but the underside is darker and 

harnsi , . . ., , 

has a continuous row of silver spots along 

the outer margin of the hind wings. The larvae feed on 

the aster, Doellingeria umbellata; they are reddish with a 

black stripe down the middle and nine rows of black, 

branched spines. 

The species of Grapta are called Angle- wings; they "look 
as if Mother Nature had with her scissors snipped the 
edges of their wings, fashioning notches and points accord- 
ing to the -vagaries of an idle mood." They are tawny, 
with darker markings above, and below there is a combi- 
nation of brown and gra}^ which corresponds closely with 
the color of dead leaves. The chrysalis has a forked head 
and a prominent tubercle on the back of its thorax. All of 
the species hibernate as adults, hidden in hollow logs and 
similar places. 

By stretching your imagination a bit you 
Grapta ^ may . gee & Q ues tion Mark made by the 

silver spots on the under side of the hind 
wings but they look to me like (. and I think Fabriciushad 
some other question on his mind when he named the species 
interrogatiotiisJ It is also called Violet-tip, because of the 
violet Papilio-like tail. The summer form (umbrosa) 
has the dark markings on the upper side "clouded." 
Plate XXX shows the winter f orm, fabricii. The larva feeds 
chiefly on hop and elm ; it has a pair of branched spines on 
the tip of its head and others on its body; it is chestnut- 
colored with light dots in longitudinal rows. / Like other 
Grapta larvae, it frequently cocks its head when not feeding. 
The chrysalis, which is the color of dead leaves, is very 
angular and has a "Roman nose" on its thorax; in addi- 
tion, the thorax bears one or more pairs of metallic silver 
or gold spots. 

1 20 



Plate XXIX 





Brenthis 

myrina 



Brenthis bellona 




Phvjclodes tharos 



phyciodes ngcteis 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



_ Harris, a pioneer American entomologist, 

Grapta comma ' . , ,, M , ' 

named the specfes from the silver mark on 

the under side of the hind wings (Plate XXX); and 

Edwards, one of our earliest and greatest Lepidopter- 

ists, named the lighter hibernating form harrisi, in his 

honor, calling the darker summer form dryas. . The larva 

feeds on hop, nettles, and related plants, slightly rolling 

the leaves for its protection while eating; its color varies 

from brown to greenish white. ,"The angulated chrysalis 

closely resembles that of its allies of the same genus; it is 

pale wood-brown, tinged and streaked with pale green; 

the base of the tubercles along the back is of a metallic 

color, both in this species and in the Violet-tip (which it 

most resembles), and according to whether the color is 

silvery or golden, so will the price of hops (on which both 

are found) be high or low, according to the hop-growers; 

and so these chrysalids are termed Hop-merchants." 

This species (Plate XXX) is called Gray 
Grapta progne . . . 

Comma; its under side is grayish and its 

"comma" is tapering at the ends. The larva feeds on 

currant, gooseberry, etc.; it is spined much like the 

Violet-tip but the body is yellowish brown, variegated 

above with dark green. The chrysalis is a striking 

mixture of buff, olive-green, brown, salmon, and white. 

The larva of G. faunus feeds on birch, willow, currant, 
and gooseberry; the adult's wings are deeply notched and 
the under side of the hind wings, each of which has a silver 
mark like comma, are strongly tinted with green along the 
outer third — the "leaf" is not quite dead! It is an in- 
habitant of mountains as far south as the Carolinas. 

The English name is Camberwell Beauty 

Vsnpsss 

antiopa an ^» wnnc rare m England, this species 

(Plate XXX) is found throughout the tem- 
perate regions of the world and gets as far south as Guate- 
mala. We call it Mourning Cloak. It is the largest of 
those of our butterflies which hibernate as adults, and In; 
who has not seen it flitting in the leafless woods of very 
early spring or "resting on the black willows, like a leaf 
ring" is indeed unfortunate. Just inside the 



Plate XXX 




GroptQ inUrroqolionis 




Vanessa antiopiv 



123 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



yellow margin of the upper side is a row of blue spots; 
the under side is the color of dead leaves. The eggs arc 
laid in masses encircling the twigs of the willows, poplars, 
and elms upon which the velvety-black larva, with orange- 
red spots, feeds. The chrysalis is yellowish brown, with 
darker markings and red-tipped tubercles. 

Vanessa (or Grapta) j -album, Compton Tortoise, is 
slightly smaller than antiopa, tawny orange above with 
(among other markings) three large black patches and a 
spot of white along the front margin; below, ashy brown 
with a white J or L on the hind wings. V. milberti, Ameri- 
can Tortoise-shell, is very dark brown above with two 
tawny orange spots near the middle of the front margin 
and a broad band of similar color across each wing; under 
surface slate-brown; expanse, two inches or less. Both arc 
northern insects; the larva of the former feeds on birch, 
and of the latter on nettles. 

The Red Admiral is found throughout 
Pyrameis mogt of the northern hemisphere. The 

upper surface is purplish black with mark- 
ings as shown in Plate XXXI, the lightly shaded areas 
being bright orange and the apical spots white; the under 
surface of the hind wings is marbled and marked with 
wavy lines of intricate pattern and also with a green-dusted 
submarginal series of obscure "eye-spots." The larva, 
which feeds on nettle and hop, is usually black, spotted 
with yellow, and, like V. antiopa, the larvae of this genus 
have no spines on their heads. The larva slightly rolls, 
and lines, a leaf for its protection. The chrysalis is ashy 
brown with golden spots and is to be looked for (but not 
always to be found) hanging in a leaf which the larva has 
rolled. Winter is passed in either the pupal or adult 
stage; it is two-brooded. 

■> This species is sometimes called Hunter's 
Pyrameis Butterfly or Painted Beauty. The upper 

huntera , J . -, u i 

surface is tawny orange and brownish 

black, except for the white spots shown in Plate XXXI; 

the under side of the hind wings has two eye-like spots. The 

larva feeds on various "everlastings" and is velvety black 

124 



Plate XXXI 




Pyrameis carflu 



125 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



with narrow cross lines of yellow and a row of white spots 
on each side. ^ At first it makes a mat, under which it 
feeds, of silk and the hairs of its food plant ; later it fastens 
leaves together and often pupates in this nest. The 
^chrysalis is difficult to describe. Find it. - There are two 
broods a year but pupse are to be found from June to March, 
although the adult usually emerges early and hibernates, j 

I like "Thistle Butterfly" better than 
Sdi!T iS "Painted Lady" since this lady "was born 

that way." The upper side is much like 
huntera; below, however, the hind wings (Plate XXXI) 
each have more than two, usually four, good eye-spots. 
The head of the larva is hairy on top ; the body is greenish 
yellow, mottled with black, and the bristly spines are 
yellowish. It feeds on burdock, thistle, sunflower, holly- 
hock, and other plants, making a shelter much like that of 
hunterd.'i The chrysalis is greenish or bluish white, marked 
with black and brown, and with tubercles which are 
often gold-tipped. This species is found throughout the 
habitable world with the exception of South America. 
It occasionally migrates in swarms. 

The upper surface of the Buckeye (Plate 
Junoma ccema „ VVT ^ . , . , .,, . 

XXXI) is dark brown with conspicuous 

peacock-like eye-spots, small orange spots, a dull whit- 
ish band on each front wing and a narrow but conspicu- 
ous band of yellowish orange on each hind wing; the 
under surface is gray-brown with much the same mark- 
ings except that the eye-spots of the hind wings are much 
reduced. The larva feeds on plantain, snapdragon, and 
Gerardia; it is dark gray, with yellow stripes and spots, 
and with purple spines, one pair of which is on the head. 
It is a southern species which gets as far north as New- 
England. 

The upper side of the Red-spotted Purple 
Basilarchia j g Wack and pale blue Qr grccn; the lower 

side is brown with a submarginal row of red 

spots, two red spots at the base i »f the fore wings, and four 

at the base of the hind wings. The curiously shaped larva 

i . mottled with brown, olivaceous, and cream; it feeds on 

[26 



PURPLES AND THE VICEROY. 



the leaves of a variety of woody plants, especially willow 
and wild cherry. - When young, it is much given to eating 
each side of the outer end of a leaf and using the midrib, 
strengthened with silk, etc., as a perch on which to rest. 
When about half grown, it rolls the uneaten portion 
together, lines it and fastens it to the twig with silk, and 
passes the winter in this snug retreat. Scudder describes 
the chrysalis as "grotesquely variegated with patches and 
streaks of pale salmon, dark olivaceous, inky plumbeous, 
and yellow-brown, the lighter tints prevailing." The name 
Limenitis is often used instead of Basilarchia and this 
species is sometimes called Ursula. There are apparent 
intergrades between this and the following species. 

Plate XXVII gives a sufficient descrip- 
Basilarchia t j on Q f ^ U pp er s [^ e f the Banded Purple; 

the under side is dark brown with similar 
markings and some orange spots in addition. The larva 
feeds on birch, willow, poplar, etc.; it is somewhat like 
astyanax (but has a saddle of pale buff) and has similar 
habits. . Like some other young butterflies, it loosely 
fastens a small ball of leaf-scraps near its feeding place; 
this is supposed to distract an enemy's attention from it- 
selL-^This Canadian species reaches into northern United 
States in the high altitudes. 

Plate XXVII shows the Viceroy, which is 
Basilarchia a ^ so ca n e d disippus, in three of its stages. 

I Anosia plexippus is believed to have a 
taste which birds do not like and, as that species has a 
very striking appearance, any species which resembles it 
would be likely to be unmolested by them. B. archippus 
is said to "mimic" A. plexippus for the sake of this pro- 
tection but that implies more than we know, all of which 
is that the two look marvelously alike and that archippus 
has departed widely from the appearance of its relatives. 
Plate XXVII was arranged to illustrate vividly this case 
of "mimicry," arthemis being taken as an example of 
the relatives of Basilarchia. Equally striking instances 
of the same phenomenon are known in tropical butterflies. 
The larva, which feeds on willow and poplar, varies greatly 
in its coloration. 

127 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Skipping a number of species which are not likely to be 
seen by many users of this book, we come to the sub- 
family SatyrincB, the Nymphs and Satyrs, sometimes 
more descriptively called the Meadow-browns. Their 
larvae have the last segment forked and the chrysalids are 
rounded. 

The brown of Pearly Eye's wings (Plate 
D o e rtlandia XXXII) has been described as "clay," 

"soft," "Quaker drab" and "with pearly 
gray tints." The spots on the under surface are distinctly 
eyed and there are conspicuous pearly violet markings. 
The larva is yellowish green with red-tipped horns and 
caudal forks; it feeds on grasses and hibernates when about 
half grown. 

The color of the upper side of the Grass 
canthut 68 Nymph's wings (Plate XXXII) is de- 

scribed as "mouse-brown"; below it is slaty 
brown and the eye-spots are larger than those on the upper 
surface. The tubercles on the head of the green larva are 
red, striped with brown, and the tails are also red; it feeds 
on coarse grasses and sedges and, unlike its near relatives, is 
active by day. It is rather local in its distribution, pre- 
ferring moist meadows. 

This lover of shady forest-edges, the Little 
eurytus Wood-satyr (Plate XXXII), is dark brown 

above and lighter below, where the eye- 
spots are more distinctly ringed with yellow. The larva 
is greenish white, marked with brown, but there is no red ; 
it feeds on grasses. 

Neonympha phocion is a southern relative of eurytus; 
it has no spots above and the three (or four) spots on the 
underside of the hind wings are so narrowed that they 
might be called squint-eyed. The reader may find other 
species of this genus but will recognize them as Satyrinas, 
at least. 

_ . , The dark brown Common Wood-nymph 

Satyrus alope 

(Plate XXXII) has several varieties, which 

are sometimes considered to be distinct species. The 

form in which the yellow bands on the fore wings are 

128 



Plate XXXII 




Sotyrus alope variety nephele 

129 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



clouded with brown is called nephele and replaces alope 
in the north, New York City being in the tension 
zone. Together, they and other varieties of alope cover 
practically the whole of the United States and Canada. 
Along the Atlantic coast some individuals '(called mari- 
tima) have the yellow band orange. The green larva 
has no "horns" on its head and is devoid of markings 
except for two pale stripes on each side; it feeds on grasses. 

The figure of the Snout-butterfly (Plate 
btchmani XXXIII) saves further description. The 

"snout" is made up of elongated palpi — 
a characteristic of the subfamily Libytheinae, of which this 
is the only representative in the Northeast, and probably 
other U. S. forms are merely varieties. Curiously enough, 
the males have only four usable feet although the females 
have six. The larva feeds on hackberry and wolf berry; 
its last two thoracic segments are slightly thickened; this 
"hump" bears two black tubercles ringed with yellow; 
the general body-color is green and there are three longi- 
tudinal stripes of yellow. 

Erycinhxe 

According to the system followed here, the same as is 
used by Holland in his Butterfly Book, all the species thus 
far considered belong to the family Nymphalidae. We 
come now to the Lemoniidae or Erycinidae, a family whose 
chief home is the American tropics. Their common name 
is Metal-marks. The same sexual difference in legs 'as 
was noted in the Libytheinae and as exists also in the 
Lycaenidae holds here. All the Nymphalid chrysalids 
hang by their tails; the Erycinid chrysalids have their 
tails fastened but they also have a silken support for their 
backs which holds them upright. 

The Northern Metal-mark (Plate 
boIeaUs" 8 XXXIII) ranges from South Carolina 

to New York and Michigan and is the 
only Erycinid to be found so far north; a somewhat 
similar but smaller species (C. virginiensis, not ccenius) 
is found just south of it. 

130 



THE HAIR=STREAKS. 



Lyc^nid/e 



The Hair-streaks, Coppers, and Blues puzzle even 
the professional. Xegs ("more or less") and method of 
hanging chrysalids are as in Erycinidae, but the Lycaenidae 
have neither a costal nor a humeral vein in the hind wings. 
Please do not ask any more questions just now but see 
Plate XXXIII, which will give you a general notion of the 
appearance of these creatures. The larvae are flat and 
something like slugs. 

The larva of the Common or Gray Hair- 
Thecla streak feeds on the developing seeds of hop, 

beans, Cynoglossum, Hypericum, and other 
plants. Plate XXXIII shows the adult. In the South- 
east there are two species whose upper sides somewhat 
resemble melinus: T. wittfeldi, which is larger and has 
conspicuous blue scales at the rear angles of its hind wings ; 
and T. favonius, which has a red spot on each fore wing. 



Thecla 



The larva of the Olive Hair-streak feeds 
on cedar, but not smilax as some books 
say. The species is found in the East from 
Ontario to Texas, and-several varieties have been described. 
Plate XXXIII shows that the adult is greenish below. 
T. halesus (Illinois southward) is iridescent bluish-green 
above on the thorax and basal half of the wings; below, 
the front wings are nearly plain; all of the wings have a 
crimson spot near the base and there are three rows of 
green spots on each hind wing. T. m-album (New Jersey 
and Wisconsin southward) is bluish on the inner half of 
the upper surface but, below, each fore wing is crossed 
by two lines of white, one of which is continued on the hind 
wing and is M-shaped at the rear. The larvae of both feed 
on oak. 

In addition, the following have more or less safe (for the 
Northeast) catch characters: 

Hind wings with long tails. 

T. cecrops: a red band across the lower surface of the 
wings just beyond the middle; New Jersey and Indiana 
southward; larva unknown. T. calanus: a double row of 

I3 1 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



close, dark, blue-edged spots just beyond the middle; 
Quebec to Colorado and Texas; larva on oak, chestnut^., 
and walnut. T. liparops: numerous, broken, white cross- 
lines on under surface; north of the Gulf States to Quebev 
and the Rockies, not common; larva on Vaccinium (other 
food records are probably erroneous). 

Hind wings with almost, or quite, no tail. 

T. titus: a row of coral-red spots on under side of hind, 
wings; Canada to Florida and the Rockies; larva on plum' 
and wild cherry. T. niphon: fringe of upper side of wings 
alternately brown and white, under side of wings rich, 
mottled brown, with distinct wavy white lines; larva on 
pines; Nova Scotia to Colorado. T. augustus: expanse 
less than one inch (smallest of the group), below uniform 
rusty brown except for darker basal area of the hind wings; 
larva on Kalmia and Vaccinium; North Atlantic States, 
northward and westward. 

Probably all the Thecla larvas are attended by ants for 
the sake of their sweetish excretions and titus, at least, 
regularly passes the day in ants' nests, feeding by night. 

Scudder, the Master Lepidopterist, in 

Femseca whose works most of the statements con- 

tarquunus . . _. , . , . ... 

cernmg butterflies which are given in this 

and similar books are to be found, used "The Wanderer" 
as the nickname for this species (Plate XXXIII) but says 
in Everyday Butterflies that it is "a very local insect, and 
apparently never wanders more than a few rods from its 
birthplace." Holland, who has done so much to popu- 
larize the study of Lepidoptera, uses as the English name 
"The Harvester," but harvesting connotes vegetable 
products. I am taking the liberty of dubbing it The 
Carnivore because its larva alone, of all our butterflies, 
is regularly a meat-eater although its relatives, if pressed 
by hunger, will eat each other. The female lays her eggs, 
usually singly, in, or near, masses of aphids (plant lice), 
especially of the woolly aphis of the alder. The larva has 
mandibles with four sharp, claw-like teeth and the whole 
mouth is fitted for sucking the body fluids of the victims. 
If aphids are the ants' cows, tarquinius is a beef-eater. 



Plate XXXIII 







:eno 
m ij n t a s 



4 

Ihrysqphcmus 
ihupoDhloeus 






L y c q e n q lotion 

ypUpQ 




A 





Thecla melinus 




FenfsecQ tarqui ni us 



Dm 

Thecla domon 



Libytheo Colephelis 

bachmoni borenhs 



THE COPPERS AND BLUES. 



Possibly in order to hide from the ants, which might resent 
their ravages, the larvas live in a silken web which they 
spin and cover with empty "hides." Possibly it is this 
strong diet which quickens the metamorphosis, for the 
larva reaches the pupal stage in three, instead of four 
or five, molts. Scudder points out a resemblance to a 
monkey's face in the markings of the chrysalis (enlarged 
in Plate XXXIII). This species, whose nearest relatives 
live chiefly in Asia and Africa, is found from Nova Scotia 
to the Gulf States and in the Mississippi Valley. It 
should be said that the markings on the upper side of the 
adult are variable; the under side is paler and the hind 
wings have many small light-brown spots not appearing 
above. 

There are other American Coppers — 
h h Th£us US butterflies » 1 mean— but this species 
(Plate XXXIII) was once "really-named" 
americanus, hence the "common" name. The adult is a 
fearless, pugnacious, active, little beauty. The larva 
feeds on sorrel (Rumex). Pupation usually takes place 
under an over-hanging stone, in which condition one 
brood passes the winter. 

The Bronze Copper is about half again 
ysop anus as j ar g e as }iyp phl<zus; the female resembles 
that species on its upper side except that 
the aark base of the hind wing does not extend out so far; 
the male differs from both in having the upper surface 
of the front wing almost as dark as the base of the hind 
wing and with a violet reflection. The larva feeds on 
Rumex. There are two annual broods, and winter is 
passed in the egg. Ranges from Maine to Pennsylvania 
and Colorado. 

The delicate hair-like tails of the Eastern 
Lycaena Tailed g lue (piate XXXII n wiU repay 

comyntas . ....... 

close examination; they have a white tip. 

The female is largely dark brown above. The larvae 
feed on clover and other Legumes, those - of one of the three 
annual broods hibernating. 

133 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 

4 The Common Blue is also called pseud- 
Lycena ladon argidus and the Spring Azure. Small, blue 
butterflies are pretty sure to be this species, if they have 
no tails; but it is a creature of many fashions, some of 
which are shown in Plate XXXIII. -These forms are 
partly sexual, partly seasonal (there are two broods 
around New York), partly climatic, and probably partly 
something else. The larvae feed on the flowers of 
various plants including Cornus, Cimicifuga, Actinomeris, 
Spircea, and Ceanothus. Ants attend the larvae and, 
by touching them with their antennas, induce the larvae 
to excrete from abdominal glands a sweet fluid which the 
ants drink. 

Papilionid^e 

Both sexes of the Swallow-tails and their relatives have, 
normally, six good walking lege. The chrysalids have a 
silk supporting strap around them but it does not hold 
them as closely to the surface upon which they are fixed as 
in the Erycinidae and Lycaenidae. 

This undesirable immigrant, the Im- 
Pierisrap® ported Cabbage-butterfly (Plate XXXIV), 

is the only butterfly which seriously injures our crops. 
It was accidentally introduced from Europe in i860 at 
Quebec and in 1868 at New York; in twenty years it 
covered about half of the United States and Canada; now 
no cabbage patch from coast to coast is too small or too 
isolated for rapce. The well-known green larva feeds on a 
variety of cruciferous plants but likes cabbage best — 
Thank you! There are usually three broods a season, 
winter being passed as a chrysalis from which adults 
emerge early in the spring before the native cabbage 
butterflies are stirring. These early spring adults are 
smaller and less heavily marked than the summer form, 
which is here illustrated. Some individuals (variety 
immaculata) are without the black spots on the upper 
side of the wings but the underside of the hind wings are 
yellowish as in the typical form. 

134 



Plate XXXIV 




Pieris rapoe 





Pieris protodice 





P.napi Euchlo'e qenutia 

Largely White Butterflies 



T35 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



The Checkered White (Plate XXXIV) 
Pie "^. is also called the Southern Cabbage Butter- 

fly and used to be called the Common White 
but, like our other native cabbage-feeders, its numbers 
are diminishing as those of the foreigner increase. The 
larvae feed on crucifers and, when they get a chance at 
cabbage, they merely eat the outside leaves, which are not 
worth much at any rate. The veins on the under side of 
the female's wings, especially the hind ones, are tinged 
with greenish yellow. Those adults which come from 
overwintered chrysalids (var. vernalis) have so much 
greenish gray on the hind wings that the white is reduced 
to narrow triangular spots; spots on the upper side are 
much reduced, or even absent. 

The larva of the Old-fashioned Cabbage- 
Piens napi butterfly now feeds on such crucifers as 

it can get, but it is said to have been the Cabbage 
Butterfly. Some call it the Mustard White; some, 
the Gray- veined White. The Comstocks say "The 
species is essentially northern, but it spread far south 
when Pieris rap<z was introduced. In some way the 
European species has greatly reduced its numbers; it nas 
literally taken to the woods as a result of this invasion 
and is seldom found elsewhere." It is naturally (not by hu- 
man intervention) found in Europe and throughout North 
America as far south as the Gulf States, but it varies greatly 
with region and season. Plate XXXIV shows the form 
you are most likely to see. To quote the Comstocks again : 
"Evidently this species has not concluded whether it will 
in -its final form be all white; or have the front margins 
and tips of the front wings blackish; or have one spot on 
each front and hind wing; or have one black blotch along 
the wings outside the middle; or if it will have the veins 
of both wings above penciled with gray." 

In the Gulf States there is Pieris monuste, which has a 
wing expanse of from 1.75 to 2.3 inches; the male is whitish 
above, except for a narrow brown outer margin to the fore 
wings; the female has abroad brown outer margin on the 
wings, as well as a narrow brown outer margin on the 
hind wings, above. 

136 



THE COMMON SULPHUR. 



Do not be disturbed if you see the generic name Pontia 
instead of Pieris; it is probably better. See also Colias 
for a white butterfly which may confuse you. 



Euchloe 



Plate XXXIV shows the male Falcate 
Orange-tip, the orange tip being indicated 
by shading. The female has no such tip 
on the upper surface and neither sex has it below, the 
markings there being light greenish brown. The larva, 
which feeds on rock-cress, shepherd's-purse, and other 
Cruciferse, is bluish green, with pale dorsal and side stripes, 
but, if you look closely, you can see fine stripes of other 
colors. 

Probably you have noticed that, among 
a flock of yellow butterflies, the Common 
Sulphurs, which rises from a roadside pool 
as you pass, there is sometimes a white individual. This 
is usually an albino philodice and, if so, almost certainly 
a female. However, even when white, the species 
can be distinguished from Pieris by the silvery-centered 
spots on the under side of the wings (see Plate XXXV). 
The common, but rarely noticed, green larvae feed upon 
clover leaves. 

Colias eurytheme is about as variable as P. napi but can 
usually be recognized by the strong orange tint of the 
yellow on the upper side and the marginal markings which 
suggest philodice. Its larva feeds on clover. 

Most of us will agree with the Comstocks 
Meganostoma that the « face „ of the Dog . face (p late 

caesonia 

XXXV) is more like that of a duck than of 
a dog. However, it makes the species easily recognizable. 
You may find it listed in some books under Colias or Zerene; ~ y^ 
in nature you will find it from Pennsylvania (very rarely) 
and southern Wisconsin to the Gulf States. Its larva 
feeds on false indigio (Amorpha) and (?) clover. 

Catopsilia eubule: Nearly every year strong-flying 
individuals of this southern species get even further 
north than Long Island; it has a wing expanse of 2.5 inches; 

137 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



the male is plain yellow above, and the female has a row 
of dark brown spots along the outer margin of the front 
wings and a somewhat similar spot in the center of these 
wings. The larva feeds on Cassia and other legumes. 

The Little Sulphur may be recognized 
Teriaslisa by meang of piate XXXV; the female is 

paler on the upper side than the male and the black 
border of the hind wing is much broken or nearly ab- 
sent. The larva feeds on Cassia and there are three 
broods, but we are not sure how our northern winters 
are passed. My guess would be that they are passed 
in the South, after the fashion of Anosia plexippus. In 
this connection it should be said that "clouds" of the 
autumn brood of adults have been noted as landing on 
Bermuda from the northwest, having' covered six hundred 
miles of ocean. Albinic individuals are sometimes found. 

Terias nicippe is much like Lisa but somewhat larger; 
the front wings of both sexes are tinged with orange and 
the hind wings, especially of the female, have short, but 
rather broad, cross-spots of iron-rust color. The larval 
food and (?) life history are the same as lisa. In the 
Gulf States there are three rather common species (elathea, 
delia, and jucunda) which cannot be differentiated in a 
few words; they may' be known collectively by being 
something like lisa but with a conspicuous dark band 
along the hind margin of the front wings, upper surface. 
This generalization, however, includes Nathalis iole, 
which occurs from southern Indiana to Colorado and 
northern Mexico. Its small size (wing expanse of not over 
1.25 inches) helps one to "spot" it. 

The Sulphurs and Whites are classed together as the 
Pierinae. The Swallow-tails {Papilio) and the western 
genus Parnassius make up the subfamily Papilioninse. 

This is the Giant Swallow-tail. The 
Papilio adult shown on pi ate 1 i s sm aller and 

somewhat duller than the average. The 
form of all of the stages shown is typical of Papilios. In 
the South it is called Orange Dog because its larva feeds 

138 



Plate XXXV 




MeqanostomQ cafesoma 



^o) 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



• 



on citrus leaves, and some authors use thoas as its specific 
name, but this should be applied to a more southern 
species. The horns on the larva are fleshly affairs, which 
may be withdrawn or extruded through a slit in the 
thorax; not only is their sudden appearing supposed to 
frighten the larva's enemies but these horns exhale an 
odor which, in some species, is quite disagreeable — in 
other words, the young of the beautiful creatures are 
insect skunks. The meaning of the color on the right 
side of the adult, as shown in Plate I, is explained on p. 
115. The wings are more largely yellow below than above. 
The home of this species is the North American subtropics, 
but it seems to be working northward (where the larva 
feeds on prickly ash and Ptelea) and has been taken in 
Canada. There are from two to four annual broods, 
depending upon location. 

Papilio One of the rules about scientific names is 

glaucus and that the first name used for a species, if 
var. turnus accompanied by a description, shall be 

the name. Now Linnaeus evidently intended to call the 
yellow Tiger Swallow-tail turnus, but, in his description, 
he first referred to the dark form of the female (Plate 
XXXVI), which is rare in the North but common in the 
South, as glaucus; therefore glaucus is the name of the 
species, but you may call it turnus. The larva feeds on 
orchard and other trees, especially wild cherry, but is 
never injurious. It has the luxurious habit of spinning 
a web on top of a leaf, drawing it so tightly that it has a 
spring couch upon which to rest when not feeding. There 
is a pair of eye-like spots on the thorax, and, when the 
true head is drawn under so that these appear to be on the 
head, the thoracic "horns" are shot out, and the front 
part of the body is swayed back and forth, even you might 
hesitate to disturb its siesta. 

The Spice-bush Swallow-tail is sometimes 

troUus Called the Green - clouded Swallow-tail be- 

cause of the color of the upper surface of the 
hind wings; the female does not have the green so pro- 
nounced but has hazy blue spots along the cloud's outer 
140 



Plate XXXVI 




ph lienor 



j 



THE SWALLOW-TAILS. 



margin (Plate XXXVI shows the male); below, the 
front margin, at least, of the green cloud is replaced by a 
row of orange spots. The larva feeds chiefly on sassafras 
and spice-bush {Benzoin); it makes a series of successively 
larger shelters for its resting times by folding a leaf at the 
midrib, fastening the fold by silk threads placed near the 
crease instead of at the edges. It keeps these shelters 
scrupulously clean, eating its cast skin, when it molts, 
except that it throws out the inedible cast "skull." 

A sometimes-used scientific name, asterias, 

^Tx^nes iS alS ° the COmm ° n name ' Plate XXXVI 

shows the female; the male is not so dark, 

his blue spots are not so pronounced, but his yellow spots 

on the inner row are much larger. The larva is wasteful; 

it eats our parsley and carrots, instead of sticking to 

umbelliferous weeds, and does not eat its cast skins as do 

its near relatives; otherwise it is a beautiful creature 

which, like many of its relatives, changes the color and 

cut of its dress at every molt, and which will stick out 

its orange horns if you but threaten to poke it. The 

species is found throughout the Atlantic States and the 

Mississippi Valley; what have been considered races of it 

extend this distribution to most parts of North America 

and south to Cuba and Peru. 

Plate XXXVI shows the male Pipe- vine 

* 1 ? 110 Swallow-tail; the female has a row of 

philenor . ... 

distinct spots on each fore wmg, correspond- 
ing to those on the hind wings. The inner margins of 
the male's hind wings are folded over and contain scales 
which give off a faint odor, presumably for the sake of 
pleasing the female. It should be said that many male 
Lepidoptera have similar scent-scales, placed in various 
parts of the wings, body, and legs. The larva of philenor 
feeds on the Dutchman's-pipe (Aristolochia) and differs 
from most of its relatives by having, even when mature, 
fleshy spines on several of the front and rear segments. 
Instead of depositing her eggs singly, the female lays them 
in little bunches; and the larvae, when young, feed side 
by side at the edge of a leaf. 
141 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Papilio palamedes (wing-expanse, 4 to 4X inches) 
suggests a giant polyxenes in which the inner row of yellow 
spots on the upper surface of the hind wings is a continuous 
band and there are three yellow spots near the front 
between two rows on the fore wings. Its normal range is 
from Virginia and Missouri to Florida and Texas, its larva 
feeding on Magnolia and Lauraceae. 
v Papilio marcellus (formerly called ajax) suggests 
turnus, but has tails twice as long, is white instead of 
yellow, has more black on the upper surface and, in addi- 
tion, a red spot or two near the middle of the inner (hind) 
margin of the hind wings. It is found almost everywhere 
that its larval food (papaw) occurs in the eastern half of 
the United States. 

We have other species of Papilio, especially in our 
West and Southwest ; some having no tails (e. g. polydamas, 
which also carries perfume, of Florida), some two tails 
(e. g. daunus of the western mountains), and the rare 
pilumnus of Arizona having three tails. 

Hesperiid^e 

I fear that Plate XXXVII will be exasperating to 
those attempting to start an acquaintance with this 
interesting but most difficult family. However, there has 
been but little call for information concerning them, and 
there are so many species that a great number must neces- 
sarily be omitted. There are at least fifty species in New 
Jersey — other regions are also well, many better, supplied, 
about 2000 species having been described. . The adults 
arc, for the most part, small and fly with rapid starts and 
stops, as is indicated by their nickname, Skippers. When 
resting, many of them (especially the Pamphilinae) hold 
the front wings at an angle different from that of the hind 
pair. Both sexes have six feet; their eyes are overhung 
with curving "lashes" and the antennae of many species 
are hooked at the tip. 

The larvae are smooth and usually have a head, some- 
what rough and hairy, which looks too big and seems to 
be supported by a too slender neck. The appearance of 
many suggests moth larvae, and nearly all of the sp< 

142 



THE SKIPPERS. 



show a further resemblance to moths in that they spin a 
sort of cocoon within which they pupate. This cocoon is 
never very thick or complete and is merely a further 
development of a habit of the younger larvae; still, it is 
more of a cocoon than some moths make. The habit, 
just referred to, consists of folding leaves or fastening 
several together with silk so that the larvae may have a 
retreat when resting or molting. All species keep these 
nests quite clean and some have interesting little tricks 
about their homes. Scudder notes that Thanaos icelns, 
which folds over part of a leaf, fastens it at first with 
long strands of silk so that there is an "abundance of 
space for air, or, indeed, the entrance of nearly any 
enemy"; but, when the time comes for one of the several 
changes of clothes, the larva brings the edges of the leaf 
tightly together and fastens them securely. Many species 
make a new nest, out of a different leaf, at each molt, and 
the same keen observer noted that Thanaos lucilius, 
"when it leaves a nest to form a larger one always first 
bites off the strands which have kept the old flap in place." 

Reference has already been made to the fact that many 
male Lepidoptera are addicted to the use of perfume. 
Among the Hesperiidae, the males of the subfamily 
Hesperiinae tend to have the scent-scales (androconia) 
in a tiny fold along the front margin of the fore wings; in 
the subfamily Pamphilinae these scales are near the middle 
of the upper surface of the fore wings in a conspicuous 
patch, which the Comstocks described as looking "to 
the naked eye like a scorched oblique streak or brand." 

The following notes concerning a few species (together 
with Plate XXXVII) will help start you off, if you wish to 
go, but one difficulty is that a given sex often resembles 
the same sex of a different species more closely than it 
does the opposite sex of its own species; furthermore, the 
same sex often has one or more varieties. 

Hesperiinae 

E par gy reus tityrus. The light marks are yellowish 
except for the large silver spot on hind wing. Larva on 
locust {Robin ia), etc. 

143 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Eudamus proteus. About the size of E. tityrus but each 
hind wing has a long tail; greenish on hind wings, especially 
of males. American tropics to (rarely) New York. Larva 
on Legumes. 

Achlarus lycidas suggests tityrus but has no tails; it has 
no silver spot beneath, but a white smear along outer 
margin of hind wings. Larva on tick-trefoil (Desmodium). 

Thorybes bathyllus. Adults have white faces. Larva 
on bush-clover (Lespedeza) and other Legumes. T. 
pylades is much like bathyllus but the spots are smaller and 
the face is brown. Larval food the same. 

Hesperia tessellata. Appears to be a white butterfly 
strongly marked with black. Larva on Sida, 

Thanaos juvenalis: general color blackish brown 
with black mottlings and white, semitransparent dots; 
larva on oaks and Legumes. T. brizo is about the size of 
juvenalis; it lacks the white dots, has two distinct rows of 
arrow-head, black marks on each front wing, and has 
more gray scales. Larva on oaks and probably Legumes. 
T. lucilius is about half the size of these; it has minute but 
distinct white dots on the front wings. Larva on colum- 
bine (Aquilegia). 

Pholisora catullus is much like T. lucilius but is blacker, 
the white dots are more scattered, and it lacks the mottlings 
of Thanaos. Larva on lamb's quarters (Chenopodium) 
and Amarantaceae. 

Pamphilinas 

In this subfamily, however the sexes may differ above, 
they are much alike below. Except where stated, the 
light areas, on the species mentioned here, are yellowish. 

Ancyloxypha numitor. Larva on marsh grasses. 

Erynnis sassacus. Larva on grasses. 

Catia druryi egeremet. The light areas are greenish 
yellow. Larva on grasses. New England to Wisconsin 
and our southern border. 

Polites coras and Hylephila phylceus. Larvae on grasses. 

Thymelicus mystic is much like E. sassacus but the 
"brand" on the male is more like that of II. phylaus; 
lower side of the hind wings is more distinctly banded or 
144 



Plate XXXVII 




bothyllus 




ThanQos juvenalis 



Hespena ., 
r tesse1lQta 





Erynnis 

SQS5QCU5 



CC Anculoxyphanumitor w W 1 
l«i Hylepnila phylaeus 








Alrytone hobomoK 



Polites Coras 



<? fall v-ei 

Catio druryi egerement 



145 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



spotted than in sassacus. It is often caught with this 
species but is abundant later in the season. 

A try tone hobomok. The variety Pocahontas is always 
female; the light markings are cream-color. Larva on 
grasses. 

Megathyminae 

Megathymus is a genus in which the adults are stout 
bodied and have a wing expanse of about three inches. 
Their larvae bore in the pith of Yucca. This genus has 
been variously placed and at one time was considered to 
belong with the moths. 

HETEROCERA 

See p. 115 for some of the distinctive characteristics of 
Moths. 

Sphingid^e 

These trim creatures are, for the most part, called 
Hawk Moths from their strong flight, but some are called 
Humming-bird Moths. Although strong of flight, the 
wings, especially the hind ones, are small in comparison 
with the body, which is usually stout and tapered at the 
hind end. The larvae are hairless, except when very 
young, and usually have a horn (absolutely harmless) at 
the hind end of the body; in some species, especially 
when the larvae are full-grown, this horn is reduced to a 
tubercle and in some it is entirely absent. The name of the 
family and its English translation, "Sphinx," comes from 
the more or less sphinx-like attitude of the larvae when at 
rest with their front segments elevated and the head 
drawn in. Pupation takes place in or on the ground and 
some pupae have a "handle" which is really a sheath for 
their long tongue. As far as I know, all the adults feed 
and, with a few exceptions, all are crepuscular. When at 
rest, their long tongues are tightly curled up under their 
head like a watch spring. There are many species, but 
they are difficult to characterize in few words and I must 
regretfully refer the reader to more special books, such as 
Holland's Moth Book, for the identification of the majority. 
146 



HUMMING-BIRD SPHINX MOTHS. 



. The adults of this genus of Humming-bird 

Moths, which is also called Htzmorrhagia 
and which belongs to the subfamily Macroglossinae, 
have wings from which part of the scales rub off so 
easily that they are almost never seen and those 
portions of the wings are, therefore, described as trans- 
parent. These adults have the unmothlike habit of 
flying freely in the bright sunlight and, when hovering at 
flowers, they closely resemble humming-birds. Plate 
XXXVIII shows the typical (summer) form of the northern 
race of thy she. The spring form, cimbiciformis, differs, 
among other ways, in having the outer margin of the trans- 
parent areas an even line. There are also two seasonal 
forms of the southern race. Hemaris dijjinis is smaller 
than thy she and has the dark areas on the abdomen black 
instead of reddish. When flying, it suggests a bumble- 
bee. The thorax of Hemaris gracilis is greener, in life, 
than thysbe and has a pair of reddish, longitudinal lines 
on the under side of its thorax. All three are eastern 
species, gracilis being confined to the Atlantic States 
and usually not as common as the others. Their larvae 
feed on relatives of the honeysuckle, such as snowberry 
(Symphoricarpos) and Viburnum. They usually pupate 
in fallen leaves and generally make a poor sort of a cocoon. 
The pupae do not have free tongue-cases. 



Chcerocampinae 

Ampliion nessus flies about twilight, and earlier, in 
May and June. It has a wing-expanse of two inches, or 
more, but its body is only about an inch long; its general 
color consists of various shades of brown ; there is a narrow, 
yello wish- white band across the abdomen; the hind wings 
have reddish centers and yello wish- white front margins; 
the outer edge of each front wing has two marked indenta- 
tions. The larva feeds on grape, Virginia creeper, and 
other plants; it has a short, rough tail-horn, a brown 
body-color with black and yellow dottings, and the third 
and fourth segments somewhat enlarged. It pupates in 
fallen leaves, usually spinning a few threads. 

147 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Sphecoditia abbotii has a wavy outer margin of the front 
wings similar to that of nessus but, among other differ- 
ences, the basal half or two-thirds of the hind wings is 
yellow. It flies, as a rule, just after sunset. The larvae, 
which feed on grape and Virginia creeper, have two color 
forms, green and brown; they have an eye-like tubercle 
instead of an anal horn. Even more than most of their 
relatives, they thrash their tails about. Eliot and Soule 
say: "We have seen orioles try to pick up an abbotii 
larva on our woodbine, and dart away with a scream when 
it lifted its snake-like anal end with the tubercle shining 
like an eye. The caterpillars make a squeaking noise; 
how they make it we do not know." Other Sphingid 
larvae make a similar noise. The tongue-case is not 
free. 

The adults of this common Striped Sphinx 

hneata 11 ^ (PlatG XXXVI11 ) ma ^ be found ^' m ^ at > 

apparently, any hour of the day or night 

from July to November. Celerio is sometimes used for 
the generic name. "When full-grown the caterpillars are 
three inches long and vary greatly in coloring and mark- 
ings. There seem to be two styles of dress ; one is yellowish 
green with a series of connected spots along each side of the 
back, each spot being colored crimson, yellow, and black; 
the other dress is black, with a yellow line down the middle 
of the back, and yellow spots of various sizes along the 
sides. These two styles may be varied in many ways" 
(Dickerson). There is a distinct anal horn. Although 
it is sometimes called the Purslane Sphinx, the larvae 
feed on a great variety of plants including apple, grape, 
Virginia creeper, and currant. It is sometimes injurious 
to cultivated plants but it has never hurt "purslcy" 
enough to suit me. Sometimes they make a loose, open 
cocoon at the surface of the ground, but usually they go 
just below the surface and spin no threads. The tongue- 
case is not free. 

Deilephila intermedia is much like lineata except that it 
has only two pairs of dark marks on its abdomen and the 
veins of the front wings are not marked with whitish, ft 
is not usually common but it ranges from Canada to 



Plate XXXVIII 



Deiiephilo 
"nea 




\mpelophaqus myron 




Pholus pandorus 



THE HOG SPHINX. 



Mexico, and a nearly related species is found in the Eastern 
Hemisphere. The larva feeds on grape, Epilobium, and 
other plants. 

This (Plate XXXVIII) may be but a form 
Phoius of sate ni t i at i t fli es at dusk, an( } i^er, 

from June to November. The larva, which 
feeds on grape and Virginia creeper, is green, when young, 
and has a long horn, which often curls over its back; 
but the full-grown larva? are tailless and usually brown. 
The pupa, with adhering tongue-case, is usually formed 
underground. It is a widely distributed species with 
several local races. 

Phoius achemon has a brown general color, the basal 
three-fourths of the hind wings are pink, and the dark 
markings on the hind margin of each front wing are re- 
duced to a rectangular spot near the middle and a smaller, 
triangular spot near the outer end. Larval and pupal 
habits like those of pandoras. 

For some reason, or none, this species 
Ampelophagus is called R Sphinx. Plate XXXVIII 
myron . 

shows a larva bearing on its back the co- 
coons of an Ichneumonid whose larva? had been feeding 
on the tissues of the moth's larva?. Such cocoons may be 
found on many kinds of caterpillars but this species is 
much afflicted by the parasites. The principal food 
plants of myron are grape and Virginia creeper. A cocoon 
is made among fallen leaves. 

-i. phoius is much like myron but the front wings are 
brownish. Its larva feeds on Virbiumm and Azalea. 
There are two annual broods. 

.4 . versicolor differs from myron in having a white median- 
dorsal line and, on the thorax, a pair of white side lines, 
white markings on the green front wings and a broad, 
whitish hind-margin of the hind wings. The larva? feed 
on Hydrangea, Decodon, and buttonball {Cephalanthus). 



149 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Sphinginse 



A name commonly used for this genus is 
Phlegethontius Proto p arce; caro u na (Plate XXXIX) was 
Carolina and f . v ' 

celeus called sexta because of the six orange-yellow 

spots on each side of the adult's abdomen, 
and celeus was called quinque-maculatus because it has 
five such spots. The general color of the adult Carolina is 
grayish brown; celeus is much lighter and, among other 
differences, the dark lines corresponding to the two outer 
ones on the hind wings of Carolina are fused to form a 
band and the three inner lines are distinctly zigzagged. 
The mature larva of celeus may be distinguished from 
that of Carolina by the fact that the lower ends of the light 
markings on the side of the abdomen curve backward 
below the spiracles (breathing holes). In the South - 
the pupae are sometimes called " hornblowers " because the 
free tongue-case suggests a wind instrument. The larvae 
are called Tobacco Worms or Tomato Worms, according 
to the crop on which they are found. They also eat the 
leaves of potato and other Solanaceas. 

Smerinthinae 



The Modest Sphinx is not usually com- 
Pachysphinx mon ^^ wnen see n, always attracts atten- 
tion. The shaded portions of the wings 
(Plate XXXIX) are brown, tinged, on the hind wings, 
with pink ; the dark spot near the angle of each hind wing is 
purplish black. A western form, occidentalism has whitish- 
front wings and largely pink hind wings. The larvae feed 
on poplars and willows, pupating in the ground. Some 
authors place this species in the Oriental genus Marumba. 

Holland explains the scientific name of 
Sphinx _ the Twin-spot Sphinx as follows: "This 

geminatus* beautiful hawk moth was originally named 

and described in error by Drury as coming 
from the Island of Jamaica. He also was so unfortunate 
as to have had for his type an aberrant specimen in. which 
the ocellus of the hind wing had but one blue spot. Such 
150 



Plate XXXIX 




Phlegethontius caro 




PQchysphinx 

modesta 




Sphinx" 

qeminatus x ^ 



i^i 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



specimens now and then occur, and have been obtained by 
breeding from the normal form, to which Say gave the 
name geminatus. Specimens also sometimes occur in 
which there are three blue spots in the ocellus, and Air. 
Grote gave to this aberrant form the name tripartitus" 
The ground-color of the wings is light gray but the eye- 
spots (Plate XXXIX) are set in a pink area; the thorax 
and front wings are marked with rich brown. The larvae 
are bluish green with yellowish white lines and granules; 
the horn is usually blue but sometimes greenish or even 
pink. They feed on willows, poplars, birches, and wild 
cherry. The tongue-case of the pupa is not free. Adults 
fly from May to August. 

Sphinx cerisyi has a wing-expanse of about four inches 
and the single ocellus on each hind wing consists of a 
dark spot surrounded by, first, a light ring and, then, a 
dark one. Its larva feeds on willow. 

Adults of Calasymbolus (also called Paonis) have, on 
each hind wing, a light dot surrounded by a dark ring. 
The size and outline of the wings of C. myops are almost 
exactly those of S. geminatus but the general color of the 
front wings is brown and the eye-spots of the hind wings 
are set in a yellow area. Larvae on wild and cultivated 
cherry. C. astylus is about like myops in size and general 
color but the outline of the wings is more even and the 
front wings have a white streak parallel to their outer 
margins. Larvae on huckleberry and dangleberry. C. 
exccecatus is somewhat larger than geminatus and it has a 
similar pinkish area on the hind wings but the general 
color is browner and the outer margins of the front wings 
are saw-toothed, six or eight teeth to each. Larvae on 
Rosaceae and a large number of other trees. 

Sphingid larvae are so easily recognized as being Sphin- 
gids that the following additional notes may be helpful but 
it should be said that larvae often eat other sorts of leaves 
also. Larvae of Theretra (Chcerocampa) tersa feed on 
Bouvardia and buttonwood. Dilophonota ello, on Euphor- 
bia. Phlegethontius (Protopqrce) rustica on Chionanthus 
and Jasminium; P. cingulata, on morning-glory and 

152 






THE GIANT S1LK=YV0RM MOTHS. 



sweet-potato. Hyloicus {Sphinx) kalmice, on laurel, lilac, 
ash, and Chionanthus; H. drupiferarum, on plum and wild 
cherry; H. gordius, on huckleberry, bayberry, and birch; 
H. luscitiosa, on willow; H. chersis, on lilac and ash; //. 
eremitus, on pepper r wild bergamot, and Salvia; H. ple- 
beius, on trumpet vine and Passiflora. Dolba hylceus 
larvae are said to complete their growth in twenty days on 
black alder and sweet fern. Chlcenogramma jasminearum, 
on ash. Larvae of Ceratomia amyntor have four short 
thoracic horns in addition to the anal one and feed chiefly 
on elm; the black and yellow larvae of C. catalpa feed on 
Catalpa. Lapara bombycoides and coniferarum, on pines # 
Cressonia juglandis, on hickory, walnut, ironwood, and 
wild cherry. 

Saturniid^e 

These Giant Silk-worm Moths are the amateur's delight 
because of their large size, beautiful colors, and often 
conspicuous cocoons. The antennae of the males are 
feathered to their tips and are always larger than those 
of the female; the mouth-parts of the adults are poorly 
developed and apparently functionless but the huge 
larvae are certainly hearty feeders and, fortunately, have 
many enemies; whoever tries to raise Saturnid adults 
from wild cocoons is almost sure to get more parasites 
than moths. 

The Asiatic Ailanthus Silk-moth (Plate 

f hiI t hia mia XL) WaS brou g ht to America about 1861, 

presumably in the hope that silk from its 
cocoon might be used commercially. That hope has not 
yet been realized and the larvae occasional^ occur in large 
enough numbers to be injurious to ailanthus trees — their 
original and favorite leaf, although they also feed upon 
wild cherry, linden, sycamore, lilac, and other plants. 
The full-grown larva is green with black dots; the tubercles 
are pale to quite blue except that those of the lowest 
(substigmatal) row are banded with black; the head, 
legs, props, and anal shield are yellow except for blue 
markings on the last two; spiracles (or "stigmata," the 
row of breathing holes along the sides) are black with a 

1-0 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



white dot at each end. The larvae eat their cast skins. 
The cocoon is spun on a leaf which has first been fastened 
to the branch with silk, the pupa hibernating. Hanging 
cocoons like this are hard for birds to peck. The adults 
may be recognized by the white tufts on their abdomen. 
Distributed locally (especially near cities) along the 
Atlantic Coast. 

Rothschildia, with two species, orizaba and jorulla, in 
Arizona, may be recognized by the triangular shape of 
the translucent spots of the fore and hind wings. 

The Saturnids are indeed fortunate 

Samia . moths; they have largely escaped success- 

cecropia . . ,._ ,. . ,, , . . ' , , , . 

ful English christenings. Although this 

species (Plate XLI) was named cecropia by Linnaeus long 
ago and has been a common and popular moth in this coun- 
try ever since moths were at all popular, Cecropia is still 
its common name. I hope my children's children will call 
it Cecropia even though it has been recently nicknamed 
something else by a lady who writes very good fiction but 
who has done immeasurable harm to unalloyed love of 
nature by encouraging the commercial viewpoint. People 
forget that the Limberlost stories are fiction, and my 
mail has been filled with letters from people, ranging all the 
way from an eight-year-old boy, who wanted to sell a bat- 
tered Luna so that he could get a pony, to invalids, who 
wished to find a market for the moths which came to their 
bedside lamps so that they might buy medicine. Permit 
me to say that he who goes to Nature with money in his 
eyes will not only be blind to her truths, her glories, and 
the real benefits which she offers to those who love her, 
but he will be disappointed as to his financial returns. 
The "market" value of even our rare insects is so small 
that, unless you have the requisite knowledge and can 
give your entire time to collecting, classifying the spoils, 
and finding the particular markets for the particular sorts, 
you will not usually be paid for shoe-leather. But to 
return to more pleasant things: Cecropia's head, body, 
and bases of the fore wings are a rich red except for the 
white bands; the general wing-color is dusky reddish brown ; 

154 



Plate XL 




PhilosamiQ cynthiQ 

155 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



the crescents on the wings vary from white (especially on 
the hind wings) to reddish and are bordered with red and 
black; outside the prominent white band there is a reddish 
band (in 5. gloveri of the West this band is broader and 
purplish gray although inside of the white band the wings 
are red); the outer border of both pairs of wings is light 
clay-brown. S. Columbia occurs in northern United 
States (west to Wisconsin) and in Canada; it has a wing 
expanse of only about four inches and no red margin to 
the white cross band. S. rubra of Utah and Wyoming 
westward is about the size of Columbia but the general wing 
color is rather uniformly light red; it lacks, as does also 
gloveri, the round dark areas near the hind angles of the 
fore wings. The larva of cecropia is about four inches long ; 
green with bluish tints, especially along the back, two 
rows of blue tubercles along each side, two rows of yellow 
ones along the back, and two pairs of red ones on the 
thorax. The large cocoons, which when cut open have 
distinctly the appearance on one cocoon inside another, 
are fastened to a branch, or other support, but not to 
leaves. Some cocoons are much larger and punier than 
others, probably because the larvae which made them were 
better fed. This species ranges from the Atlantic to the 
Great Plains. 

I am sorry that such an authority as 
Callosamia Holland should have called this species 

prom (Plate XLII) the Spice-bush Silk-moth 

when "Promethea" was already in common usage; further- 
more he says, truly, that "The insects subsist in the larval 
stage upon a great variety of deciduous shrubs and trees, 
showing a special predilection for Lauracece, Liriodendron, 
Liquidambar, and wild-cherry" (spice-bush and sassafras 
belong to the family Lauraceae). The mature larva is 
from two to three inches long; head, yellowish-green; 
body, "frosted" bluish-green; six rows of small black tuber- 
cles; two pairs of red tubercles on the thorax; one yellow 
tubercle on the eleventh segment; the legs and the anal 
shield yellow. The cocoon is much like that of cynthia 
but tends to be darker and slimmer and is not so likely to 
have silk strands over the leaf. The general color of the 

156 



Plate XLI 




Samiu cecropia 

157 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS, 



male's wings is such a dark maroon that it is sometimes 
practically black and all but the marginal markings are 
obscured; the female is much lighter colored. 

Both sexes of C. angulifera have a fat, V-shaped, white 
mark, something like that on the hind wings of the female 
promethea, on the front wings, and the female has it on the 
hind wings also. Its larva feeds chiefly on the tulip-tree 
(Liriodendron) . The cocoon is wrapped in leaves like 
Promethea's but with the difference that usually no "stem " 
fastening it to the twig is made so that the cocoon falls 
to the ground when the tree sheds its leaves. It is an 
Atlantic Coast species which is usually not common even 
in the Middle States, its principal home. 

The Saturnid moths thus far mentioned belong to the 
subfamily Attacinas. We now take up the Saturniinae. 

Actias luna The Luna M °th (Plate XLIII) is rather 

generally considered to be our most beautiful 
insect but its lovely green fades rapidly to, a light gray. 
A It is rather common and, once seen, is rarely forgotten. 
The larva feeds on walnut, hickory, sweet-gum {Liquid- 
atnbar), persimmon, and other trees; when mature, it 
is about three inches long; it varies somewhat in its 
colors, especially those of the tubercles; and suggests 
the larva of polyphemus but may be distinguished from it 
by the yellow lateral line and the absence of the seven 
oblique side-stripes; when about to pupate, the back 
usually changes from yellowish green to pinkish. The 
cocoon is very thin and rattles when pressed or when the 
pupa moves; it is usually made between leaves on the 
ground. In some sections it is at least double-brooded, 
^he early-spring adults usually have purple outer margins 
on the wings; later individuals lack these. 

Larvae of Polyphemus (Plate XLIV) are 

, le * sent in to the American Museum every 

polyphemus , , , , / 

season so that they must be frequently 

seen by the "laity" even though they are the color of 

Uavcs. They feed on oak, birch, and a great variety of 

other trees, and somewhat resemble those of luna. More 

158 



Plate XLII 




Caflosamia promethea 
159 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



than their relatives, polypJiemus larvae have the habit of 
elevating the front part of their bodies and pulling in their 
heads to assume a "terrifying attitude"; clicking their 
jaws probably adds to the effect. . Many books say 
that the cocoon falls to the ground in the autumn (there 
is but one annual generation) but this is by no means 
always the case. The cocoon, which is more solid than 
Luna's, contains a long, unbroken, easily unreeled thread 
of silk which would be commercially valuable if labor were 
cheaper. The wings are ochre, usually pinkish, and 
each has a transparent spot, those on the hind wings being 
bordered inwardly by blue and set in a black ring. 

... The larva? of the Io Moth (Plate XLV) 
should be handled carefully since their 
spines are sharp and are connected with glands which 
secrete an irritating fluid. They feed on a great vari- 
ety of plants, including corn, and, when young, "fol- 
low the leader, " spinning a silken path for the guidance 
of those which are behind. The larva is easily recognized, 
especially on account of the red (upper) and white (lower) 
longitudinal stripes on the sides of the abdomen. The 
thin, semitransparent, brown cocoon is spun among leaves 
on the ground. There are several other species which 
may be recognized as Automeris from their general resem- 
\ blance to io; another generic name is Hyperchiria: . 

Ceratocampid^e 

The adults have mouth parts but probably do not 
feed. Pupation occurs in the ground, no cocoons being 
formed. Perhaps we should call this family Citheronidae. 

The black and yellow (or orange) larvae 
of Anisota senatoria (Plate XLVIII) feed 
on oak, often in large colonies. The adult female lias a 
yellow body and brownish-yellow wings, largely free from 
dark dots and with a tendency toward violet at the mar- 
gins of the front wings. The male is reddish brown and 
the central halves of the front wings are slightly translu- 
cent. The larva of A . virginiensis, on oak, is dark greenish, 
1 60 



Plate XLIII 




S 



/■ 








Actios Luna 



Plate XLIV 




Telea polyphemus 



161 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



with two purplish red stripes and three rows of black spines 
on each side; it is covered with white granules and has 
a pair of long, black "lashes" on the second segment. 
The adult female is much like the female senatoria but is 
more thinly scaled and with a definite violet band along the 
outer margin of each front wing. The male (Plate XLVIII) 
is like the male senatoria but darker and the central areas 
of the front wings are transparent, with definite boundaries. 
The larva of A. stigma, on oak, chestnut, and hazel, is 
brown, dotted with white; it has a very narrow, dusky, 
mid-dorsal line and a wider one on each side along the 
spiracles; body spines longer than in the other species. 
The adult female is much like the female senatoria but with 
about half an inch greater wing expanse, is more heavily 
scaled, and with a tendency to have the front wings, at 
least, thickly dotted with black. The male is much like 
its own female, but smaller and with a tendency to violet 
along the outer margins of the front wings ; the wings have 
no translucent areas. The chrysalids are all much alike. 



The Rosy Maple-moth (Plate XLV) is 
Dr y° ca ™ pa sometimes, probably correctly, put in the 
genus Anisota. Its larva feeds on maple. 
The pupa is somewhat shiny; and the adult, though vari- 
able in color, may be known by being a fluffy combination 
of rose color and pale-yellow, often tinged with pink. It is 
most abundant in the Middle West but it is occasionally 
injurious from Mississippi to New York. 



Names applied to the adult and larva 
Citheronia respectively, Royal Walnut-moth and Hick- 

ory Horned Devil, tell two of the food 
plants of this species (Plate XL VI) ; there are a variety of 
others, including butternut, ash, persimmon, sweet gum, 
and sumac. The horns of the mature larva are reddish, 
tipped with black, and are perfectly harmless. Perhaps 
the best short description of the adults is by Kellogg: 
"a rich brown ground-color on body and hind wings, with 
the fore wings slaty gray with yellow blotches, and veins 
broadly marked out in red-brown." 
162 



Plate XLV 







larva 



A u } o m e r i 5 io 




Dryocampa rubicunda 



Plate XLVI 




163 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



The Pine-devil (Cither onia se pulchralis) , which is said 
to range along the coast from Maine to Florida but which 
has never been reported from New Jersey, for example, is 
somewhat smaller than re gaits and has uniformly brown 
wings. 

The hairy larvae of the Imperial Moth 
Basilona (piate XLVII ) va from green to very dark 

impenahs . . . ' ... 

brown; their horns are proportionately 

larger in the younger stages. The female is rich canary- 
yellow marked with pinkish purple; the male has the same 
colors but the purple is darker and covers most of the fore 
wing. Food plants: a great variety of trees including 
hickory, oak, elm, maple, spruce, pine, junipers, and 
hemlock. Another generic name is Eacles. 



Amatid^e 

These largely southern moths are day-flyers and some 
of them much resemble Hymenoptera. The proboscis is 
dsually, but not always, well developed so that they may 
feed. The family has also been called Syntomidae. The 
cocoons are of felted hair. 

Lycomorpha pholus (Plate XLVIII) may be recognized 
by the black and yellow markings. Its larva is said to 
feed on lichens. The adult is common on flowers and is 
found throughout the United States. 

Scepsis fulvicollis (Plate XLVIII): the wings arc 
brown, except for the transparent central part of the hind 
wings; the abdomen is metallic blue-black; and there is a 
yellow collar. The larvae feed on grasses, and the adults 
frequent golden-rod flowers. 

Ctenucha virginica: the adult, which has brown wings, 
metallic bluish-black body, and orange head, is found at 
the flowers of blackberries, Spiraea, and other plants in the 
Appalachian region. The larva feeds on grasses. 
164 



Plate XL VII 









> .;.:: 



i IL 

? k-r"-;.r:"Iil)iil \,' '''-■■■' -■■■,. ■: •><■;. 




B Q 5 i 1 o n q i m pert al Is 



10; 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Lithosiid^e 



The larvae of this family are hairy, somewhat after the 
fashion of the Arctiidae. Cocoons, of silk and larval hairs, 
are made by some species but others are said to have 
naked pupae. The adults have thread-like antennae and, 
usually, well-developed mouth parts; they are popularly 
called Footman Moths. 

Hypoprepia fucosa (Plate XLVIII) has three lead- 
colored stripes on the fore wings, the ground color being 
yellow and red. H. miniata is very much like it but the 
dark markings are darker, and the light portions are bright 
scarlet. The larvae of both feed on lichens. 

Arctiid^e 

Topsell, in his History of Serpents (1608), said the larvae 
of these moths were called Palmer-worms, by reason of 
their wandering and roguish life, although by reason of 
their roughness and ruggedness some call them Bearc- 
wormes (modern: Woolly Bears). Keats referred to the 
adults when he wrote: 

"All diamonded with panes of quaint device, 
Innumerable of stains, and splendid dyes, 
As are the Tiger Moth's deep damask wings." 

There are more than 2000 species. The larvae are hairy, 
usually very much so. The cocoons are made of silk and 
larval hairs. The adults of some genera have aborted 
mouth parts ; others have well-developed probosces. 

The color and markings of the Beautiful 
Utetheisa Utetheisa (Plate XLIX) vary greatly but 

there is nothing in its range (Quebec to 
Mexico and Antilles) which closely resembles it, except the 
southern U. ornatrix which has "washed-out" front wings. 
Although the adult sometimes comes to lights, it is easily 
flushed, in the daytime, by walking through the meadows 
in which its food plants grow. The larva is recorded as 
feeding on cherry, elm, and other plants, but I have found 
it only on and in the green seed-pods of Crotalaria (Rattle- 
box) and doubt if it feeds on anything but Legumes. 
166 



Plate XLVIII 




Anisola senatorio 





Lycomorpha 
pholus 



Scepsis 

fulvicollfs 




HijpoprepiQ 
{ucosa 



167 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Nature seems to make the Haploas, and 
other Arctids, by guess, they are so variable. 
Plate XLIX shows one of the more constant species, H. 
clymene. Species of this genus tend to have a dark band, 
more or less complete, running from the hind margin 
of each front wing to near its apex; these wings are often 
margined with dark color also but in some forms they are 
immaculate. The larvae are classed as "general feeders" 
but more careful study will doubtless discover decided 
preferences. 

Plate XLIX shows the female; the male 
Estigmene ^ as ve u ow hj n( } wm g S . The spotting varies 

greatly in both sexes, and there are a number 
of local races. The name, Salt-marsh Caterpillar, is mis- 
leading; as a matter of fact, the species is found throughout 
North America, the larva being a general feeder. 

^■*The unsightly nests, made in late summer, 
Hyphantria of the Fall Web-worm are frequently con- 

fused with the spring tents of Malacosoma 
americana. \The nest of cunea has a lighter texture and 
covers all the leaves upon which the colony of larvae are 
feeding; it occurs on more than a hundred different kinds 
of trees, apple and ash being among the favorites. The 
figures on Plate L indicate the great variability which 
exists in the markings of both larvae and adults. -^The 
pupa, slightly protected by a loose cocoon, hibernates 
in crevices of bark, loose soil, etc. The eggs are laid in 
flat masses on the under side of leaves. 

The larva of this species (Plate XLIX) 
Isia Isabella has caused much commen t: Kellogg calls 
it "the woolliest woolly bear," and notes that "hedge- 
hog" is a popular name; Holland connects the phrase 
"to caterpillar," in the sense of quickly yielding to 
unpleasant circumstances, with this specks because, when 
disturbed, the larva curls up and lies motionless (a 
trick of the hedgehog, also); while Comstock recalls the 
"Hurrying along like a caterpillar in the fall" when speak- 
ing of the larva's apparent haste to find a snug place in 
1 68 



Plate XLIX 




HaplcQ clijmene 



m 



, * » * • i 



UtetheisQ bella 



• * * 

t ■ 




5i a Isabella 



.% * 



> 



•* *- v 






Esli qmene acrcfea 






> » « 



i'cnsia 
virginicQ 




Apantcbis. 
n q i s 




uchaetias eqle 



WOOLLY BEARS. 



which to curl up for the winter. When spring comes, it 
hustles for a little food, plantain being a favorite, and then 
pupates in a cocoon made of silk and larval hairs. The 
relative amount of black in the larva's "fur" varies greatly 
and is said to foretell weather but I forget what is what, 
although some experiments which I once made indicated 
that past, not future, moist conditions increase the amount 
of black. There are two annual broods. 

Diacrisia (also called Spilosoma) virginica is the Yellow- 
bear of our gardens; the dense, long hair of some in- 
dividuals is, however, white and of others is reddish. The 
adults (Plate XLIX) have up to four small black dots on 
each of their white wings. One of the several broods 
hibernates in the pupal state. 

Apantesis: There are twenty or more species in the 
United States alone. It is rather characteristic of the 
genus that the front wings are checkered somewhat after 
the fashion of the species, nais, shown in Plate XLIX; 
the prevailing colors are red, brown, and white. The 
larvae are general feeders, especially on low-growing things, 
such as plantain. 

Numbers of the gay Harlequin cater- 
Euchatias piUars (piate XLIX ) are frequently seen on 

milkweed, feeding together in apparent 
disregard of birds. Most birds do not seem to care for 
hairy larvae at any rate, but probably this species gets 
additional protection, advertised by its colors, from the 
acrid nature of its food. The cocoon is formed under 
loose stones and leaves. One brood of adults flies in June, 
another in late summer. It and the following species are 
given, by some authors, the generic name Cycnia. 

Pareuclicetes (or Ammalo) eglenensis also feeds on milk- 
weed. The predominating color of the larval hairs is 
dark gray; its head is orange, while that of egle is black. 
The adult resembles egle but is somewhat smaller and has 
the front margin of the front wings, the head, and the 
collar, orange. There is a summer form (inopinatus) in 
which the gray portions are almost white. 
169 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



"The Hickory Tiger" is one of the 
Halisidota English names of this species (Plate L) 

and, like the specific name, refers to the 
larva's fondness for hickory leaves but, as a matter of 
fact, it feeds on other trees also. It has also been called 
Tussock Moth, but that name should be reserved for a 
species of Liparidae whose larvae these resemble. The 
cocoon, which is made in some sheltered nook, is composed 
of larval hairs pushed through a very thin envelope of silk. 
The author of Insect Lives; or Born in Prison quaintly 
describes the color of the moths as being the same as that 
of hickory-nut meat. 

Halisidota tessellaris is much like caryce but the larva has 
no "black buttons down the back" and its body hairs are 
usually tinged with yellow or brownish ; the adult tessellaris 
is much paler, being pale straw-color, and has bluish- 
green lines on the thorax. The larva is sometimes too 
common in our gardens and on shade trees. That descrip- 
tion of the adult also fits the southern cinctipes, which is 
larger and has the lower part of its legs gartered with 
black. The western argentata has the white spots silvery 
and the ground color of the front wings dark brown. The 
a'dult of the northern maculata might be loosely described 
as like caryce except that the white spots are dark spots. 

Agaristid^e 

Members of the genus Alypia are called 
Alypia Foresters; translating the specific name, 

this species (Plate L) is called the Eight- 
spotted Forester. Its larva, which feeds on the leaves of 
grapes and of the Virginia creeper, is orange, yellow f 
black, and white; it has a hump near its tail. Pupation 
occurs in a very thin cocoon of chips and silk at, or slightly 
below, the surface of the ground; or the larva may gnaw 
into wood to pupate. The velvety-black adult has yellow 
spots on the front wings, white on the hind. It frequently 
flies by day. Although the Eight-spot is confined to the 
northeastern quarter of the United States, other sections 
have similar species. 



170 




Hyphantria cunea 







^z&z-LJ** iCK^> 



ffl'^ 




Halisidota caryfie 



\v \fc-\... 





AlypTa octomaculatQ 



171 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS, 



NOCTUID.E 



We have about 2000 species of this family in the United 
States. V Quite two thousand too many," most farmers 
and gardeners would say, because Cut- worms are young 
Noctuids; but not all } T oung Noctuids are cut-wonr.s. 
Noctua is the Latin for "owl"; these moths fly by night, 
and some have shiny eyes; we sometimes call them Owlet- 
moths. ^They come abundantly to lights and some species 
crowd "sugar bait," sipping the sweets. . Like the adults, 
the larvae, as a rule, feed by night. ; Those which are 
cut- worms are naked and hide by day just under the sur- 
face of loose earth or beneath stones and other shelters. 
The}'' may be distinguished from "White-grubs, " larvae of 
beetles which have somewhat similar habits, by the fact 
that they have fleshy prop-legs on their abdomen. Cut- 
worms curl up, head to tail, when at rest or when disturbed. 
When very abundant, they clamber over plants eating the 
leaves, but their common name is derived from their 
habit of gnawing through the stems of tender annuals. 
Many cut-worms hibernate in snug underground cells and, 
so, are ready vigorously to attack our seedlings in the 
spring. Many other Noctuidce, especially those whose 
larvae feed on trees, hibernate as pupse. Cut-worms may 
be controlled by turning over the soil in the late fall and 
early spring ; but, better, they may be poisoned by distrib- 
uting throughout the garden, before setting the seedlings, 
a mash made as follows: 1 part by weight of Paris green, 
25 parts of bran, moistened with molasses diluted to half- 
or quarter-strength with water. Chickens invading the 
garden will be killed by this mash. Some of the destruc- 
tive species of garden cut-worms which will not be further 
mentioned here are (Plate LI) Agrotis ypsiloii, Euxoa 
messoria, Peridroma saucia, Mamestra picta, Rhynchagrotis 
anchoceloides, Noctua clandestina, and N. c.-nigrum. 
Xylina antennata (Plate LII) feeds on apple and other 
plants; the adult hibernates. 

This genus is called Apatela in 
Acronycta books, and, commonly, Dagger-met lis. 

As more than forty species have been recorded from 
172 



Plate LI 




Acronycta Qmencono 




^"■'-"■'■'••.•i->£ 



f Agrotis 9 **" ' HQde ' 

ypsilon (ievastatrix 



QrcliCQ 




f Laphygma Rhynchaqrotis 
fruoinerda anchoceloidee 



rugiperda 
L exigua 



Euxoa 
messorio 



Noctua 








Mf^ 




^^'|1 Autographa SI^P^ 5 
simplex « Wbrassicoe 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



New Jersey alone, I can do no more than give samples. 
Acronycta americana (Plate LI) is one of our largest 
species; the light-gray front wings expanding nearly 2.5 
inches; the hind wings are brownish. With sufficient 
imagination, you can see, near the hind, outer angle of 
the front wings of americana and some other species, the 
"dagger " which is responsible for the common name of the 
genus. Americana' s larva is one of the hairiest of Noctuid 
larvae; with its dense, pale-yellow hairs it resembles an 
Arctiid but the hairs are scattered over the body instead of 
being grouped on tubercles as is the rule among the Arctii- 
dae; there is a pair of long, black hair-pencils on the first 
abdominal segment, another pair on the third, and a single 
such pencil on the eighth abdominal segment; in addition, 
there are hairs, longer than the general covering, along 
the sides and at each end. It feeds on maple (its favorite) , 
elm, oak, and other forest trees. Larvae of this genus 
often rest near the base of a leaf with the front end of the 
body curved back so that they are somewhat fish-hook- 
shaped. When disturbed, Acronycta larvas are given to 
curling up and dropping off of their food plant. They 
pupate in loose cocoons, which are placed on rough bark 
or under ground-debris. 

Acronycta hastulifera, according to its specific name, 
"bears a spear" instead of a dagger. Its larvae are often 
abundant on alder and have been recorded on maple; 
they suggest those of americana but their color varies 
from pale to deep chocolate-brown. Eliot and Soule, 
whose Caterpillars and their Moths is not only a model of 
careful work but also shows what pleasure and profit 
ladies may get from a "crawlery, " point out that these 
larvae "are subject to fungoid diseases which kill many of 
them, and their stiff bodies may be found on branches of 
the alders, apparently unharmed, but they break at a 
touch and are filled with fungoid growth." As a matter 
of fact, fungi and bacteria vie with insect parasites as 
enemies of caterpillars in general. 

The larva of Acronycta hamamelis, as its specific name 
signifies, feeds on witch-hazel but it is also found on 
various forest trees. This larva differs from its two rela- 
tives, just mentioned, in being almost hairless; it varies 

174 



THE ARMY=WORMS. 



from light yellow to reddish brown and has a double row of 
white spots on its back; these, its food plants, and its 
fish-hook resting position will usually identify it. 

_ . This large genus contains two common, 

Hadena . , ° ° . t . , 

wide-spread, destructive cut-worms which 

are sometimes put in the genus Xylophasia: devastatrix and 
arctica (Plate LI). The larvae attack garden and field 
crops; the adults have dark brown front and light hind 
wings. The larvae of Hadena turbulenta are sometimes 
noticed on green briar (Smilax) because of their gregarious 
habits. 

The Fall Army-worm (Plate LI) appears 
Laphygma k^ tlian ^ tme Army- worm (Leucania 

unipuncta) and the larvae are not so choice 
about their food for they eat almost any crop, scattering 
more than do the Army-worms. The pitch-black stripe 
along each side and the four black spots on the back of 
each segment distinguish this "worm" from Leucania. 
The naked pupae hibernate about half an inch below ground. 
Adults emerge in the spring and the female covers her 
egg-clusters, placed on grass, with hairs from her own 
body. There are two or three generations a year but the 
larvae which appear in late summer are the most destruc- 
tive. The adult has a "general yellowish, ash-gray color, 
with the second pair of wings almost transparent, but 
with a purplish reflection." In the West there is a related 
species, L. exigua (Plate LI), which is called the Beet 
Army-Worm because of its ravages among the sugar-beets. 

The Army- worm (Plate LII), which is 

Leucania given the generic name Heliophila by some 

unipuncta B . fe . i 

authors, is interesting for several reasons; 

for one, it is a conspicuous example of a species which 

occasionally gets ahead of its insect parasites and other 

ills, increasing its numbers to such an extent that its larvae 

eat all the available food, chiefly grasses, in a given place 

and are forced to move en masse. However, fate is not 

to be permanently outdone and soon there comes a time 

when the species is relatively rare; and then again the 

175 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



pendulum swings — Nature is "balanced" but not very 
steady. This dull-brown moth gets its specific name from 
the "one point" of white on each front wing. It appears 
early in the season (Tune in the North), and yellowish 
eggs are laid in rows at the bases of grass leaves, each 
female depositing, all told, about seven hundred. The 
larvas are nearly, or quite, two inches long when full- 
grown; they are grayish-black with three longitudinal 
yellow stripes on the back, the median one being the 
narrowest, and a wide greenish-yellow stripe on each 
side. They feed at night, hiding by day at the grass 
roots, and about mid- summer pupate, without a cocoon, 
just under the surface of the ground." Adults emerge about 
two weeks later but their offspring are not usually numerous 
enough to be very destructive. * The next brood of adults 
either hibernate or they lay eggs the same season and the 
larvae hatching from these eggs hibernate. The number of 
annual generations in the South is sometimes as high as 
six. Army- worms with white eggs on them should not 
be killed, as these are the eggs of some parasite, usually 
of a Tachinid fly. There are numerous other species in 
the genus, the Wheat-head Army-worm, Leucania albilinca 
(Plate LIT.) being sometimes troublesome to farmers. 

Larvae of this genus, which has also been 
Papaipema caUed Hydra , ciai bore in the stalks f 

plants. Papaipema nitela (Plate LII) is the best known, 
for its larvae are sometimes abundant in garden plants, 
such as potatoes, tomatoes, and corn, especially if rag- 
weeds, dock, and other wild plants, the natural food of 
the species, are allowed to grow near the garden. Eggs 
are laid in the fall but do not hatch until May. The 
larvae then start tunnelling and if they confined themselves 
to one plant, not much injury would be done. However, 
they frequently leave the first plant and migrate some 
distance; it is then that our garden plants fall victims. 
Infested plants wilt above the place where the larva is 
working, but sometimes the larvae get under the husks of 
green corn and remain unnoticed until an attempt is 
made to use the corn. However, see Heliothis. Pupation 
takes place in the larva's tunnel; no cocoon is made but, 
176 



Plate LII 




'' ahtennolQ. 



177 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



just before it pupates, the larva bores a hole in the stalk so 
that the adult may easily escape. Adults emerge about 
August, there being but one annual generation. 

Sanderson, in his Insect Pests of Farm, 
Heliothis Garden, and Orchard, and others use the 

specific name obsoleta for this species 
(Plate LII). Holland remarks: "This insect, which is 
known to English entomologists as the 'Scarce Bordered 
Straw, ' is unfortunately not scarce in the United States, 
and, being of a singularly gluttonous habit in the larval 
stage, has become the object of execration to farmers and 
horticulturists." It has been called the Corn Ear- worm, 
Tomato Fruit-worm, Tobacco Bud-worm, and Cotton 
Boll-worm, in reference to some of its various food habits. 
The color and markings of the adults are variable, some 
being yellowish white, with nearly no markings, while 
others are dull green. The larvae are also variable: light 
green, reddish brown, or almost black; spotted, striped, or 
plain. Pupation occurs at the bottom of an underground 
cell which is like a half-U, the upper end being near the 
surface of the ground but not at the point where the larva 
entered; there is no cocoon. There are two annual genera- 
tions in the North but there may be five or six along the 
Gulf. In the North, winter is usually passed as a pupa. 
When feeding on young corn, the larvae eat the leaves but 
later they feed on the tender ears and sometimes do as 
much as $50,000,000 damage a year in this way. When 
feeding on tomatoes, they prefer the green or just ripening 
fruit. When feeding on tobacco, they are called the False 
Bud-worm to distinguish them from the True Bud-worm 
(Chloridea virescens) ; as such they eat not only the flower- 
stalks and seed-pods but also the precious leaves. Not 
finally but for the sake of stopping somewhere, they do 
about $20,000,000 damage, annually, to cotton by boring 
into the bolls. In the North, winter plowing kills many 
of the pupae, and, in the South, cotton may be protected 
by sowing trap-crops of corn, but everywhere the best 
plan with this, as with other insect pests, is to send an 
S. O. S. to your State Entomologist or to the United States 
Department of Agriculture for special information and 
178 



CATOCALA: UNDER=WINGS. 



help. It is for this, among other things, that you pay your 
taxes. 

This genus (Plate LI) is variously split 
Autographa ^ several> For example, the Celery 

Looper, Autographa simplex of Holland's book, will be 
found under Plusia in some books. Exeept for this 
hint (and it applies with equal force in the case of other 
genera) to those who might be confused when more than 
one book is used, it need not concern us further since 
the only species we can mention in any detail was, no 
«" later than yesterday, still in the Autographa pigeon-hole. 
If you find a brown Noctu id-looking moth with a wing 
expanse of i.o to 1.5 inches and with one, or more, not 
strictly circular, silver spots near the middle of each front 
wing, it is a fairly safe bet that it is either Autographa or 
closely related to it. Some of the species fly by day. The 
larvae are called loopers or semi-loopers because they 
walk somewhat like measuring-worms (Geometridae) on 
account of not having any prop-legs on the third and fourth 
abdominal segments. Autographa brassicce is a close 
second to Pieris rapa when it comes to injuring cabbage, 
cauliflower, and the like. The larva is colored much like 
the ordinary cabbage worm but has. longitudinal white 
lines when young, and it loops. The cocoon is a thin 
transparent affair attached to the leaf on which the larva 
was feeding. There are two or more generations annually, 
winter probably being passed in the pupal state. This is a 
good place to say that many of the Noctuid moths have a 
tuft of scales on the thorax which does not show well when 
viewed from above. 

The genus Catocala shares the amateurs' 
' ' love ' ' with the Saturniidas and the Sphingi- 
dae. Many of its species are pretty; they are interesting 
because they have bright colors on the hind wings, which 
are covered, when at rest, by the " protectively colored " 
front wings and are usually displayed only at night when 
they cannot be seen — at least, by our eyes. Plate LIII 
shows an exhibit in the American Museum illustrating 
the fact that, however conspicuous when flying in day- 

179 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



time, Catocalinse are concealed in plain sight when resting. 
I will not swear that I ever saw a live relicta so neatly 
placed on just the right spot of just the right tree, a birch, 
but it surely does require sharp eyes to see a resting 
Catocala or, for that matter, almost any moth when it is 
naturally resting. The adults of Catocala are sometimes 
called Under-wings because of the conspicuousness of 
these organs. He or she who "sugars" for moths will 
probably find varieties of those illustrated here, as well as 
totally different species, for they are fond of sweets and 
are sometimes numerous. The larvae tend to be plump 
in the middle, tapering toward both ends. They pupate 
in flimsy cocoons, which are usually placed under debris 
on the ground. Winter is usually, at least, passed in the 
egg state. 

Mrs. Stratton-Porter, in lamenting her lack of knowledge 
concerning the life-history of these moths, takes another 
whack at some of us : " Professional lepidopterists dismiss 
them with few words. One would-be authority disposes 
of the species with half a dozen lines. You can find at 
least a hundred Catocala reproduced from museum speci- 
mens and their habitat given, in the Holland Moth Book, 
but I fail to learn what I most desire to know: what 
these moths feed on; how late they live; how their eggs 
appear; where they are deposited; which is their cat- 
erpillar; what does it eat; and where and how does it 
pupate. . . . This will tend to bear out my contention 
that scientific works are not the help they should be to the 
Nature Lover." Lord bless you, Mrs. Porter! If Dr. 
Holland had put in all that (He couldn't have done it.) 
for each of the thousands of species his books help you and 
others to identify, he not only would have deprived you of 
the pleasure of finding out these things for yourself but 
most of the "others," at any rate, would not have been 
able to own the resulting tomes. It so happens that I 
have seen Mr. Beutenmuller's uncompleted monograph of 
Catocala; it tells most of the things known about American 
Catocala, less than you ask, and there are over six hundred 
pages of manuscript. Perhaps it will be noticed that I am 
saying little about eggs; I have to draw a line somewhere, 
and people have not often asked me about eggs. I hi 
1 80 



Plate LIII 





Cq;:c^!q relicta 




C. ultronia 



CATOCALA: UNDER=WINGS. 



I have told, in this little book, something about all the 
sorts of insects' eggs which have excited the curiosity of 
my unspecialized visitors and correspondents. Of course, 
my experience is limited; tomorrow, some one, not a 
specialist nor an advanced amateur, may ask a question 
which I have not been asked before and very possibly 
I will be unable to answer it. 

Catocala ultronia (Plate LIII) is a variable species, 
several forms having been given distinctive names. The 
larvae feed on plum, apple, and wild cherry leaves. The 
pupae in their cocoons, which are formed in July under 
chips or dead leaves, are covered with a bluish, easily 
rubbed bloom. Adults fly from late July to October. 
Eggs are well hidden in crevices of the bark of their food- 
trees. 

Catocala cara (Plate LIII) larvae, on willow and poplar, 
have a purplish head streaked and spotted with pale tes- 
taceous ; their bodies are light to dark clay or wood brown ; 
on each side of the back is a smoky, longitudinal band and 
a wavy, broken one on each side along the spiracles; 
the dorsal warts are dull carmine or yellowish-brown ; the 
underside is reddish, with a large black patch between 
each of the first three pairs of abdominal legs. Adults 
are to be found from July to September. 

Catocala relicta (Plate LIII) larvae feed on poplar and 
also, probably, willow and white birch; they are greenish- 
white, thickly spotted with yellowish-brown, the ninth 
and twelfth segments and the head being marked with 
black. The cocoon is rather thick and is usually made in 
fallen leaves, drawn together by the larva. Adults, of 
which there are several named forms, appear from July 
to September. 

Catocala vidua (Plate LIII) larvae eat walnut, butternut, 
hickory, and oak ; they are pale lilac with stripes composed 
of black dots, giving a gray appearance; their heads are 
striped with dull lilac and white and have orange spots, 
above, with a black hair in the center of each. Pupation 
is said to occur in June; most of our adult specimens were 
caught in August and September. 

Plate LIV shows Catocala concumbens, larva on willow and 
poplar; C. grynea, larva on apple and plum; and C. arnica. 
181 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Nubiiis (Plate LIV) has been put in Euparihenos; it 
feeds on locust. 

This species (Plate LII) claims a para- 

a .„ ama graph because it got into the New York 

argillacea , , < 

subways, and also newspapers, last year. 

It belongs 'way down South in the cotton fields where, 
until the invasion of the boll weevil, it was Cotton's most 
serious pest. i Its breeding range is from Argentina to as 
far north as cotton grows. The larvae are greenish, vari- 
ously spotted or striped with black according to their age. 
They feed on the cotton leaves, buds, 'and even tender 
twigs, pupating in a thin cocoon made in a folded leaf. 
Sanderson says: "The moth is a dull olive-gray color 
with a wing expanse of about i^ inches, which sometimes 
has a purple luster and which are marked with darker 
lines. . . . Like most of the owlet moths it flies only 
after sunset, but unlike them it is not confined to the 
nectar of flowers for food, as its mouth is peculiarly adapted 
to piercing the skin of ripe fruit and feeding upon its 
juices." After stating that there are at least seven genera- 
tions annually on the Gulf Coast and three at the northern 
limit of the species, he notes that "if none were killed, the 
progeny of a single moth after four generations would 
amount to over 300,000,000,000 individuals, or if placed 
end to end, the third generation would be enough to circle 
the earth at the equator over four times." That is a 
fairly good-sized "if," but make it much smaller and you 
still have a sufficient reason for a considerable northward 
migration. 

>This large moth (Plate LIV) drifted into 
Erebus my Q ues ti on Box because it was "big 

enough to be a Saturniid but isn't in the 
book" — one concerning the Saturniidse, etc., of the vicinity 
of New York City. Size does not always count. This 
Noctuid does not belong in the North although, being a 
strong flier, it gets even into Canada. j^Iolland records 
its having been found in a snow-storm at Leadville, 
Colorado^ ^A.11 the northern captures I know about were 
females in September. Although I have seen it flying 
182 



Plate LIV 








■ hi 



C. grynea 



C o t o c a I a concumbens 




C. arnica 




Euparthenos nubilis 




Erebus odora 



is; 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



back and forth in its tropical home just at dusk or even 
at mid-day if the place was shady, I have never recognized 
its larva, which is said to feed on Legumes. 

Hypenid.e 

These moths, or part of them, are sometimes put in the 
Noctuidae. They are commonly called Deltoids because 
the outline of their wings, when at rest, is frequently tri- 
angular like the Greek capital Delta; also Snout-moths 
because the palpi of many species are enlarged and so held 
as to resemble a beak. For the most part, the adults are 
dull colored, obscurely marked, and not likely to arouse 
comment by any but the collectors, and even they have 
not been enthusiastic, although these moths come readily 
to light and sugar-bait. However, they have their in- 
teresting points. Secondary sexual modifications are 
common, the males frequently having wings, feet, antennas, 
or palpi shaped differently from those of their mates. 
The larvae of Epizeuxis americalis have been found in the 
nests of ants {Formica rufa); it and some of its relatives 
seem to prefer dead leaves to living. Hypena humuli 
is frequently injurious to hops. In July, Mr. Grossbeck 
found a swarm of adult Epizeuxis lubricalis (Plate LV) in a 
hollow tree. The larvae feed on decaying wood and, 
probably, also on grasses; they are usually found under 
chips. 

NOTODONTID^E 

The adults superficially resemble the Noctuidae. They 
come freely to light and often to sugar-bait. The larvae 
have no claspers at the hind end of the body and so they 
more generally wave this portion in the air than do other 
caterpillars; sometimes the anal segment has a pair of 
fleshy projections but these seem to correspond rather to 
humps on other segments than to prop-legs. The pupae 
are usually naked. 

The yellow-necked, yellow-striped cater- 
Datana pillar on apple and other trees which seems, 

when disturbed or when at rest, to be trying to touch its 
184 



THE NOTODONTS. 



tail with its head is fairly certain to be Datana ministra 
(Plate LV). It is somewhat fuzzy, especially when 
young, and is given to associating with its brothers and 
sisters, the whole family gathering in a mass and going 
through their gymnastics at the same time. The naked 
pupae winter in the earth. The adults emerge in June and 
July; their front wings are reddish brown, their hind wings 
pale yellowish. The eggs are laid in flat masses of about a 
hundred on the leaves of their food plants. The larvae 
of Datana integerrima are darker than those of ministra, 
they lack the yellow neck-band, and they seem to have 
more fine white hair. They feed chiefly on walnut and 
hickory. The adults are browner (not so reddish) than 
ministra and the pair of fine lines which enclose a dark area 
near the base of the front wings do not diverge from each 
other so much. You may find Datana angusii, and other 
species as well, but the larvae of all, as far as I know, 
throw themselves into the posture shown for ministra. 

The larva of Schizura concinna (Plate 
LV), which feeds on apple and other orchard 
trees as well as on rose, blackberry, and a great variety of 
plants, is frequently noticed because of the prominent 
bright red hump on the first abdominal segment; the head 
is also red; the body is black, striped with yellow. Hol- 
land, quoting Sir George Hampson, says the pupas of 
Xotodontidae are naked; I put in a "usually, " above, 
because I have it on good authority that the larvae of this 
species become full grown in late summer or early fall and 
then spin loose silken cocoons to which are attached bits of 
earth and rubbish, so that they closely resemble their 
surroundings as they lie on the ground beneath rubbish, 
or just under the surface of the soil. After some time the 
larvae transform to pupae, in which stage the winter is 
passed. The adult has a wing expanse of about an inch 
and a quarter, gray front wings with a curved cross-row 
of brown shades near the middle, and white hind wings 
with dark vein-tips and a small dark spot at the hind 
angle. 



1 8s 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Liparid^: 



The best known and worst liked species 

emerocampa Q £ ^ family is the present one. which is 
leucostigma 

popularly called the Vaporer or White- 
marked Tussock Moth. '^ The latter name refers to the 
larva (Plate LV) with its four white tussocks. - This 
larva is further adorned with three long pencils of black 
hair, a coral-red head and, in addition to yellow and black 
stripings on the body in general, two small red protuber- 
ances on the sixth and seventh abdominal segments; these 
red swellings are said to be organs which give off an odor 
disagreeable to the larva's enemies. All in all, it is a pretty 
creature if it only would not eat the leaves of our shade 
trees, among which it seems to be no respecter of species. 
I am not sure how the name Vaporer arose but I remember 
that my mother used to ask me not to "vapor" around her 
face when I got to swinging things about. iWell, this 
larva is much given to spinning a long thread, hanging 
by it from a tree and allowing itself to be swung by the 
breezes. Perhaps that is the reason for the name. ^The 
grayish cocoon is placed on tree trunks, fence corners, 
and similar places; it is composed of larval hairs held 
together by silk. The adult female is a stay-at-home 
for she has no wings; ^ She merely crawls to the outside 
of the cocoon, mates, lays her batch of four hundred or 
so eggs on the cocoon, protects them with a firm, frothy- 
looking covering, and dies. The general color of the male is 
ashy gray. There are from one to three generations a 
year, depending on the climate. It is the eggs which 
over-winter. Slingerland and Crosby note that the tus- 
sock-moth is beset with many enemies. wAiter mention- 
ing birds and predacious insects they say "as many as 90 
per cent, of the caterpillars and pupae sometimes fall a 
prey to more than twenty different kinds of hymenopterous 
and dipterous insect parasites. . . . Unfortunately, how- 
ever, there are fourteen hyper-parasites which work on the 
true parasites and thus materially lessen their effective- 
ness. There are also tertiary parasites which destroy these 
hyper-parasites, thus presenting a very complicated and 
interesting case of insect parasitism." If you once get a 
186 



Plate LV 




Epizeuxis lubricalis 




Schizura concinna 





Datana ministra 




"HemerocampQ leuco stigma 

187 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



tree free from this species, it may be kept free by banding 
the trunk with sticky paper, or the like, unless the tree 
is so close to others that larvae may be blown to it. The 
reason back of this protective method is that the females 
can not fly. 

About 1868 an amateur entomologist in 
Porthetna Massachusetts was breeding the Gypsy 

Moth (Plate LVI), using material which he 
had obtained from Europe. -His reason for doing this has 
been variously stated; an excuse, which might now be 
made for him, is that "he did not know it was loaded." 
At any rate, some of the specimens went off and started to 
colonize America. Millions of dollars have since been 
spent in an effort, so far unsuccessful, to free us from the 
invader; the most that has been done has been to confine 
it to New England. The United States Bureau of Entomo- 
logy is now engaged in an attempt to introduce from Europe 
parasites which there hold it, and the Brown-tail Moth, 
in check. The male Gypsy Moth is olive-brown; the 
whitish female rarely flies and then but feebly, although 
the wings are rather well developed. Adults appear from 
June to September but most abundantly in early July. 
The eggs, which are yellowish, nearly globular, and about 
a twentieth of an inch in diameter, are laid in masses of 
from less than 200 to more than 1000 and covered with buff- 
colored scales from the underside of the female's abdomen 
(See Plate LVI). These masses are placed anywhere that 
the female happens to be; as she does not crawl far from the 
pupal shell in which she dwelt and as the larvae are much 
given to pupating under overhanging stones, on fences, 
buildings, wagons, railroad cars, and the like, as well as 
on vegetation, there is where the eggs are to be found. 
Though the larvae may develop in a few weeks, they rarely 
hatch until the next April or May. More than five 
hundred species of plants, including conifers, are in their 
dietary. The full-grown larva is about 2.25 inches long, 
brownish-yellow with long hairs and four rows of tubercles; 
there is one tubercle of each row on each segment, those 
on the anterior segments being blue, those (especially of 
the two middle rows) on the posterior segments being red. 
[88 



Plate LVI 



roil* 




hrysorrhoea 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



The larvae are largely nocturnal and spend the day con- 
gregated in colonies on a limb, trunk, or in some protected 
nook. They pupate about July, also often in colonies, 
each rather conical, dark-brown pupa, about an inch 
long, lying among a few threads, and securely attached to 
some of them by its terminal spine. If you should see 
something which you think may be the Gypsy Moth or the 
Brown-tail Moth, in any of their stages, send it at once 
to your State Entomologist or to the U. S. Bureau of 
Entomology at Washington. 

We do not know how the Brown-tail 
Euproctis Moth (piate LVI) crossed the Atlantic 

chrysorrhoea - 

from Europe, but it happened near Boston 

in the early nineties. Its American range is now from 
Rhode Island to Nova Scotia. Unlike those of the Gypsy 
Moth, these females fly freely, so that wind is a factor in 
their spread; they are white, except for the yellowish-brown 
hairs at the tip of their abdomen, which give them their 
name. The males are similar but smaller and the brown 
of their tails is not so conspicuous. Adults appear in 
July and fly abundantly to lights. > The female covers her 
egg-mass, which is usually placed on the under side of a 
leaf, with brownish hairs from her body. The larvae 
hatch in two or three weeks and feed in colonies, webbing 
together the tender terminal leaves. In this nest they 
pass the winter, when a third or half grown. The full- 
grown larva is about an inch and a half long, nearly black 
but with a red tubercle on the back of the ninth and tenth 
segments; it is clothed with hair, there being a row of 
nearly white tufts on each side of the body and the rest 
brownish. These hairs, especially the brown ones, are 
barbed and carry an irritating poison; furthermore, they 
are carried by wind when freed at molting times and, if 
they gain entrance to the human skin, give rise to "brown- 
tail rash." The larvae feed on a wide range of plants, 
preferring apple, pear, wild cherry, oak, and maple. The 
cocoons are loosely spun, often in masses, in curled leaves, 
crevices in bark, and in other sheltered places. The pupal 
period averages about three weeks. See Gypsy Moth for 
advice. 

190 



THE TENT-CATERPILLAR. 



Lasiocampid^e 



Malacosoma 

americana 



If the Tent-caterpillar (Plate LVII) were 
not so common and such a pest we who are 
interested in nature would be willing to go 
miles to see a colony. We might even bring eggs home so 
that we could have it in our garden. In some books you 
will find this species and disstria under Clisiocampa. 
The adults, which are dull yellowish or reddish-brown, 
appear in late June or early July. The female lays three 
or four hundred eggs in a band which encircles a small 
twig of some tree, preferably wild cherry or apple. This 
band is rounded at the ends and covered with a water- 
proof protective "varnish." The embryos develop before 
winter but do not emerge until the next spring. n\ Their 
first act seems to be helping brothers and sisters spin a 
temporary silken tent around what is left of the egg-mass. 
If this is in a good place from which to go out for food, they 
may make their permanent tent here but usually they 
move, in several days, to a fairly large fork of the tree 
and there construct the, to us, unsightly web. The 
family sticks together until nearly full grown, resting in the 
tent during storms and the heat of the day and coming 
out to feed when it is cool but not too cold. ' On these 
excursions they follow, to some extent, definite paths which 
may be recognized by silken threads spun by the passing 
larvae. ^They get wanderlust when full-grown. Perhaps 
I object to them then more than ever, for they crawl over 
everything. They are really hunting for a protected place 
in w hich to spin tough, oval, white cocoons, which are held 
in place by irregular threads. Considering that Nature 
helps us bygiving this species many enemies, that the larvae 
gather in all too conspicuous webs where we may con- 
veniently burn them, and that even the eggs may be easily 
seen and removed during the winter, it is strange that 
people allow M. americana to exist. The reason probably 
is that its extermination requires community action. 
Last winter I picked all the egg-masses off my trees ; in the 
spring the editor of our country paper published a long 
article telling how to combat the tent-caterpillar; he lives 
across the street from me but he did nothing to the big 

IQI 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



colonies on an old cherry tree in his yard because he was 
going to cut the tree down in the autumn; this winter I 
must go all over my trees again. 

The common name, Forest Tent-cater- 

dis a stria SOma Pillar ' ° f this s P ecies ( Plate LVI1 ) is wron S 
for it makes no tent although closely related 

to americana. Its egg-masses resemble those of the 

other eastern species but are more square-cut at the ends. 

The larvae eat the leaves of almost any deciduous tree but 

maple is said to be its favorite. They feed in colonies, 

when young. Many of the cocoons are placed in curled 

leaves. 

Bombycid^e 

Perhaps the Commercial Silk-worm ought 

°™ yx not to be in a Field Book since it is not a 

mon 

field-insect. It is probable that, even in its 

native home, it could not now exist wild since, the larval 

legs have so degenerated that the larvae cannot climb well. 

The entire family was originally confined to Asia. The larva 

will eat the leaves of several kinds of plants, such as Osage 

orange, but it does best on white mulberry. The adults 

have a wing-expanse of about 1.75 inches, are creamy 

white and, although the wings seem fairly well developed, 

the moths do not fly, perhaps because of generations of 

artificial confinement. Each female lays about three 

hundred eggs. There are many races which have been 

produced by man's selection; some have one while others 

may have as many as six generations a year, also the color 

of larvae and cocoons differ. If labor were cheap enough 

in America to make the rearing of silk- worms pay, it is 

probable that some of our native Saturniidae would be 

fully as profitable as this species. 

GEOMETRID/E 

Larvae of this family are familiar to almost everyone, but 

only a small proportion of those larvae which come within 

our range of vision are really seen, since most of them 

stiffen themselves and pass for a twig. Others, those 

102 



Plate LVII 




MalQCOSomQ disstria 



193 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



which develop into the small, delicate, green moths you 
may have noticed about the lights, cover themselves with 
bits of their food; when next you gather Black-eyed Susans 
and Field Daisies look carefully on the flowers for a collec- 
tion of petals fastened to the back of a Geometrid larva 
(Plate LVIII). The name of this family means "earth 
measurers" and in English we call the larva? Measuring- 
worms, Inch- worms, Span-worms, or Loopers.\| The 
saying that, when they walk on our clothes, they are 
planning a new suit for us is probably as logical as "earth- 
measuring" and more interesting to us personally. <Their 
peculiar locomotion is due to their lacking all but two or 
three pairs of abdominal legs; with legs only at each end 
of the body they must hump themselves to get along. 
The adults are slender-bodied; their wings are broad and 
the pattern on the front wing is, in many cases, continued 
on the hind wings. . Nearly a thousand species have been 
described from this country alone. 

Imagine a tiny gray flower-pot having 
Alsophila a gra y cover decorated with a dark central 

spot and a dark ring near the edge; that is 
like an egg of the Fall Canker- worm, which also goes 
under the generic name of Anisopteryx. The female 
(Plate LVIII) places several hundred of them in a flat 
mass, keeping the rows regular, on the bark of .almost 
any deciduous tree. This is usually done in Novem- 
ber but sometimes not until spring. The larvae, es- 
pecially at first, skeletonize the leaves instead of eating 
them entirely; they get to be about an inch long, are 
black and have, on each side, a stripe of yellow below the 
spiracles and three narrower whitish stripes above them. 
These larvae, like many of their relatives, often let them- 
selves part-way down to the ground by means of a silken 
thread. If it is not your tree, it is rather amusing to see 
them climb up this thread again, for all the world like a 
sailor going up a rope. ' Once, about the first of June, they 
do not go back but instead go to a depth of from one to 
four inches underground, where they spin a thin, tough 
cocoon, pupate, and remain until October, November, or 
the next spring. The adult males are brownish-gray and 
194 



MEASURING=W0RiM5. 



have good wings. The females have much the same color 
but are wingless. However, the females are not as seden- 
tary as those of the Tussock Moth; they scramble out of 
the earth and make for a tree upon which to lay their eggs. 
This is where we can easily get the better of them, for we 
have only to put Tree Tanglefoot or some other barrier 
around the trunks of our trees and there will be no little 
Pometarias next spring. But there are two things to 
remember: first, one can never be quite sure when the 
females are going to come out, for they may choose a warm 
spell in mid- winter; and second, there is Paleacrita vemata 
(seep. 196). 

This pretty moth (Plate LVIII) has its 

y ;" a wings zigzagged with vellow and brown, 

undulata 

It gets a paragraph because of its nest. 

The female lays a cluster of eggs in early summer on a 

terminal leaf of wild cherry. I do not know just how 

they do it but the larvae fasten together the leaves at the 

end of the twig and the whole family feeds on the walls 

of the nest. When these walls are nearly eaten, the larvae 

bend other leaves and fasten them against the nest so that 

they may have fresh walls to eat. Finally they all leave 

to pass the winter underground as pupae. This species 

occurs also in Europe, but probably it is naturally on both 

sides of the Atlantic and not because of man's migrations. 

The adult (Plate LVIII) is a delicate 
pale green and the wings are crossed by 
two lighter lines. This description will fit 
many species of the subfamily Geometrinae, but to make it 
more definite without becoming technical would be diffi- 
cult. At any rate, it is the larva which is of interest here. 
It feeds on the fruit, and also on the foliage, of raspberry 
and blackberry. Like its relatives on the daisies (see 
p. 194) it covers itself with a heap of rubbish fastened to 
its back with silk. 

The larvae of the Currant Span-worm 

dbTiia Ph ° ra (Plate LVIII) feed ° n the leaveS ° f g00se " 
berry as well as of currant bushes ; they are 

yellow and plentifully spotted with dark brown. They 
195 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



hatch in spring, just as the leaves are expanding, pupate 
underground about a month later, and the pale yellow, 
marked with brown, moths emerge several weeks later, say, 
in early July. The eggs are laid on the twigs of their food 
plant, usually near a crotch, but they do not hatch until 
the next spring. The eggs are ovoid, deeply pitted, and 
blue-green in color. 

This is the Spring Canker-worm (Plate 
vernata ita LVIII). According to Slingerland and 

Crosby, the term " cancer- worme " origi- 
nated in England in 1 530 and was used for several different 
insects in the first authorized English version of the Bible 
in 161 1. In 1 66 1 John Hull said "the canker-worm hath 
for four years devoured most of the apples in Boston, that 
the trees look in June as if it was the 9th month." For 
a x long time pometaria (see p. 194) was not distinguished 
from vernata. The larvae of vernata may be ash-gray, 
green, yellow, or even dull black; they have much the same 
habits as those of pometaria but the adults do not emerge 
from the underground pupae until sometime between 
February and April, inclusive. The male's wings are 
silky gray. The female has no wings. She lays four 
hundred or more eggs in irregular clusters in crevices of the 
bark of some deciduous tree, fruit trees being favorites. 
These eggs are ovoid, slightly ridged, and of an iridescent 
E purple color. My chief objection to this species is that 
[ it was the excuse for the introduction of the English spar- 
r row. Tree bands would have been more effective and 
t not such a nuisance. 



g The Notched- wing Geometer (Plate 

; Ennomos LVIII) is the largest common Geometrid 

g of the Northeast. The wings are reddish 

t yellow, shaded and spotted with brown. It flies from 

t August to November. The larva, which gets to be more 

£ than two inches long, feeds on maple, chestnut, birch, and 

( other leaves. It spins a dense, spindle-shaped cocoon 

f within a cluster of leaves. 
( 
1 

196 



Plate LVIII 





Alsophilo pometaria 




r 

Cymatophora 

rlbearlQ Ennomos magnartus 



197 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Micro-Lepidoptera 

Under the above term, "Micros" for short, are roughly 
grouped a number of families of moths. Not only is the 
division not very satisfactory from a scientific standpoint, 
but, practically, many Macros are smaller than some 
Micros. The term super-family Tineoidea is sometimes 
used. The families of moths which follow are Micros. 

PSYCHID^E 

Plate LIX shows a bag such as is fre- 

Thyridopteryx quently no ticed on many sorts of trees, 

ephemereerormis * . "< » ' 

deciduous and coniferous. It is made of 

silk in which are fastened leaves or bits of stick. \If we 
examine such bags during the winter, we will find many of 
them to be empty but others will be found full of soft 
yellow eggs. Riley, one of our pioneer economic entomo- 
logists, wrote as follows: "Those which do not contain 
eggs are the male bags and his empty chrysalis skin is 
generally found protruding from the lower end. About the 
middle of next May these eggs will hatch into active little 
worms, which from the first moment of their lives, com- 
mence to form for themselves little bags. They crawl 
on to a tender leaf, and, attached to their anterior feet 
with their tails hoisted in the air, they spin around them- 
selves a ring of silk, to which they soon fasten bits of leaf. 
They continue adding to the lower edge of the ring, pushing 
it up as it increases in width, till it reaches the tail and 
forms a sort of a cone. As the worms grow, they continue 
to increase their bags from the bottom, until the latter 
become so large and heavy that the worms let them hang 
instead of holding them upright, as they did while they 
were young. This full grown condition is not attained, 
however, without critical periods. At four different 
times during their growth these worms close up the mouths 
of their bags and retire for two days to cast their skins or 
moult, as is the nature of their kind, and they push their 
old skins through a passage which is always left open at the 
extremity of the bag, and which also allows the passage of 
excrement. During their growth they are very slow travel 
198 



BAG-WORMS. 

lers and seldom leave the tree on which they were born, 
but when full grown they become quite restless, and it is 
this time that they do all their travelling, dropping on to 
persons by their silken threads and crossing the sidewalks 
in all directions. A wise instinct urges them to do this, 
for did they remain on one tree, they would soon multiply 
beyond the power of that tree to sustain them and would 
in consequence become extinct. When they have lost 
their migratory desires, they fasten their bags very securely 
by a strong band of silk to the twigs of the tree on which 
they happen to be. A strange instinct leads them to thus 
fasten their cocoons to the twigs only of the trees they 
inhabit, so that these cocoons will remain secure through 
the winter, and not to the leaf-stalk where they would be 
blown down with the leaf. After thus fastening their 
bags, they line them with a good thickness of the same 
material, and resting awhile from their labors, at last 
cast their skins and become chrysalids. < Hitherto the 
worms had all been alike, but now the sexes are distinguish- 
able, the male chrysalis being but half the size of the female 
chrysalis. Three weeks afterwards [late August or early 
September] a still greater change takes place, the sexes 
differentiating still more. The male chrysalis works 
himself down to the end of his bag and, hanging half- 
way out, the skin bursts and the moth with a black body 
and glassy wings escapes, and when his wings are dry, 
soars through the air to seek his mate, 'i She never leaves 
her case, but issues from her chrysalis in the shape of an 
abortive, footless, and wingless affair and after copulat- 
ing, works herself back into the chrysalis skin, fills its upper 
but posterior end with eggs and stops up the other end 
with what little there is left of her body when she gets 
through." 

Oiketicus abboti of the Southern States places short 
pieces of twigs across the bag, making sort of a log cabin. 

The larvae of the small family Lacosomidae also make 
cases of leaves and silk. These "bags" are rather widely 
open at both ends. They are not usually common, but 
are to be looked for on oak. 



199 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



LIMACODID.E 



The larvae of this family are curious, slug-like creatures, 
with almost nothing resembling legs. They crawl on their 
flattened bellies. Be careful about handling them, if 
they have spines, as these are easily broken off and are 
extremely irritating things to get in one's skin. Some 
authors use " Cochlidiidae " as the family name. 

The Saddle-back larva (Plate LIX) is 
Sibme often noticed by reason of its curious shape 

and color. It feeds on apple, pear, cherry, 
and other things, including corn. Its spines sting like 
nettles but the pain may be allayed by ammonia or bicar- 
bonate of soda. The larvae are full grown in late summer 
and the adults fly during June and July, so that I suppose 
the winter is passed in a cocoon but whether as larva or 
pupa I know not. Dyar and Morton {Journal N. Y. 
Ent. Soc, IV) figure the cocoon as a smooth ovoid on a 
leaf and say that the larval hairs imbedded in it retain 
their stinging qualities. 

See Plate LIX for the adult Green Slug- 
uclea moth. The larva is bright scarlet with 

four blue-black lines along the back and with 
yellow prickles. Sometimes, possibly it is when a molt 
is due, the ground-color of the larva is brownish yellow. 
The cocoon is dark brown, egg-shaped, smooth, and very 
thin. The larva hibernates in this cocoon, not changing 
to a pupa until spring. The adults fly in June and July. 
These adults may be confused, at first, with those of other 
species of Euclea. 

"Hag-moth" refers to the larva which is 
Phobetron dark brQwn wilh • ht relative]y long 

pithecmm t- u iU 

fleshy, hairy appendages, which cover the 

back and project from the sides of the larva and have a 
backward twist, like locks of disheveled hair. They 
are, in fact, fleshy hooks covered with feathery, brown hairs 
among which are longer, black, stinging hairs. The 
cocoon is almost spherical, and is defended by the hairy 
200 



Plate LIX 




EucUq 
chloris 



Fhyridopteryx ephemeraeformis 





Sibine stimulea 




Harrisina americana 



SLUQ-MOTHS AND FLANNEL-MOTH, 



appendages, which the larva in some way contrives to 
leave on the outside. These tufts give to the bullet- 
shaped cocoon a nondescript appearance and the stinging 
hairs afford a very perfect protection against birds and 
other insectivorous animals. "Unlike other species of 
Limacodida?, the Hag-moth larva? do not seek to hide 
away their cocoons, but attach them to leaves and twigs 
fully exposed to view, with, however, such artful manage- 
ment as to surroundings and harmonizing colors that they 
are, of all the group, most difficult to discover. A device 
to which this insect frequently resorts exhibits the extreme 
of instinctive sagacity. If the caterpillar can not find 
at hand a suitable place in which to weave its cocoon it 
frequently makes for itself, more satisfactory surroundings 
by killing the leaves upon which, after they have become 
dry or brown in color, it places its cocoon" (Hubbard). 
The larva is a rather general feeder and has been found on 
most orchard trees as well as on wild trees and shrubs in 
late summer. The adults fly in midsummer; the female is 
brownish, marked with yellow; the male is much like that 
of T. ephemeraformis (Plate LIX) but smaller. 

Megalopygid^e 

It is the cocoon of the Crinkled Flannel- 
Megalopyge moth whkh getg thig family intQ the q ucs _ 

tion-box and crispata is the only northeastern 
species which is at all common — it is only locally so in New 
Jersey, for example, although it ranges from Massachu- 
setts southward and is found at least as far west as Minne- 
sota. The larva feeds on raspberry, blackberry, apple, and 
other leaves. Like other larva? of its family, it is extra well 
provided with legs, having the usual three pairs on its 
thorax and, according to Eliot and Soule, seven pairs on its 
abdomen. It is an oval, very hairy affair; the hairs arc 
brown and form a ridge along the larva's back sloping 
off on each side. The tough oval cocoon is fastened to the 
side of a twig very securely indeed and here the creature 
hibernates; but what arouses one's interest is that when the 
moth emerges, about July, it does so by lifting a flat circu- 
lar lid at one end of the cocoon. The adult is a soft, 

201 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



fluffy, yellowish moth, with a wing expanse of about an 
inch and a quarter or a little more; the front wings have 
irregular brownish markings near the front margin and 
rows of fine, curly, hair-like scales; the body is thick and 
woolly. 

PYROMORPHIDiE 

These are small, blackish moths, often with brilliant 
markings, most of our species having a red collar. 

If you have ever seen these larvae on the 

rrisina leaves of grape or Virginia creeper (Plate 

amencana T T ^ r . .,, ■,-,■, . , , , 

LIX), you will recall the sight, but there 

are other larvae which feed on other plants in the same 

orderly fashion. This species pupates in a white oval 

cocoon underground. Some of the adults emerge, after a 

pupal existence of only about two weeks, but other pupae 

winter over. The yellow eggs are laid in loose clusters 

of about a hundred on the under side of the food-plant's 

leaves. 

CossiDiE 

The adults' appearance suggests Sphingidae but they 
have a very small head and almost no tongue; furthermore, 
they, especially the females, are very feeble fliers. All 
the strength seems to be in the larvae, which bore in the 
wood of trees. The adults are sometimes called Goat- 
moths, presumably on account of their odor. 

The Leopard-moth is an immigrant from 
Zeuzera Europe, undesirable but interesting, which 

is still largely confined to the vicinity of 
New York City. The adult male (Plate LX) is only 
about two thirds as large as its mate; the semitransparent 
wings of each are white, spotted with black.- The grub- 
like larva is pale yellowish, sometimes pinkish, except 
for numerous brownish-black spots. They bore in almost 
any tree and in many shrubs. If the young larva starts, 
as it usually does, in a twig which is too small for its con- 
202 



/EQERHD/E OR SESIIDAE. 



tinued existence, it crawls out and bores in a larger branch. 
Larval life takes nearly two years. Pupation occurs about 
May in the last larval burrow and adults emerge during 
June and July. Each female places well on to a thousand 
eggs in soft, young wood and in crevices of old bark. 

We also have native species of Cossidae, the commonest 
probably being Prionoxystus robinice. Its larvae bore 
chiefly in oaks but also in chestnut, poplar, willow, maples, 
ash, and, as its name indicates, locust. Lugger says the 
larva is bad smelling, reaches a length of 2.5 inches, and 
after about three years of eating wood spins a loose cocoon 
in its burrow. The adult female's wings expand about 
2.5 inches; they are gray with irregular black lines and 
spots. The male is hardly more than half as large; his 
front wings are darker than the female's, and his hind 
wings are yellowish. 

^Egeriid.e 

It is sad, but apparently true, that Sesiidae, the com- 
monly used name of this family, must, according to the 
rules of the game, give way to ^geriidas. Those of you 
who are just starting are fortunate in not having to un- 
learn that, at least, old name.. The wings of the ^Egeriidae 
are usually more or less transparent and the adults depart 
from the usual habits of moths in that they fly by day 
(see also Hemaris). Please do not take "protective mimi- 
cry" too seriously but I quote Lugger in order to give the 
idea. "Many of the species of moths belonging here are 
very beautiful, and most of them are remarkable on account 
of the protective mimicry exhibited by them. This close 
resemblance to insects of different orders was observed 
long before the significance of protective mimicry was 
understood. The majority of the Sesiidae mimic bees, 
wasps, and flies. We all know from experience that bees 
and wasps can advance some very pointed arguments to be 
left alone, and any other insect that closely mimics such 
w r ell armed warriors is very apt to be left unmolested. 
This mimicry is not simply a superficial one, since even 
their motions, if captured or disturbed, are like those of 
the insects imitated. Their attitude when resting, the 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



sounds they produce, their hyaline wings, their ringed body, 
even the odor they give off, all are apt to warn us and to 
caution us. Yet though they pretend to sting they lack 
the necessary organ for that purpose." The larvas are 
all borers and, like most concealed larvae, rather uniformly 
yellowish-white except for their heavily chitinized parts, 
such as the head, which are darker. To illustrate the life 
histories I have selected some of those species which may 
be living in our yards. There are many more afield. 

The larva will be found in almost any 

fciehttia cucurb but prefers squash or pumpkin, 

satyrmiformis . . . 

It lives in the stems, causing them to rot; 

and Sanderson states that as many as forty larvae have 

been taken from one vine. When full grown (about an 

inch long), the larva leaves the plant and, going an inch 

or two below the surface of the ground, spins a tough 

cocoon the outer silk of which is well mixed with particles 

of earth. In the South pupation takes place at once and a 

second generation appears in July but in the North the 

larva hibernates in its cocoon and does not pupate until 

spring. The pupa has a horn-like process between its 

eyes which is said to be used in cutting the cocoon. At 

any rate, it gets to the surface in some way and the adult 

emerges from April to September according to latitude 

and other conditions. See Plate LX; the front wings 

are opaque, olive green, and have a metallic luster; the 

hind wings are transparent; the abdomen and legs are 

reddish, the former being marked with black and bronze 

and the hind legs having a long black fringe. The dull 

red, oval eggs are laid singly. 

As the specific name indicates, this moth 
Memythrus bears some resemblance to the wasp, 
Polistes. See Plate LX; the front wings 
are opaque and dark brown; the hind wings are trans- 
parent, the male's being rather yellowish; the abdomen is 
brown, with yellow lines on the second and fourth seg- 
ments; the legs and the sides of the thorax, especially the 
male's, are reddish. Each female lays several hundred 
chocolate-colored, finely sculptured eggs with apparent 
204 



Plate LX 




Zeuzero pyrina 




7M 

P\ IT.. . 

Memythruspolistijormis 



Mehttm 

satyrinijormis 




Sannihoidea exit i o s q 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



carelessness on almost any vegetation near grape vines. 
These eggs are washed by rains to the ground where the 
larvas hatch and burrow into the earth searching for a 
grape root in which to feed. The larval life lasts for 
nearly two years, the first winter being passed naked in the 
burrow and the second enclosed in a thin hibernaculum of 
silk. This, however, is not the cocoon, for when spring 
comes the larva works its way to near the surface of the 
ground where it makes a tough cocoon of earth, excrement, 
and silk within which it changes to a brown pupa with a 
yellow-banded abdomen. About a month later (July or 
August) the pupa comes half-way out of the ground and the 
adult is freed. 

This is the Raspberry Root-borer or 

em. ia Blackberry Crown-borer, both names in- 

margraata , 

dicating the food habits of the larva, 

while the generic name suggests the resemblance which 
some of the adults of the genus bear to certain wasps 
(Bembex). The female of this species has a wing expanse of 
about 1.5 inches; the front wings are transparent except 
for the brown margins, tips, and a band which crosses 
each wing at about two thirds of the distance from the 
base to the tips; the hind wings are altogether transparent 
(except, of course, for the veins and outer fringe which are 
opaque in most, if not all, species) ; the abdomen is banded 
with brownish-black and yellow, the former color pre- 
dominating in front, the latter behind; the legs are largely 
yellow. The male is somewhat smaller than the female 
and his abdomen has less yellow at the hind end.--, The 
moths emerge in, usually, late summer; the eggs arc laid 
on the canes close to the ground ; and the larvas, on hatch- 
ing, crawl down the stem where they hibernate under 
the bark just below the surface of the ground. In the 
spring they start to bore into the roots or the base of the 
plant, often girdling it. They spend the second winter 
in their burrows and the following spring work upward 
in the plant to a point above ground where, just inside the 
bark, they pupate. About a month later the pupa cuts 
the bark with its "horn," crawls partly out, and the 
adult emerges to mate and start the history anew. 
206 



THE PEACH-TREE BORER. 



The Peach-tree Borer (Plate LX) is 

eiti^a 01 ^ UvinS JUSt outside m y back door and X 
am not philosophical enough to enjoy its 

neighborliness. I have seen an estimate of $6,000,000 

given for the annual damage done by it — not all on my 

lot, of course. This species ought to have stuck to wild 

cherries and plums, which are believed to have been its 

original food, although it also feeds on willow. The 

afflicted trees display distress signals by exuding large 

masses of gum where the larvae are working, which is 

usually near the surface of the soil. The insect passes the 

winter as a half-grown larva. After attaining its full 

growth early the next season, the larva leaves its burrow 

(usually) and makes its unkempt cocoon of excrement, 

pieces of bark,~gum, and silk on the trunk of the tree or on 

the earth. About a month later (which may be from 

June, or earlier in the South, to September) the adults 

appear. They have a wing expanse of an inch or more but 

the sexes differ markedly in appearance. The female is 

dark steel-blue (sometimes with a reddish glint) except 

for the transparent hind wings and the orange band which 

covers the fourth and, in the North, the fifth abdominal 

segments. All the male's wings are transparent, with 

blue edgings and blue crossbands like those of marginata; 

the body is blue, banded with white or light yellow. 

Each female lays from 200 to 800 eggs, about a fiftieth of 

an inch long and much the color of the bark on which they 

are placed. I have never seen them but, according to the 

pictures, they are very pretty. I will admit that the 

adults, also, are pretty. There is a generation every 

year. This species does damage wherever peaches are 

grown in this country, although it is an eastern species; 

on the Pacific coast it is joined in the work of destruction 

by San.iinoidea opalescens. 

We can blame this on Europe, but it is 
ynant e on nQw we ^ na t ura lized, having been here for 
tipuliformis , 1*1 • -r 1 

about a hundred generations. It also oc- 
curs in Asia and Australia. We would expect, from its 
name, that it is very long-legged, like Tipulidae, but it is 
not. Both sexes have both pairs of wings transparent 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



except for the golden markings, with purple reflections. 
The body is dark purple, with three yellow abdominal 
bands in the female and four in the male. The brown, 
spherical eggs are placed singly on currant stems, and the 
larva works up or down the pith. The larvae hibernate 
when nearly full-grown; pupate the following spring in a 
silk-lined cavity just under the bark; and emerge during 
June and July. There is one generation a year. 

Synanthedon is the genus Sesia of authors, 

ynan edon ^ e name Sesia properly belonging to a 

P lctl P es c o u- 'j ni f c .1 • 

genus of Sphmgidae. I he work of this 

species is often confused with that of exitiosa, but pictipes 

prefers old trees with rough bark and works more often 

on the trunk and larger branches than at the base of the 

trees. Its cocoon is similar to that of exitiosa but smaller. 

The adults, both sexes of which resemble the male exitiosa, 

are also smaller. They fly during June and July. It is 

said that this species attacks June-berry and chestnut 

in addition to those three "favored" by exitiosa, but it 

rarely does much damage to any. 

PYRALID.E 

This is a large family of small moths and, although a 
number of the species are somewhat expensive to the 
farmer, he often does not know what is the matter. The 
group does not seem to be a "popular " one. The following 
are samples of some of the subfamilies. 



Pyraustinae 

The wings are rather thinly scaled. Most of the species 
are yellow and white. The larvae usually live in webs, 
sometimes socially. 

The adult of the Grape Leaf -folder docs 
Desmia not h avc t ft c more or less typical color- 

ation of the sub-family; it is brownish-black, 
with two white spots on each front wing and one (scme- 
208 



PYRALID>E. 

times divided in the female) on each hind wing. The larva 
feeds on the upper surface of a grape leaf, folding the leaf 
over and fastening it by strands of silk. Pupation takes 
place in the folded leaf. The pupse of the second annual 
generation hibernate in their retreats, which have fallen to 
the ground. 



This species is sometimes called "Garden 
L ^n2i 6ge Web-worm" but it is more at home on 

weeds than on garden plants. The markings 
of the yellowish and grayish-brown adult are difficult to 
describe in a few words. The thing which is apt to attract 
attention in the "field" is the black-spotted, yellow larvae 
in their fine web, which encloses skeletonized leaves. 
They pupate in silk-lined, underground cells. 



Larvae of Symphysa adelalis feed on white lichens on the 
:runks of oak and other trees, making large, dumbbell- 
shaped cases for themselves of the lichens. 

Larvae of Blepharomastix limata, between folded oak 
eaves. 



Larvae of Diaphania nitidalis and hyalinata, in stems of 
Cucurbitaceae. 



Larvae of Pyrausta theseusalis web up tips of ferns; of 
P. penitalis, in stems of lotus and cat-tail (Typha). 



Nymphulinae 

Small, for the most part brightly colored species, with 
narrow wings, the front pair being more or less angular. 
Many of the larvae live on water plants and are semi- 
aauatic. Their life histories are probably interesting but 
have not been carefully studied. The young larvae may 
have gills. The larvae of Nymphula obliteralis live in 
- on the leaves of greenhouse water-plants. 
M 209 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Pyralinae 



This subfamily contains some rather troublesome 
species such as the following: 

The larva of the Meal Snout-moth lives 
Pyrahs - n cerea i Sj flour, and clover hay. It is 

whitish, a bit darkened at the ends, and has a 
reddish head. It lives in a long tube, which it makes by 
fastening its food-material together with silk. Pupation 
occurs in a cocoon outside of the tube. The adult has a 
wing expanse of about. .75 inch. It may be recognized 
by the front wings, which have chocolate-colored bases 
and tips, separated from the light-brown central area by 
curved white lines. It is rather generally distributed 
by commerce. There are from two to four generations 
a year, depending on temperature and other conditions. 

The larva of Hypsopygia costalis is the Clover-hay Worm 
and is sometimes injurious. 

Crambinae 

The narrow front wings are sometimes drawn to a point 
and are usually whitish, ornamented with golden or silvery 
scales; the hind wings are broad and without markings; 
the palpi are very long. When at rest, the wings are 
wrapped so closely to the body that the moths look like 
small cylinders. The larvae live in silken tubes just 
above or below the surface of the ground. 

The larva of Prionapteryx nebulifera in the Jersey pine- 
barrens makes of silk and sand a tube leading from an 
underground retreat to the leaves of sand-myrtle and 
huckleberry upon which it feeds. At night it carries 
pieces of leaves to its retreat for daytime meals. 

Most of the larvae of Cr ambus feed on grasses; that of C. 
vulvivagellus (The Vagabond, Plate LXI) is sometimes very 
destructive, feeding by night, and retiring by day to a 
tube of cut grass and silk just below the surface of the 
ground; C. caliginosellus has similar habits and, especially 
in the South, injures tobacco. 

Larvae of C'.Alo plejadellus bore in the stems of rice and 
allied plants. 

210 



Plate LXI 




Crambus vulviv agellus 



Coieophoro 
iletcherella 




*||fc GaUeria 

mellonellQ 




Oxypulus periscelidactylus 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Galleriinae 



Galleria 
mellonella 



The adult Bee-moth (Plate LXI) has pur- 
plish-brown front wings and pale brown or 
yellowish hind wings. The female probably 
enters the bee-hives at night and lays her eggs while the 
bees are asleep for, when awake, they actively and success- 
fully resent her presence. The larvae feed by night on the 
wax of the combs. . They make silken galleries in which 
they hide during the day. The tough cocoons are usually 
placed against the side of the hive. The Bee-moth is 
found almost everywhere that honey-bees are kept but its 
original home, probably Asia, is unknown. 

Phycitinae 

For the most part, these are a silky gray. Nearly all the 
larvae live in silken tubes, which may be in the stems of 
plants, in seeds, in flower heads, or in crumpled leaves. 
Ltztilia coccidivora feeds on the Tulip Soft Scale and the 
Cottony Maple Scale. 

There are many Leaf-crumplers but this 
meola species is apt to be noticed on home grounds. 

It has not been troublesome since spraying 
for the Codling Moth became general. The larvae feed 
on apple, plum, and cherry. In winter we can find with- 
ered crumpled leaves fastened to twigs. If these leaves 
conceal a larva encased in a tube of silk and frass, looking 
like a small, much-twisted horn, we probably have this 
species. In the spring, after banquets on young leaves, 
the larva pupates in its case and the adults, with silver- 
marked, pale brown, front wings, emerge about July. 

The larvae of Mineola vaccinii is the Cranberry Fruit- 
worm. 

The Mediterranean Flour-moth was first 

Ephestia noticed in America about 1889. It is now 

kuehniella 

rather widely distributed in flour, "feed," 

and cereals. The cylindrical larva is the color of pink 

flesh, with sparse, long hairs and a reddish-brown head. 

Not only do the larvae destroy by eating, but they also 

spin threads as they move about, so that the material in 

2T2 



CEREAL=FEEDING MOTHS. 



which they are becomes thoroughly mixed with webs. 
The larvae are sometimes so abundant in flour mills that 
the spouts and machinery become absolutely clogged with 
silk. The thin cocoons are usually placed on some dried 
substance and often have foreign material imbedded in the 
silk. The wing expanse is somewhat less than an inch; 
the front wings are dark gray crossed by wavy lines, the 
V-shaped marks near the bases making a W when the 
wings are closed; the hind wings are silvery gray and both 
are fringed with long hairs. Breeding continues through- 
out the winter in warm places, giving as many as four 
or five generations a year. 

The common name, Indian-meal Moth, 
odia - 3 no £ j nc i us i ve enough, for the larva is 

fond of all sorts of stored foods, including 
nuts and raisins. It was called Indian-meal Moth by 
Fitch, who found it in corn-meal in 1856. The larva 
can usually be distinguished from those of similar habits 
by a pale line which divides the brown thoracic shield in 
halves ; it is an active creature which goes backward about 
as well as forward and it spins a web wherever it goes. 
The cocoon is usually placed in a crack or corner. The 
wing-expanse is a little more than half an inch; the front 
wings are creamy- white at their bases, and reddish-brown, 
marked with black, beyond; the hind wings are dingy 
gray and fringed with long hairs. There are three or 
more generations a year, depending largely on temperature. 

Larvae of Acrobasis demoiella bore into the ends of walnut 
twigs; of A.angusella into hickory leaf-stems; of A. car yes. 
into the twigs of hickory; of A. rubrifasciella live in cases 
between leaves of sweet fern (Comptoma) and of alder; 
of A. betulella in tubes between birch leaves; of A. comp- 
toniella in cases between the terminal leaves of Comptonia 
and Myrica. 

Larvae of Pinipestis zimmermanni bore in pine. 

Larvae of Salebria afflictella live in tubes of silk and excre- 
ment between leaves of sweet gum. 

Larvae of Melitara prodenialis bore in the leaves of prickly 
pear (Opuntia). 

Larvae of Zophodia grossularice, in gooseberries. 
213 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Larvae of Euzophera semifuneralis bore under bark of 
plum and cherry. 

Pterophorid^ 

If I should ever take up Lepidoptera as a hobby, I might 
be tempted to specialize on these delicate "Plume Moths." 
The adults may be recognized by the fact that their 
wings, at least the hind ones, are split so as to form plumes; 
they are all small and long-legged.. The larvae suggest 
miniature Arctiids but, in addition to structural differ- 
ences, they may be distinguished from Woolly-bears by 
their habit of living in tubes and loose websM The pupae 
are soft, hairy, and hang by their tails like butterfly chrysa- 
lids, although a few make an attempt at constructing 
cocoons. The family is not a large one; less than twenty 
species have been recorded from New Jersey, for example, 
and, with the exception of periscelidactylus, none seem to 
be very common. 

See Plate LXI. Once again we quote 

welidMMus' 1 " fr ° m Rile y' s model re P° rts on the Noxious, 
beneficial and other insects of the State of 
Missouri: "The larva of the Grape-vine Plume invariably 
hatches soon after the leaves begin to expand ; and though it 
is very generally called the Leaf-folder (from the fact that 
the larvae live in a nest made by folding several leaves to- 
gether) , it must not be confounded with the true Leaf-folder 
[Psychomorpha epimensis of the Agaristidae], which does its 
principal damage later in the season. At first the larva 
of our Plume is smooth and almost destitute of hairs, but 
after each moult the hairs become more perceptible, and 
when full grown the larva [has] hairs arising from a trans- 
verse row of warts, each joint having four above and six 
below the breathing pores. After feeding for about three 
weeks, our little worm fastens itself securely by the hind 
legs to the underside of some leaf or other object, and, 
casting its hairy skin, transforms to the pupa state. This 
pupa, with the lower part of the three or four terminal 
joints attached to a little silk previously spun by the 
worm, hangs at a slant "of about 40 . It is of peculiar 
and characteristic form, being ridged and angular, with 
214 



TORTRICID/E: LEAF=ROLLERS. 



numerous projections, and having remnants of the larval 
warts; it is obliquely truncated at the head, but is chiefly 
distinguished by two compressed sharp- jointed horns; 
it measures, on an average, rather more than one-third 
inch, and varies in color [according to the color of the back- 
ground on which it is formed] from light green with darker 
green shadings, to pale straw-color with light brown shad- 
ings. . . . The moth escapes from this pupa in about one 
week, and, like all the species belonging to the genus, it 
has a very active and impetuous flight, and rests with the 
wings closed and stretched at right angles from the body, 
so as to recall the letter T. It is of a tawny yellow color, 
the front wings marked with white and dark brown, the 
hind wings appearing like burnished copper, and the legs 
being alternately banded with white and tawny yellow." 
We have, in the Northeast, a species of a related family, 
Orneodid^e. It is called Orneodes hexadactyla, each wing 
being divided into "six fingers," making twenty-four 
altogether. 

Tortricid^e 

Like Pyralidae, this is a large family of small moths. It 
gets its name from the habit, which many of its members 
have, of rolling leaves in order that they may have a 
sheltered place in which to feed. However, not all Tortri- 
cid larvae roll leaves and not all leaf-rollers are Tortricids. 
The front wings are rather broad and usually square-cut 
at the outer end. When at rest, the wings are folded 
against the body. The following are examples of the 
principal subfamilies. 

Olethreutinae 

The worm of most wormy grapes is the 
Polychrosis larya of this species> If no acc id en t, such 
viteana , . 

as being eaten by humans, happens to this 

larva, it will leave the grape berry and go to a leaf. Here 

it cuts a little flap, pulls the flap over and fastens it down 

to the main leaf with silk; the inside is then lined with 

silk and within this snug retreat the larva pupates. When 

this operation is carried on near the middle of the leaf, 

two flaps are cut and drawn together to make the shelter. 

215 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Finally, the frosts drop the leaf and winter is passed on 
the ground. The first annual generation of adults 
emerges about June first. They are purplish-brown moths 
with a wing-expanse of somewhat less than half an inch. 
The first-generation larvas feed on the grape blossoms and 
young grapes, making a slight web about them. They 
pupate as described, and the second-generation adults 
emerge in mid-summer. Occasionally there is a third 
generation. 

Most of us have heard of the Codling 
Carpocapsa Moth r ' Apple-worm (Plate LXII) and 

pomonella 

nearly all of us have bitten into its larval 

galleries. Like the majority of our insect pests, it came 
to us from Europe, in its case about 1750. In 1909 
Quaintance estimated that it destroyed annually $12,000,- 
000 worth of fruit and that $4,000,000 were expended 
annually in attempts to control it, not counting the salaries 
of professional entomologists! Mature larvae pass the 
winter in cocoons placed, usually, on trunks of trees and 
rendered less conspicuous by having bits of bark mixed 
with the silk. -="The larvas pupate in the spring, some- 
times leaving their hibernaculum to spin a new, thinner 
cocoon, and at other times merely breaking open the 
hibernaculum and closing it again with a thin layer of 
silk through which the pupa can push in order to free 
the adult. These adults, which have a wing expanse of 
about .75 inch and fly just after apple-blossom time, 
are well described by Slingerland and Crosby: "The 
front wings have the general appearance of watered silk, 
this effect being produced by alternating irregular lines of 
brown and bluish gray. Near the hind angle is a large, 
light brown area bounded on the inner side by an irregular 
chocolate brown band and crossed by two similar bands 
of metallic coppery or golden color in certain lights. The 
hind wings are coppery brown, darker towards the margin. 
The sexes are very similar, but the male may be dis- 
tinguished by the presence of an elongate dark area on the 
underside of the fore wing and a pencil of black hairs on 
the upper surface of the hind wing." The scale-like eggs, 
about half the size of a pin-head, are usually laid on the 
216 



Plate LXL 




FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



leaves and now is the time to start spraying, for the larvae 
take a few mouthfuls of foliage before they bore into the 
young fruit. This generation usually goes in at the blossom 
end of the apple but later generations often go in at the 
side; in any case it is not so much the amount of apple 
they eat that worries us as it is the difficulty in missing 
their excrement-filled burrows, and themselves, when we 
come to eat the fruit. Most of the larvae leave their 
burrows before the apple falls, and crawl down the limb 
to a suitable place for making a cocoon. There are from 
one to three, or more, generations a year, depending on 
climate. While this is distinctly an apple-worm, it feeds 
also on pears, quinces, and even English walnuts. It is 
found pretty nearly everywhere that apples are grown. 

Mexican "jumping beans" are usually seeds of a species 
of Croton which contain a wriggling larva of Carpocapsa 
saltitans. Kellogg says that another Tortricid larva, 
Grapholitha sebastianice, has similar habits. 

Larvae of the genus Rhyacionia feed in the shoots or 
bark of pines and hibernate in the shoots or in the masses 
of exuded resin. 

Larvae of Polychrosis liriodendrana, in silken tents on the 
under surface of tulip-tree leaves; of P. rnagnoliana, in 
tents on the under surface of magnolia leaves. 

Larvae of Cymolomia exoleta crumples gooseberry leaves ; 
of C. inomatana crumples wild cherry leaves. 

Larvae of Olethreutes daeckeana, in stalks and leaves of 
the pitcher plant (Sarracenia) ; of 0. cyanana, in rose shoots; 
of 0. hebesana, in seed pods of Tigridia, Iris, and other 
plants; of 0. hemidesma bind together leaves and make 
galleries in flower spikes of Spiraea; of 0. chionosema twist 
apple leaves. 

Larvae of Pseudogalleria inimicella, in stems of cat-briar 
(Smilax). 

Larvae of Eucosma cataclystiana, in stems of rag- weed 
{Ambrosia); of E. strenuana make spindle-shaped galls in 
Ambrosia stems; of E. otiosana, in stems of beggar-ticks 
(Bidens) ; of E. suffusana (an introduced European species), 
in (lower buds and on young leaves of cultivated roses; 
i >f E.juncticiliana, in goldenrod stems; of E. dorsisignatana, 
in roots of the same; of E. nisella, in willow catkins; of 
218 



TORTRICID/E. 



E. scudderiana, desertana, and possibly obfuscana, in galls 
on the stems of goldenrod but the galls themselves are 
probably made by Gnorimoschema gall<zsolidaginis; of E. 
tripartitana, in Cecidomyid galls on stems of Black-eyed 
Susan (Rudbeckia). 

Larva? of Cydia signatana, in tubes of silk and excrement 
under a web on underside of maple leaves; of C. timidella, 
in similar tubes on underside of oak leaves. 

Larva? of Episimus argutanus twist leaflets of sumac 
and leaves of other plants into a spiral tube. 

Larvae of Proteoteras cEsctdanum, in stems of horse- 
chestnut leaves. 

Larva? of Enarmonia piceafoliana and ratzeburgiana 
mine spruce needles; of E. pyricolana, in rosebuds. 

Larvae of Ancylis comptana roll strawberry (chiefly), 
blackberry, and raspberry leaves; of A. platanana make 
tents between veins of underside of sycamore leaves. 

Larvae of Laspeyresia car y ana, on hulls of hickory and 
walnut; of L. prunivora, in thorn apples {Crattzgus) ; of 
L. nigricana, in pods of cultivated peas. 

Larvae of Ecdytolopha insiticiana, in gall-like swellings 
in twigs of locust. 

Larvae of Mellisopus latiferrcana, in fallen acorns. 

Larvae of Rhopobota vacciniana, the Vine-worm or Black- 
head, on cranberry. 

Larvae of Spilonota ocellana, in buds of apple and other 
fruit trees. 

Larvae of Phthinolophus indentanus web leaves of 
huckleberry and bayberry. 

Tortricinae 

The larvae of Peronca minuta is the Fire- worm or Yellow- 
head 'of the cranberry. 

Larvae of Cenopis saracana crumple leaves of sassafras; 
of C. test irfana fasten together wild cherry leaves. 

Larvae of Archips fervidana make nests on oak and 
cherry, sometimes "thousands" join together and web 
up an entire bush or small tree. 

The larvae of .4. rosana (Plate LXII) feed on the leaves 
of currant and other small fruits, orchard and shade trees. 

2IQ 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Larvae of Eulia pinatubana live in tubes made by fasten- 
ing together the needles of white pine and then feed on 
the outer ends. 



We now come to a series of families which contain 
"really righty" wwcro-lepidoptera, but, as Smith said, 
"many of them are veritable gems of beauty, far exceeding 
in brilliancy and richness their relatives of larger size." 
The larvae are largely miners in leaves. 

"And there's never a blade nor leaf too mean 
To be some happy creature's palace." 

Yponomeutid^e 

Larvae of Plutella maculipennis are common on cabbage 
and other crucifers; the pupae can be easily seen through 
the delicate, lacy cocoons on the cabbage stalks. 

Larvae of Argyresthia thuiella mine arbor- vitae leaves. 

Gelechiid^e 

The Angoumois Grain-moth is another 

Sitotroga pestiferous importation from Europe and 

cerealella f t . ' , f, . 

receives its name from the fact that in 

1760 it was found to swarm in all the wheat-fields and 
granaries of Angoumois and of the neighboring provinces 
[of France], the afflicted inhabitants being deprived of their 
principal staple, and threatened with famine and pestilence 
from want of wholesome bread." It apparently landed in 
North Carolina about 1730. The larvae feed within the 
seeds of wheat, corn, oats, rye, barley, sorghum, and cow- 
peas, eating to, but not through, the surface. The creature 
hibernates as a larva wrapped in silk, and pupates in 
the spring. The adult, which resembles the ordinary 
clothes-moth, emerges in May or June and oviposits on 
the young grain-heads. There are two or three generations 
a year. 

Larvae of Metzneria lapella feed on seeds of burdock, 
hibernating in the burs. 

Larvae of Platodora similiella, in sunflower heads. 



•REAL MICROS. " 



Larvae of Telphusa belangerella are rollers of alder 
leaves. 

Larvss of Aristotelia roseosuffusella mine red-clover 
leaves and live also in fruit panicles of sumac ; of A . fungi- 
vorella web leaves of bayberry. 

Larvae of Recurvaria apicitripunctella, in hemlock leaves ; 
of R. piceaella, in spruce leaves; of R. obliquistrigella and 
juniperella, in juniper leaves; of R. thujaella, in arbor- vitae 
leaves, sometimes making the trees look burned; of R. 
robiniella each fasten flatly together two leaves of locust. 

Larvas of Trypanisma prudens, under a slight web on 
upper side of oak leaves. 

Larvae of Paralechia pinifoliella mine needles of Pinus 
rigida; of P. cristifasciella, between spun-together oak 
leaves. 

Larvae of Phthorimcea operculella mine stored potatoes. 

Larvae of Gnorimoschema gallcesolidaginis make spindle- 
shaped, gall-like swellings in goldenrod {Solidago) stems; 
of G. solidaginella have similar habits but are said to be 
confined to Solidago sempervirens; of G. buskiella and 
gallcEsteriella make galls in aster stems. 

Larvae of Anacampsis innocuella, in curled leaves of 
poplar; of A. lupinella, in folded- together leaves of Lupinus 
perennis. 

Larvae of Gelechia serotinella each fasten together the 
edges of a wild cherry leaf and live within a tube of silk 
and frass placed in the fold. 

Stenomatid^e 

Adults of Stenoma, when at rest, resemble gray and 
white bird droppings. 

CEcophorid^e 

Larvae of Eumeyrickia trimaculella, in spruce stumps. 

Adults of Agnopteryx and Despressaria often hibernate 
in outhouses, piles of brush, and the like. Larvae of A. 
pulvipennella, in leaves, folded lengthwise, of Solidago and 
Eupatorium; of A. robiniella, in similarly folded leaves of 
locust. Larvae of D. cinereocostella fasten together leaves 
of water parsnip. 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Blastobasid^e 



Smith wrote: "These moths are usually small in size 
with a peculiar silken sheen to the prevailing gray shade of 
the forewings. The favorite time for flight is an hour 
before sundown, when sometimes hundreds can be taken. 
The larvae live in seeds, nuts, and buds, as well as Aphid 
and Kermid galls." And in connection with Valentinia 
glandulella: "Almost every acorn found on the ground 
in midwinter contains one or more of the larvae of this 
species, often in company with a Tortricid and a Coleopter- 
ous larva." 

Elachistid^e 

Quoting Smith again, and most of the 
pa short notes which I give concerning moths 

are culled from his Insects of New Jersey: "As many 
of the species in the adult stage are indistinguishable 
from each other, the only reliable way to identify 
them is by breeding. The larvae are all case-makers, 
the cases distinctive for each species. In shape they 
range from slender flattened cylinders to one made of 
clusters of flowers. Almost every plant supports one or 
more species, many are confined to grasses, and others live 
in seed heads. In general, the life histories are similar; 
eggs are laid in summer, the larva makes a small case in 
which it hibernates in the next to the last stage. In the 
earliest days of spring it resumes feeding for a few weeks, 
moths issuing May to July." The cases may be found 
during the winter attached to trunks and larger limbs. 
When the trees leaf out, the larvae move to the leaves. 
C. carycefoliella, cylindrical dark brown case on hickory 
leaves. C. corylifoliella, case flattened, with serrate edges, 
on hazel. C. fletcherella, small dark brown flattened case on 
apple (Plate LXI). C. laricella, small dark brown case 
on larch. C. limosipennella, flat case, with serrate upper 
edge, on elm. C. malivorclla, black, pistol-shaped case 
on apple. C. pruniella, large black pistol-shaped case 
on wild cherry. C. ostryce, reddish-brown, flat case on 
iron wood. C. querciella, scimiter-case, anterior two 



SOME LEAF=MINERS. 



thirds white, the rest black, on oak. C. vagans, grayish 
cylindrical case on grass. C. viburnella, flat brown case 
with upper edge serrated on viburnum. 

Larva? of Batrachedra salicipomonella, in Cecidomyid and 
Tentheredinid galls on willow leaves. 

Larvae of Antispila cornifoliella make blotch mines in 
Cornus leaves; of A. viticordifoliella make orange-colored 
blotch mines on wild grape ( Vitis cordifolia) leaves. 

Coptodisca. The larvae are leaf-miners and some, at 
least, pupate in a case which they cut from the epidermis 
of a leaf and attach to a tree trunk. C. lucifluella, on 
hickory; C. ostrytzfoliella, on iron wood; C. saliciella, on 
willow; C. splendoriferella, on Cratcegus, apple, plum, and 
wild cherry. 

Larvae of Mompha brevivittella and circumscriptella, in 
seed-capsules of evening primrose; of M. eloisella, in stalks, 
during winter, of the same plant. 

TlNEID/E 

Most of the larvae are leaf-miners, their life being passed 
in tunnels between the upper and under surfaces of a 
single leaf, which, however, they usually desert to pupate 
in a tough cocoon on a twig or on the ground. The shape 
of the mine, as seen through the leaf, and the kind of leaf 
it is in are frequently quite characteristic of a given species. 
The following definitions are taken from Comstock. See 
also Plate LXII. The long, narrow, and more or less 
winding mines are described as "linear mines." Some 
of these are very narrow at their beginning and gradually 
enlarge, resembling in outline a serpent; frequently the 
larger end is terminated by a blotch-like enlargement 
suggesting a head. Such mines are termed "serpentine 
mines." Other mines that start from a narrow beginning 
enlarge more rapidly and extend in a more or less regular 
curve; these' are "trumpet mines." The mines of many 
species are mere disk-like blotches; these are referred to as 
"blotch mines." In some of the blotch mines the epider- 
mis of one side of the leaf is thrown into a fold by the 
growth of the leaf; these are "tentiform mines." A 
"tract mine" is merely a broad linear one. A "com- 
223 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



munity" mine is one in which there are several larvae; 
it is probably formed by several blotch mines running 
together. 

These are among the smallest of Lepidop- 
Stigmella tera ^ sQme j lav j ng a w j ng eX p anse Q f not 

over an eighth of an inch. S. amelanchieriella, broad 
mines in leaves of June-berry (Amelanchier); S. anguinella, 
narrow, serpentine mines in oak leaves; S. saginella, moder- 
ately broad, serpentine mines in oak and chestnut leaves; 
5. caryafoliella, very narrow, whitish mines in hickory 
leaves; S. corylifoliella, long, narrow, winding mines in 
hazel leaves; S. juglandifoliella, narrow, whitish mines in 
walnut leaves; S. platanella, large, irregular, blotch mines 
on under side of sycamore leaves; S. ostrycefoliella, moder- 
ately wide, tract mines in iron wood leaves; S. virginiella 
long, narrow, track mines in iron wood leaves; 5. platea, 
moderately wide, winding mines in oak leaves; S. pomi- 
vorella mines in apple leaves; S. prunifoliella, narrow mines 
in wild cherry leaves; 5. rosccfoliella, serpentine mines in 
sweetbrier leaves; S. rubifoliella, blotch mines, and S. 
villosella, narrow linear mines in blackberry leaves. 

Bucculatrix larvae are leaf-miners when young but later 
feed externally. They hibernate in slender cocoons which 
have longitudinal ribs or ridges and which are usually 
fastened to the trunks or large limbs of trees. 

All the larvae are leaf-miners and there 

Phyllonoryter are a { number of species. The 
or Lithocolletis . , „ ■ , 

samples given here represent a very' 

small part of the Northeastern fauna, oak, especial!}-, 
being largely left out of account since it harbors so 
many of the numerous species which make similar 
mines. Oak: cincinnatiella makes large community 
mines on the under side of leaves; conglomeratella, 
leathery, brown blotch mines on upper side of leaves; 
tubiferella, long, sinuate band-like mines, gradually 
increasing in width and frequently crossing, on upper side 
of leaves. Chestnut: macrocarpella, upper side of leaves 
(also on oak); kearfottella, narrow mines on under side, 
usually along a vein. Maple: lucidicostclla, on under side; 



SOME LEAF=MINERS. 



saccharella, irregular blotch mines on upper side; aceriella, 
broad tract mines on upper side of leaves. Birch: betuli- 
vora, small, nearly circular mines on upper side; lentella, 
community mines on upper side of leaves (also on iron- 
wood). Ironwood: obscuriocostella, under side; ostrya- 
foliella, also on under side but mine is much wrinkled and 
usually near the margin of the leaf; tritcenianella, rather 
large tent mines on upper side of leaves; ostryaretta, com- 
munity mines on upper sides of leaves, also on horn-beam. 
Locust: ostensackenella, yellow blotch mines on both 
surfaces of leaves; there are other, more common ones, 
but they are hard to differentiate. Hickory: carycefoliella, 
upper side of leaves. Basswood: lucetiella under side; 
tilieacella nearly circular tent mines on upper side of 
leaves. Elm: argentinotella, under side; ulmella, irregular 
blotch mines on upper side of leaves. Poplar: salici- 
foliella, under side of leaves; this species and others occur 
on willow; popidiella, very small tent mine on under side 
of leaf. Alder: auronitens, rounded, flattened mines on 
under side of leaves. Hazel: corylisella, blotch mines 
on upper side of leaves. Witch-hazel: hamamelis, whitish 
blotch mine on upper side of leaves. Apple: malimali- 
foliella, small, much wrinkled, tent mine on the under 
side of leaves; there are others. Honeysuckle (Lonicera): 
fragilella, under side of leaves. Poison Ivy: guttifinitella, 
upper side of leaves. This very incomplete list of a 
single genus might well give us many humble thoughts. 
What a world of creatures, each as important in its way 
as we in ours, and each doing its appointed task in the 
appointed way! 

Larvae of Gracilaria arc all leaf -miners when young; 
some leave the mines when half-grown and form cones 
by twisting and rolling the end of a leaf. 

Larvse of Parectopa lespedezcefoliella mine leaves of bush 
clover (Lespedeza). 

The larvae of Ornix turn over the edge of a leaf, forming 
a flap, three or four often being present on one leaf; the 
cocoon is spun on the ground and the imago does not 
issue until the following spring. 0. guttea (abundant) 
and solitariella, on apple; kalmiella, on sheep laurel (Kal- 
mia); preciosella, on swamp huckleberry; cratcegifoliella, on 
15 225 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



black thorn; conspicuella, on birch; prunivorella, on wild 
cherry; quadripunctella, on chokecherry. 

Larvae of Mamara salictella mine long lines in the tender 
inner bark of young willows. 

Larvae of Prolencoptera smilaciella make blotch mines in 
leaves of cat-brier (Smilax) ; pupae in hammock-like cocoons 
on under side of leaves. 

The larvae of the following species of Phyllocnistis make 
long, winding, thread-like mines in leaves: ampelopsiella, of 
Virginia creeper; vitifoliella, of grape; liriodendrella, of 
tulip poplar. 

Larvae of Tischeria citripennella make trumpet-shaped 
mines in oak leaves; quercitella, dentate mines on upper 
side of oak leaves; solidaginifoliella mine goldenrod leaves; 
malifoliella make yellowish-brown blotch mines in apple 
leaves; cenea, funnel-shaped blotch mines in blackberry 
leaves. 

The larvae of Setomorpha insectella, an almost cosmopoli- 
tan species, feed on hair and other dry animal products, 
but, in America at least, do not often become injurious 
in houses. 

Larvae of Xylesthia prunimmiella, in woody excrescences 
on plum trees. 

The larvae of Tinea feed on rotten wood, fungi, dry 
animal products, and the like. There have been more 
than a dozen species recorded from New Jersey alone, 
although the adults have very secretive habits.' The 
following species is well known and widely distributed : 

There are three species of Clothes-moths (see also 
Buffalo-bugs), each belonging to a different genus but all 
are Tineids and all are Old World species which have long 
been associated with man, "corrupting" his treasures: 
Tinea pellionella (Plate LXII) has a case- 
Tr* making larva, the case being cylindrical, 

about as long as the larva. Herrick 
writes: "The young larva, of course, soon finds its case 
too small and, as it grows, it has to enlarge the case from 
time to time. This enlargement is done in a very interest- 
ing manner. Without emerging from its case, the larva 
cuts a slit halfway down one side, thus forming a triangular 
226 



CLOTHES-MOTHS. 



opening. Into this opening it inserts a triangular gore 
of the woolen material upon which it is feeding. This 
process is repeated on the opposite side of the case and 
without leaving its retreat it turns around and repeats 
the same thing on the other half of the case. Thus the 
case is enlarged in diameter, but it remains for the larva 
to lengthen its home. This is done by additions to each 
end- of the case. On the outside the case appears to be 
composed of fibers of the material upon which the larva 
has been feeding, but inside the case is lined with a soft 
layer of fine silk. By transferring the larva to different 
colored materials a curiously parti-colored case may be 
obtained, for the insect will use the various materials for 
the enlargements. The larva completes its growth by fall 
and seeks a secluded place in which to secrete itself and 
spend the winter in a torpid condition. The larvae have 
been observed to leave the carpets upon which they Were 
feeding and drag their cases up a wall fifteen feet high and 
fasten them to the ceiling. In the spring, the larva? 
transform to pupae in the cases within which they have 
lived during the winter." About three weeks later the 
moths emerge. They have a wing expanse of about 
half an inch; the front wings are shining, yellowish brown, 
with indistinct dark spots; the hind wings are lighter and 
plain; both pairs are fringed with long hairs. The second 

species, Tineola biselliella, has a webbing 
lneola larva; it makes no case but feeds, naked, 

usually in a fold or crevice of the material 
it is eating and often under the web of silk which it spins 
wherever it goes. The cocoon is an irregular affair of 
silk and food material, somewhat resembling the case of 
pellionella. The adult is about the size of pellionella; 
the front wings are yellower and without spots; the hind 

wings are pale. The third species, Tricho- 
T^z U 13 ^ P ha g a tapetzella, is, as yet, rather rare in 

America. Mr. Wm. T. Davis has bred it 
from larvae in barn-owl pellets, but the larvae are usually 
found in fur robes, horse-blankets, upholstering of car- 
riages, and the like. It is not so domestic as the other 
two species. The larvae burrow into their food-material, 
making silk-lined galleries, within which they eventually 
227 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



pupate. The adults have a wing expanse of about three- 
quarters of an inch; the bases of the front wings are black, 
the rest being white, clouded with gray; the hind wings 
are light gray ; the head bears long white hairs. The larvae 
of all three species feed on hair, wool, feathers, and almost 
any fabric of animal origin except (?) silk. 

Larvae of Prodoxus intermedins bore in stalks of Yucca 
in great numbers. 

"No discovery in recent years has been 

Pronuba more interesting to students of insect and 

yuccasella , ... , . . . , . 

plant life than that which was made m 

1872 by Professor Riley, of the intimate relationship which 
subsists between the beautiful plants, known as Yuccas, 
and the genus of moths to which the present species 
belongs. It has been ascertained that the fructification 
of the various species of Yucca is almost absolutely de- 
pendent upon the agency of the female moth ; and, strangely 
enough, it has also been ascertained that the pollination 
of the flowers is not the result of mere accidental attribu- 
tion of the wings and other organs of the insect when 
engaged in seeking for nectar in the flower and when 
engaged in laying her eggs, but that she deliberately 
collects the pollen with her mouth, which is peculiarly 
modified to enable her to do this, and then applies the 
pollen to the stigma with infinitely better care than it 
could be done by the most skillful horticulturist using 
the most delicate human appliances" (Holland)-., The 
moth's actions are not altogether altruistic for she lays her 
e;^gs in the seed capsules and her young feed on the tissue, 
which would not develop if she did not pollinate. When 
full-grown, the larva crawls out and hibernates in a tough 
cocoon on or in the ground, pupating when spring comes. 

The Hepialid^, Ghost-moths, and Micropterygid^e, 
belonging to the suborder MICROPTERYGOIDEA, con- 
tain small, rare moths closely related to the Trichoptera, 
Caddice-flies; see p. 57. The larvae of some, at least, of 
the Hcpialidae bore in roots; those of Micropterygidae are 
usually leaf-miners. 

228 



FLIES : TWOsWINQED INSECTS. 



DlPTERA 

Members of this order are Mosquitoes, Gnats, and 
Flies. The last name is applied, with modifying adjec- 
tives, to many other insects, but true flies never have more 
than one pair of wings. The pair of small, knobbed or- 
gans, called balancers or halteres, just back of these 
wings, represents a second pair of wings. The scale-like 
affairs above the halteres and back of the roots of the 
wings are called squama or calyptrae (some authors call 
them tegulae or alulae) ; there may be two pairs, one pair, 
or none. Eggs of Diptera are sometimes called "nits"; 
the larvae are called "maggots," "wrigglers," or "bots." 
Pupation often occurs inside the larval skin. About 
10,000 species are already described from North America. 

The venation of the wings and the arrangement of the 
thoracic bristles are important in classification; also the 
antennae, which vary greatly from group to group. Un- 
fortunately there are several systems of names for the 
veins and cells of the wings but the following (see Plate 
LXIX) is in rather general use. The vein which forms 
the front margin of, and runs for a variable distance 
around, the wing is called the costal (or marginal). The 
next vein back of it is the auxiliary; then come the longi- 
tudinals (first to fifth), the last three of which are often 
branched. The cell between the costal and auxiliary 
veins is the costal cell; that between the auxiliary and first 
longitudinal veins is the subcostal cell; then, in order along 
the margin of the wing, are the marginal, first submarginal, 
second submarginal (between branches of the third longi- 
tudinal vein, if branched), and the more or less numerous 
Posterior cells. The central cell is the discal; and at the 
base, from front to back, are the first basal, second basal, 
anal (not always present), and axillary cells. A cell is 
saM to be complete when it is entirely enclosed by veins. 
229 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



I do not expect that this brief discussion will satisfy the 
reader who attempts to apply it to all Diptera; such special 
students should go to special books such as Williston's 
Manual of North American Diptera. 

Some Diptera have thread-like or feathery antenna? 
with numerous similar joints; others, such as the ordinary 
house-flies, have stubby antennae with only three joints, 
the third bearing an arista. This arista may be bristle- 
like and either feathered or plain; placed dorsally or at 
the tip of the third joint. If it is at the tip and is rela- 
tively stout, it is called a style. The forms of antenna? 
are numerous and varied. The space between the eyes 
and above the roots of the antennas is called the front. 
The vertex is the top of the head between the eyes. 

The various parts of the thorax have been named and 
are often important taxonomically. Plate LXIX shows 
the achrostical (a.) and dorsocentral (d. c.) series of bristles 
divided by the transverse suture (t. s.). The letter a. is 
placed on the scutellum. 

The following key divides ordinary flies into two sub- 
orders: Nematocera and Brachycera. Another way of 
dividing the order is as follows: those flies whose larvae 
have a differentiated head, and whose adults leave the 
surrounding pupal covering through a T-shaped opening 
on the back of the anterior end, or rarely in a transverse 
rent between the eighth and ninth abdominal rings, belong 
to the suborder ORTHORRHAPHA; those flies whose 
larvae do not have a differentiated head, whose pupae are 
enclosed in the hardened larval skin (forming the so-called 
puparium), and whose adults leave from the anterior 
end through a circular orifice (the adults have an oval or 
crescentic space, the "frontal lunule," above the roots of 
the antennae, and usually have a "ptilinum,' r an inflatable 
organ capable of being thrust out just above the roots of 
the antennae which is used by the adult in springing off the 
cap of the puparium), belong to the suborder CYCLOR- 
RHAPHA. All Nematocera are Orthorrhapha and so 
also are all Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Leptidae, Asilidae, 
Bombyliidae, Dolichopodidae, and their near relatives 
among the Brachycera. 

230 



FLIES : TWO=WINGED INSECTS. 



Key to the 

Families of Dipt era 

(adults) 

i. Flies of a leathery or horny structure, living as per- 
manent, blood-sucking parasites upon warm-blooded 
vertebrates; the young (larvae) are born when nearly 
ready to pupate. Wings very often reduced or lacking. 

PUPIPARA (p. 279), 

Flies of a softer structure, not living as permanent 
parasites upon warm-blooded vertebrates in the adult 
condition; egg-laying, rarely giving birth to hatched larvae. 
Things very rarely reduced or absent 2. 

2. Antennae having numerous joints freely articulated 
with each other (usually from 8 to 16). Wings usually 
without discal cell; the anal cell rarely narrowed in the 
border of the wing. Palpi as a rule with 4 to 5 joints. 
Suborder NEMATOCERA 3. 

Antennas are usually composed of 3 joints, usually 
with a differentiated style or bristle (the last joint some- 
times annulated). Wings* almost always with a discal 
cell; the anal cell, if present, closed or much narrowed in 
the border of the wing. Palpi never with more than 2 
joints. Suborder BRACHYCERA 13. 

3. Wings with a spider-web-like secondary venation of 
creased lines between the ordinary veins; slender, long- 
legged species Blepharocerim: (p. 246). 

Only the ordinary venation in the wings 4. 

4. Mesonotum divided into an anterior and a posterior 
part by a more or less distinct transverse suture, which is 
very often V-shaped. Legs very long and slender; body 
and wings elongate, the wings sometimes with a discal cell. 
Never small; often very large Tipulid^e (p. 236). 

Mesonotum not divided by a transverse suture. 
Never very large, often small 5. 

5. A complete discal cell present; the costal vein much 
thinned beyond the tip of the wing; wings usually spotted. 
Medium sized, mosquito-like Rhyphid^e. 

No discal cell 6. 

231 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS, 



6. Wings almost always hairy, with only a few longitudinal 
veins (as a rule 3, rarely 5), very often without apparent 

cross- veins. Antennae long and slender 

Itonidid/e (p. 242) . 

Wings always with more than 3 longitudinal veins and, 
as a rule, with apparent cross-veins. In doubtful cases 
there are either more than 5 longitudinal veins or else the 
antennas are rather stout, shorter than the thorax 7. 

7. At least 9 veins reach the margin of the wings, the 
second and fourth longitudinal veins being forked; costal 
vein continuing all around the wing 8. 

Less than 9 veins terminate in the margin of the 
wing; the veins never very hairy or scaly 10. 

8. Veins bare; second longitudinal veins strongly arched 
forward Dixid^e (p. 236). 

Veins including the hind margin, and also body, very 
hairy or scaly 9. 

9. Wings ovate or pointed, with numerous longitudinal 
veins and without apparent cross-veins. Small or minute, 
moth-like flies; the wings, when at rest, held like a roof 
above the abdomen Psychodid^e (p. 236). 

Wings elongate, narrow, not held roof -like against the 
body, with the anterior cross-vein near the middle of the 
wing distinct Culicid^e (p. 238). 

10. Antennae as a rule shorter than the thorax, rather 
stout, without constrictions between the joints. Body 
often stout, not mosquito-like 11. 

Antennae long and slender, the joints longer than 
broad. Second basal cell usually open (posterior cross- 
vein wanting). Body slender, mosquito-like 12. 

11. Second basal cell usually closed by a cross-vein. 
Often medium sized Bibionid^e (p. 243). 

Second basal cell open (or wanting). Never more 
than .25 in. long, with large and broad wings. Simuliid^e 

(P- 243)- 

12. Coxae, as a rule, much elongate. All the tibiae with 
apical spurs. Ocelli, as a rule, present. Mycetophilim: 

(p. 242). 
Coxae at most moderately long. Tibiae usually 

without apical spurs. Ocelli absent Chironomioe 

(p. 241). 

232 



KEY TO DIPTERA. 



13. Antennae apparently two-jointed, with a three- 
jointed arista. Wings (rarely wanting) with strong 
anterior and much lighter posterior longitudinal veins, 
usually without discal cell. Small, hunchbacked, quick- 
running, bristly flies Phorid^e (p. 253). 

Antennae almost invariably with 3 easily distinguish- 
able joints, the terminal one being often annulated. Discal 
cell, as a rule, present 14. 

14. Three nearly equal pulvilliform pads under the tarsal 
claws. Head and thorax without strong bristles 15. 

Only two pads under the tarsal claws, the median one 
wanting or represented by a bristly hair. Head and 
thorax often with bristles 19. 

15. Squamae very large; thorax and abdomen inflated; 
head small, with relatively large eyes Cyrtid,e 

(p. 248). 

Squamae of moderate size or small, or the thorax and 

abdomen not inflated 16. 

16. Third joint of the antennae simple, not composed of 
superficial rings. Costa enclosing the wing margin 

beyond the tip. Squamae very small, vestigial 

Leptidje (p. 248). 

Third joint of the antennae complex, 4- to 8-ringed, 
rarely with a distinct bristle-like arista 17. 

17. Costal vein not enclosing the hind margin of the 
wing. Squamae small or vestigial Stratiomyid^e 

(p. 246). 

Costal vein continuing around the hind margin of the 

wing 18. 

18. Squamae conspicuous Tabanid^e (p. 247). 

Squamae small or vestigial Xylophagim:. 

19. Third longitudinal vein forked, delimiting two or 
more submarginal cells 20. 

Third longitudinal vein not forked, but one sub- 
marginal cell 25. 

20. Anal cell, when present, closed some distance from 
the hind border of the wing, sometimes absent. Third 
antennal joint usually with a terminal style. Vertex 
flat or convex Empidid^e (p. 252). 

Anal cell always present, either open or closed in or 
near the margin of the wing 21. 

233 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



21. Vertex flat or convex, the eyes not bulging; in the 
males the eyes often contiguous 22. 

Vertex sunken, distinctly hollowed out between the 
eyes, which are never contiguous in the males. Mostly 
large flies 24. 

22. Fourth longitudinal vein terminating at or before the 
tip of the wing. Three posterior cells. Proboscis hidden. 
Antennae without a style or bristle. Flies of moderate 
or small size, bare or scaly ScenopiniD/E 

(P- 249). 

Fourth longitudinal vein terminating beyond the tip 

of the wing. Antennae often with a terminal style. Body 

usually bristly or pilose, sometimes of large size. Proboscis 

projecting 23. 

23. Five posterior cells in the wing. Abdomen rather 

long and tapering. Proboscis moderately long 

Therevid^e (p. 249). 

As a rule, 4 or 3 posterior cells in the wing. Abdomen 
usually stout, broad, hairy, rarely very slender and bare. 
Proboscis often very long . .Bombyliid^e 

(P. 249)- 

24. Body without bristles. Proboscis with fleshy 
labella at tip. Venation of the wing complicated, the 
fourth longitudinal vein curves forward to terminate in 
front of the wing-tip Mydaid^e 

(p. 250), 

Body bristly. Proboscis horny and rigid, without 

fleshy labella at tip. Venation of the normal type. . . . 

AsiLiDiE (p. 250). 

25. Wings pointed; no cross- veins except at the base; 
second longitudinal vein ending almost at the tip of the 
wing. Length, less than .2 in Lonchopterid^e. 

Wings rounded at the tip, the second longitudinal 
vein ending before the tip of the wing ; cross- veins present. 
26. 

26. Anal cell, when present, short, closed some distance 
from the hind border of the wing, sometimes absent 27. 

Anal cell elongate, acute, either open or closed toward 
or near the border of the wing. Second basal cell as a 
rule separated by a cross-vein from a complete discal 
cell 29. 

234 



KEY TO DIPTERA. 



27. Frontal lunule and suture (ptilinum) almost always 
distinct. Head and thorax very often with bristles. 
Third antennal joint usually with dorsal arista. Second 
basal cell as a rule separated by a cross-vein from a com- 
plete discal cell. Numerous Muscoid families. See p. 258 
and following pages. 

No frontal suture. Second basal cell often confluent 
with the discal cell, or the discal cell absent. Usually 
small flies 28. 

28. For the most part brilliantly colored (metallic green) 
flies. Arista of the antennae dorsal or terminal. Second 
basal cell merged with the discal cell Dolichopoded^e 

(p- 250). 

Color not brilliantly gfeen. Arista of the antennae 

usually terminal. Second basal cell rarely merged with 

the discal cell Empidiixe (20). 

29. Between the third and fourth longitudinal veins and 
subparallel with them a spurious longitudinal vein, which 
is rarely absent. Usually brightly colored flower-flies, 
rarely with bristles Syrphid^e (p. 253). 

No extra vein between the third and fourth longitudi- 
nal veins 30. 

30. Proboscis elongate and slender, often folding. No 
bristles on head and thorax Conopid^e (p. 257). 

Proboscis short, not projecting. Small flies 31. 

31. Antennae with terminal arista. Head and thorax 
with bristles Platypezid^e. 

Antennae with dorsal arista. Head and thorax with- 
out true bristles. Wings much longer than the abdomen. 

PlPUNCULHLE. 



235 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



NEMATOCERA 

Tipulid^e 

These are the Crane-flies or Daddy Long-legs — those 
who complain 

"My six long legs, all here and there, 
Oppress my bosom with despair." 

The long legs and the V-shaped suture between the wings 
usually distinguish this family from other true flies. 
They are sometimes mistaken for mosquitoes, and the large 
ones — some are over two inches long — are blamed on New 
Jersey ; but they do not bite. I cannot tell you how to keep 
the legs on your specimens. Chionea valga is wingless 
and is found in northern United States crawling about 
over the snow. Bittacomorpha clavipes has black legs with 
white bands; its larva lives in shallow, debris-clogged 
water. The larva of Tipula abdominalis (Plate LXIII) is 
also aquatic. The aquatic larvae are both vegetarians and 
carnivors. Tipulid larvae are sometimes called "leather 
jackets" and many of them are found in decaying vegeta- 
tion on dry land; others under bark and in fungi; some 
feed, at least incidentally, on roots; and a few, such as 
Cylindrotoma, on the leaves of violets, anemones, and 
other terrestrial plants. The pupae are slim affairs with 
relatively short wing-cases. 

PSYCHODID^E 

These thickly haired Moth Flies are rarely more than a 
sixth of an inch long. They fly but weakly in shady 
places, on windows, and in outhouses; and are often abun- 
dant at lights. Their larvae live in decaying vegetation, 
in dung, and in water. 

DlXIDiB 

Rather long-legged, nearly hairless flies. The larvae 
are aquatic and resemble those of mosquitoes. The 
adults are usually found about moist places in forests, 
sometimes dancing in swarms. 

236 



Plate LXIII 




4 it 1 Simulidoe 



237 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



CULICID^E 



Everyone knows a Mosquito, or thinks he does. The 
proboscis of the female is fitted for sucking but the mouth- 
parts of the male are rudimentary (he cannot "bite") and 
his antennae are very plumose. The veins of a mosquito's 
wings are scaly, as is also the body. The larva? are aquatic ; 
they are the "wrigglers" such as most of us have seen in 
rain barrels. Owing to the interest in mosquitoes by 
reason of their connection with malaria and yellow fever, 
they have been extensively studied and many genera 
and species have been described. For most purposes 
we, in the North, can stick to the old division into two 
principal genera, Anopheles and Culex. See Plate LXIV. 

The palpi of the adult female are nearly 
Anopheles as j ong as the p roD oscis, so that her beak 

appears to be three-pronged (do not mix in the antennae). 
Possibly other species carry malaria but the only United 
States species which has been definitely convicted is quadri- 
maculatus {maculipennis of some authors). Plate LXIV 
will help you identify it but beware of any three-beaked, 
spotted-winged mosquito. When properly posed, it 
holds the body at an angle to the surface upon which it 
rests, the beak being in the same direction as the body. 
It may have previously sucked the blood of a malarial 
patient; the malarial parasite may then have worked 
its way from the mosquito's "stomach" to its salivary 
glands and be ready for injection into you. The eggs of 
Anopheles are laid singly in water. The larvae live among 
surface vegetation in fresh water, usually where sewage is 
absent and a slight current prevents stagnation. Larvae 
have been reported from brackish water but in my experi- 
ence those found near salt meadows were in fresh-water 
pools. They have a short breathing siphon at the hind 
end of their body and float parallel with the surface of the 
water. Adults hibernate in sheltered places such as 
cellars and hollow trees. 

Our northern species are harmless, except 
Culex that the females bite; in fact, they bite 

harder than Anopheles but they do not carry malaria. 
238 



Plate LXIV 




Early stages 
of Cuiex 



Larva o| 
Anopheles 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Yellow fever is transmitted by calopus, a tropical and 
subtropical species of a subgenus, or separate genus, 
Aides. This mosquito has also been called Stegomyia 
fasciata. For the most part, the species of Culex have 
unspotted wings; the palpi of the female are short, the 
beak not appearing to have three nearly equal prongs. 
The adults usually hold their bodies parallel to the surface 
on which they rest, the beak being at an angle. The 
larval breathing siphon is long and the larvae hang head- 
down from the water's surface film. The eggs of Culex, 
in a limited sense, such as those of the common, rain- 
barrel C. pipie?is, are laid in a floating, raft-like mass. 
Those of what are now called Aides, such as the common 
salt-marsh mosquito with banded legs, A. soliiciians, 
may be laid singly or in little masses in the mud of low 
ground, or on the surface of the water, sinking to the 
bottom and usually passing the winter in that stage. The 
eggs of A. canadensis commonly hatch in woodland pools 
before the weather moderates. 

Wyeomyia smiihiv breeds in the leaves of pitcher plants 
{Sarracenia) . "Larvae may be found at all times of the 
year, the winter being passed in that stage, sometimes 
active in mild weather, sometimes frozen solid" (Smith). 
Even the female does not bite. 

The pupae of mosquitoes are humpbacked wrigglers or, 
rather, "flappers," which breathe by means of a pair of 
trumpet-shaped siphons on their back. They are active 
throughout pupal life but do not usually move unless dis- 
turbed. The larvae and pupae really breathe atmospheric 
air, for they stick their breathing siphons just out of the 
water. Kerosene, spread on the water, prevents them 
from getting to the air, hence they smother. Furthermore, 
the kerosene may corrode their tissues. However, the 
best way to combat mosquitoes is to prevent their breed- 
ing. Put fish in all pools which cannot readily be drained ; 
keep the edges of streams and ponds sharp so that fish 
can collect all the eggs, larvae, and pupae; drain swamps and 
useless pools; bury tin cans and the like; and fill up all tree 
holes. I hope this will never be completely done in my 
lifetime. I would rather stand a few mosquitoes than 
have all my collecting places for aquatic insects spoiled. 
240 



MIDGES, SAND=FLIES, ETC. 



Certain genera are grouped by some good authorities in a 
separate family, Corethrid^e. The wings and body are 
covered with hairs instead of scales. The adults look 
like mosquitoes, but probably do not feed, certainly do not 
bite; the larvse are predatory, often cannibalistic, whereas 
mosquito larvse are vegetarians ; and the larvae, for the most 
part, do not breathe atmospheric air but get their oxygen 
by absorption from the water. These young Corethridae 
are called Phantom Larvse on account of their almost 
complete transparency. By looking carefully one may 
see them in still, shaded pools, keeping a horizontal 
position a little below the surface of the water. The eyes 
are dark, and there are two pairs of dark spots, one pair on 
the thorax and one near the end of the abdomen. These 
are "air-sacs." I do not know how the air gets in there 
or if it is real air. The pigment in the lining of these sacs 
may have something to do with it. The pupa floats in 
an upright position and doubtless gets atmospheric air 
through the respiratory trumpets on the top of its head. 

Chironomid^; 

This is a large family of delicate, often minute, flies, 
commonly known as Midges. The costal vein does not 
go further than the tip of the wing. "The larvse are soft- 
skinned, worm-like, often blood-red in color and usually 
aquatic, as are also the active pupse, though some live in 
decomposing vegetable matter, or in the earth. These 
midges are often seen, especially in the early spring or in 
the autumn, in immense swarms, dancing in the air, and 
have doubtless in many cases given rise to exaggerated 
stories of mosquitoes. . . . While at rest they usually 
raise their fore legs in the air and keep them constantly 
vibrating" (Williston). Most of the adults are harmless, 
but Sand-flies, Punkies, and No-see-ums, belonging to the 
genus Cidicoides, make life miserable. They are the 
smallest blood-suckers, some of them being only .04 in. 
long. Some larvse live under bark and fallen leaves, and 
in sap flowing from wounded trees. Chironomus has 
many inoffensive species; the larvse are common in tubes 
in soft mud. 

16 241 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Itonidid^e (or Cecidomyiid^e) 

The layman usually knows these only by their works. 
Many of them are gall makers (see p. 457) or live in galls 
made by other species; some breed in decaying wood and 
bulbs, others under bark and in fungi, while still others 
feed on plant lice. Unlike most Diptera, many of these 
pupae are enclosed in a cocoon formed by an exudation 
from the larvae. The genus Miastor contains species 
whose larvae sometimes develop eggs which hatch, without 
fertilization, inside their "mothers," the children then 
devouring their parent. 

"Probably no other insect does so wide- 

Mayetiola spread damage as the Hessian Fly, attacking 

destructor * s /' * 

our chief staple, wheat, as well as rye and 

barley. One-tenth of the whole crop, valued at $50,000,- 
000 to $70,000,000, is generally conceded to be destroyed 
by this pest every year. In certain sections the loss often 
amounts to from 30 to 50 per cent., and in 1900 was esti- 
mated at fully $100,000,000" (Sanderson). It (Plate 
LXV) is a European insect which was first noticed on 
Long Island shortly after the Hessian troops landed 
there. The adults are dark-colored gnats, about .1 in. 
long. The larvae imbed themselves in the plant, especially 
where the stem is covered by a leaf, absorb the sap, and 
weaken the straw. The "flax-seed" is the puparium. 

The Wheat-midge, Diplosis tritici, was introduced from 
Europe a few years after the Hessian Fly. Its larvae 
feed on the developing wheat-heads and pupate in under- 
ground cocoons. The larvae of Dasyneura leguminicola 
feed on clover seed. The Pear Midge, Contarinia pyrivora, 
is another immigrant from Europe; it causes a lumpy 
growth in the fruit, the larvae working chiefly at the core. 

MYCETOPHILIDiE 

The larvae of these minute Fungus Gnats feed on fungus 

(including cultivated mushrooms) and decaying vegetation, 

often living in the soil of potted plants. Many, especially 

species of Sciara, are gregarious and travel in "armies" 

242 



S!MULIID>E: BLACK FLIES. 



when looking for better food or when about to pupate. 
The larvae often spin webs and some, at least, pupate in a 
dense, spun cocoon. Luminous larvae have been described 
but their light was probably borrowed from the fungi. 

Bibionid^e 

The name March Flies is misleading, as adults rarely 
appear that earl}''. Some are common about fruit-tree 
blossoms. The larvae feed on excrement, decaying roots, 
and logs. The white-winged, rather long-legged, clumsy 
fly which frequently occurs in large numbers in meadows 
and is sometimes seen on windows is Bibio albipennis 
(FlateLXV). 

SlMULIID.E 

Those who know the Black Flies of the North woods, or 
the Buffalo Gnats and Turkey Gnats of other sections, 
know some adult Simulids: stout, hump-backed, short- 
legged biting pests with very interesting larvae. See 
Plate LXIII. The larvae are black and sit, in colonies, 
on their tails on rocks, sticks, and leaves in shallow, swift- 
flowing water. They cling by means of sucker-like hind 
legs and they also have a front pair, which they use when 
crawling. Miall's Aquatic Insects is a model of scientific 
accuracy and charming diction. He says: "If seriously 
alarmed, the larva lets go, and immediately disappears 
from sight. But by watching the place attentively, we 
shall before long see the larva working its way back, and in 
a minute or two it will be found attached to the very same 
leaf from which it started, or to some other leaf, equally 
convenient, which it happens to fall in with. I found the 
difficulties of observation in fast-flowing water crowded 
with leaves very great, until at last it occurred to me to push 
a white plate in among the leaves. Then the dark-coloured 
larvae became perfectly evident on the white ground, 
and I was able to see exactly how they managed. When 
disturbed by the plate, some of them let go, and drift a 
few inches away. They are not very easily frightened, 
and most of them remain holding on by their sucker. 
Those which quit the leaf remain stationary in the torrent 
or nearly so, and on close observation a thread, or perhaps 

243 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



a number of threads, become visible on the white ground. 
These threads are in general stuck all over with small 
vegetable particles, like fine dust, which make them much 
more apparent. The threads extend in all directions 
from leaf to leaf, and the larva has access to a perfect 
labyrinth, along which it can travel to a fresh place by help 
of the current and with the speed of lightning. . . . Al- 
though the larva commonly slides along a thread previously 
made, and easily seen to be an old one by the small parti- 
cles which cling to it, it can upon a sudden emergency 
spin a new thread, like a spider or a Geometer larva. . . . 
When the time for pupation comes, special provision 
has to be made for the peculiar circumstances in which the 
whole of the aquatic life of the Simulium is passed. An 
inactive and exposed pupa, like that of Chironomus, 
may fare well enough on the soft muddy bottom of a slow 
stream, but such a pupa would be swept away in a moment 
by the currents in which Simulium is most at home. 
Before pupation the Insect constructs for itself a kind of 
nest, not unlike in shape to the nests of some Swallows. 
This nest is glued fast to the surface of a water-weed. 
The salivary glands, which furnished the mooring-threads, 
supply the material of which the nest is composed. Shel- 
tered within this smooth and tapering cocoon, whose 
pointed tip is directed up-stream, while the open mouth 
is turned down-stream, the pupa rests securely during 
the time of its transformation. When the cocoon is first 
formed, it is completely closed, but, when the Insect has 
cast the larval skin, one end of the cocoon is knocked off, 
and the pupa now thrusts the fore-part of its body into 
the current of water. The respiratory filaments, which 
project immediately behind the future head, just as in 
Chironomus, draw a sufficient supply of air from the 
well-aerated water around. The rings of the abdomen 
are furnished with a number of projecting hooks, and as 
the interior of the cocoon is felted by silken threads, the 
pupa gets a firm grip of its cocoon. If it is forcibly dis- 
lodged a number of the silken threads are drawn out from 
the felted lining. 

"A serious difficulty now appears. The fly is a delicate 
and minute Insect, with gauzy wings. How does it escape 

244 



Plate LXV 





BibVt 

albipennis 




^ SlratiomyiQ 
discalis 




Chryso.p: 

*Ks ^C.ifnivihatus c.viti 




Tabanus * ~ x w 

otratus losiophthalmus 



— 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



from the rushing water into the air above, where the 
remainder of its life has to be passed? . . . During the 
latter part of the pupal stage, which lasts about a fortnight 
in all, the pupal skin becomes inflated with air, which is 
extracted from the water, and passed apparently through 
the spiracles of the fly into the space immediately within 
the pupal skin. The pupal skin thus becomes distended 
with air, and assumes a more rounded shape in consequence. 
At length it splits along the back, in the way usual among 
Insects, and there emerges a small bubble of air, which 
rises quickly to the surface of the water and then bursts. 
When the bubble bursts, out comes the fly." 

The larvae have, on their heads, brushes which gather up 
food brought to them by the stream. This New Year's 
I found them in large numbers where a much-used road 
crossed a small brook; the automobilists apparently won- 
dered what I was looking for in that cold water, but passed 
on in ignorance of things far more interesting than so- 
m^ny miles an hour. 

Blepharocerid^e 

The flat, aquatic larvae cling to stones in swift streams by 
means of ventral suckers, one to each of the six sections 
of the body, which are marked off by sharp constrictions. 
The even flatter, heavily chitinized, shining black or brown 
pupae are fastened by three pairs of pads. 

BRACHYCERA 

Having omitted several small families, we now reach 
the flies with thick, few-segmented antennae. 

Stratiomyid^e 

Some of the Soldier Flies are gay with yellow or green 
and black cross-stripes on their flat, broad abdomens; the 
abdomen is so wide in some species that it extends on each 
side of the folded wings. The longitudinal veins are 
crowded toward the front part of the wings, those which 
are left in the hind part being much fainter. There are 
numerous species, their larva? having various habits. 
246 



HORSE FLIES AND RELATIVES. 



Aquatic larvae (such as those of Stratiomyia, Plate LXV, 
and Odontomyia, Plate LXVI) have a circlet of bristles 
on their tails which opens out flat when the larva is at the 
surface taking atmospheric air into its tracheal system 
through its tail-spiracles, but which folds together when the 
larva wishes to free itself from the surface film. Many, or 
most, of these aquatic larvae pupate in the mud at the 
water's edge. Larvae also occur in cow dung (Myiochrysa), 
in privies (Hermetia), under stones, in tree sap {Geosargus), 
in decaying wood (Pachygaster), in moss, in catsup, and on 
vegetables, such as potato tubers and growing lettuce. 
Some are carnivorous; others are vegetarians. Pupation 
occurs in the larval skin. 

Tabanid^e 

These (Plates LXV and LXVI) are surely of popular 
interest; they are the Horse Flies, Green-headed Monsters, 
Gad Flies, Breeze Flies, Ear Flies or Deer Flies. Only the 
females bite; the males content themselves with sipping 
sweets from flowers. The predaceous larvae live in water 
or in moist earth, apparently hibernating as mature larvae 
and pupating, free from the larval skin, the following 
spring. The somewhat flattened larvae have a circle of 
fleshy protuberances around each segment, which aid 
them in locomotion. There are many species, about 
forty of Tabanus and thirty-five of Chrysops having been 
recorded, for example, from New Jersey. The eyes of the 
males touch each other above; those of the females are 
somewhat separated ; but those of both sexes, especially of 
Chrysops, are beautifully marked with brilliant colors 
in life. These colors may often be temporarily restored 
in dried specimens by moistening with water or glycerine. 

i. Hind tibiae with spurs at the tip 2. 

Hind tibiae without spurs at tip; ocelli absent 3. 

2. Third joint of antennae composed of 5 superficially 
separated rings, the first of which is much longer than the 
following ones; ocelli present. Chrysops is the common 
genus. The wings very often have broad, black crossbands. 
The western SiLius is distinguished from it by having 
the second antennal joint only half as long as the first. 
247 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Third joint of the antennae composed of 8 rings, the 
first of which is only slightly longer than the following 
ones. Goniops (wings dark in front, clear behind; eyes of 
female acutely angulated above) and Pangonia (wings 
nearly clear or else uniformly darkened; female's eyes not 
so angulated; proboscis often very long). 
3. Third joint of antennae with 4 rings; front of female 
very wide. Wings darkened and spotted with rings; 
when at rest, held in a roof -like position.. . . .Hczmatopota. 

Third joint of antennae with 5 rings and with a distinct 
basal angle or process above (the southern Diachlorus 
differs in not having this process); front of female not 
unusually wide. Hind tibiae without long hairs (such as 
the western Snowiella has) Tabanus. 

Leptid^e 

"These trim-appearing flies [see Leptis, Plate LXVII, 
and Chrysopila, Plate LXVI] have rather long legs, a 
cone-shaped abdomen tapering towards the hind end, and 
sometimes a downward projecting proboscis, which with 
the form of the body and legs has suggested the name 
snipe-flies" (Comstock). They are usually of medium 
size for flies and are frequently found resting head-down 
on grass stems and tree trunks. The squamae are rudi- 
mentary; the costal vein surrounds the wing; the antennae 
vary greatly from genus to genus but the joints beyond the 
second are usually more or less fused. The larvae, which 
live in decaying wood, under bark, in the burrows of wood- 
boring insects, in moss, and even in water, are predaceous 
as are also most of the adults. 

Cyrtid^e 

These rarely noticed, small-headed flies have curious 
habits. You may find Opsebius pterodontinus about the 
webs of the common grass-spider, Agelena ntzvia, and can 
recognize it by the tooth-like projection on the front 
margins of the wings. Its larvae live in the spiders and it: 
relatives have similar habits. The tables are turned; ii 
this case the fly eats the spider. 
248 



Plate LXVI 







OdontomyiQ 4*^ Chrijsopilo 

unctQ Tabanus thoracica 
niqroviftatus 





Anthrax 
lateralis 



Psilopodinus 
o m b y I i u s patibulatus 
major 




Tff; 

Vol u c e M a 

evecta 



Sijrphus americunus 





Bombyliomyia 
abrupta 



Milesia 

virqiniensis 



BEE, WINDOW, AND STILETTO FLIES. 



BOMBYLIID.E 



If you see a fuzzy fly hover in mid-air and suddenly 
dart a few feet away to hover again, you may feel certain 
that it is a Bee Fly. That name, and the "real" name for 
the family is just as bad, has always confused me, as it 
seemed to go with certain more bee-like Asilids, but it 
does not. Plate LXVI shows samples of Bombylius 
(larvae live in the nest of bees, such as Andrena) and 
Anthrax (the^ larvae of some species of this genus are 
probably parasites of Lepidoptera but those of others, 
especially of those whose adults have wing-markings, are 
parasites of Lepidoptera's parasites); Plate LXVII, of 
Spogostylum, Systropus, and Exoprosopa. The Bombyliid 
face is not hollowed out and the eyes, especially of the 
males, almost or quite touch above; the proboscis has 
broad tips and is sometimes very long and slender; the 
wings often have dark markings. The beak is chiefly 
used to sip nectar. The larvae feed upon the eggs or your.^ 
stages of grasshoppers, beetles (e. g. Cicindela), Lepidop- 
tera, bees, and wasps. 

Scenopixhxe 

We have only one genus, Scenopinus, of the Window 
Flies and, of this, only fenestralis (Plate LXVII) is common. 
It is bluish, with reddish-yellow legs; the head is placed 
so low that the thorax seems quite convex. It is on our 
windows because its worm-like larvae are under our carpets, 
eating "moths." Each of the larva's abdominal segments, 
except the last, is constricted, so that it appears to have 
nineteen segments. 

Therevid.e 

The Stiletto Flies are like delicate, long-legged Asilidae 
but the front of the head is not hollowed out between the 
eyes ; it may even be convex and the eyes of the males may 
join on top. Their habits are those of the Asilidae. Psilo- 
cephala (Plate LXVII) is a common genus. 

249 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Mydahme 



This is a small family of large flies which resemble the 
thin-bodied Asilidae and have similar habits but whose 
probosces have fleshy lips at their tips. Only one genus, 
My das (Plate LXVII), occurs in the Northeast. 

Asilid^: 

In Plate LXVII, Lcptogaster, Dasyllis, Erax, and Asilus 
of the large family of Robber Flies are illustrated, the two 
last-named being the more typical. Some species are two 
inches long; they are frequently seen swooping upon insect 
victims in mid-air or snatching them off of leaves and 
carrying them away to a convenient spot where the sucking 
of vital fluids may be quietly completed. The hairier and 
stouter type is just as predaceous and possibly their 
resemblance to peaceful bumble-bees helps them to get 
close to their prey, although this mimicking may be a 
protection against other predaceous animals which fear 
the bees' sting, or again it may just "happen so." The 
eyes bulge out so that the head seems to be hollowed 
between them; the proboscis is stout, rather than long; the 
legs are strong and bristly. The larvae, also, are pre- 
daceous, feeding upon other larvae in rotting wood, under 
bark, fallen leaves, or in loose soil. 

DOLICHOPODID.E 

A technical point which distinguishes this family is that 
the discal and second basal cells are united, there being no 
separating cross-vein. They are usually less than .3 in. 
long; have slender, tapering, usually metallic green abdo- 
mens, and the tarsal part of the long legs are often rela- 
tively quite long (See Psilopodinus, Plate LXVI). Prof. 
Aldrich says: "This family perhaps smpasses any other 
natural group of animals in the variety of secondary sexual 
characters possessed by the males. These are ornaments, 
and are paraded before the females, as are similar orna- 
ments in the peacock and turkey-cock. They may occur 
in the tarsi, tibi.32, femora, wing-apex, face, third joint cf 
antenna, arista, palpi, and still other places. . . . The 

250 



Plate LXVII 




Leptfls 

mijstacea 




Spoqostylum 
simson 



Exbprosopa 

joscipennis 
'Systropus Psilocefaoto 

* \f * JiaemorrhoidQlis 





Scenopinys m uc j q ? 



enestrans 



clQvatus 



Leptogaster 
Jlavipes 




Asilus 
UQSijlliS tnoraaca sericeus 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



larvae are almost wholly unknown in the United States; 
several species have been worked out in Europe. They 
are found in moist earth rich in decaying vegetation, upon 
which they feed; Dr. A. D. Hopkins has found larvae of 
Medeterus in burrows of Scolytidae and thinks them pre- 
daceous. ... In adult life all are predaceous, capturing 
chiefly the minuter soft-bodied flies, which they enclose 
within their soft labella [lips], after the manner of Sca- 
tophaga, while extracting the juices." The most common 
place for adults is on shaded foliage but the sun is by no 
means avoided. Wet earth at the edge of water is also 
favored, while Hydrophorus and Hercostomus stand on the 
surface of water. Thinophilus is partial to sea beaches. 
Neurigona and Medeterus frequent the bark of trees, and 
Tachytrechus old logs. 

Empidid^b 

A question which one always expects, when out walking 
with non-entomologists, is "What are those little things 
dancing in the air? " The only way to answer (truthfully) 
is to catch some and find out, for they may be Homoptera, 
Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, or even some other 
order. If Diptera, they may belong to any of a number of 
families; the Chironomids are great dancers (Williston 
told of such an immense ball that their wings produced a 
"noise like that of a distant waterfall, and audible for a 
considerable distance"), but the Empididae are called the 
Dance Flies. "The males of certain species of Em pis 
and Hilara have the odd habit of blowing out bubbles of a 
whitish viscid substance which they carry about with them 
in the air. It is believed that these toy balloons are 
attractive to the females" (Kellogg). 

The species vary in size from .03 to more than .5 in. 
in length. I do not know of any good "catch characters" 
by which to recognize members of this family. They and 
the Dolichopodids have the wings noticeably rounded at 
the tip and the second longitudinal vein ends considerably 
before the tip of the wing; the eyes of the males often 
meet; the first and second segments of the three-jointed 
antennae are sometimes so small that they look like a single 

252 



SYRPHID/E: FLOWER FLIES 



segment; the head is more or less spherical and loosely 
fastened. The body is heavier than that of a Chironomid 
and almost never metallic like the Dolichopodids ; and the 
legs, especially the first pair, are often curiously modified. 
The adults are predaceous, as are probably also the larvae, 
which live in decaying vegetable matter and in running 
streams. 

Phorid^e 

These minute flies would probably not be noticed unless 
you were looking for them, although they are sometimes 
to be found on windows. The life histories are varied, 
but those of the dwellers in ant-nests are probably the 
most interesting. Apocephalus larvae live inside the head 
of an adult ant; the larvae of Metopina pachy 'condyles curl 
themselves around the neck of ant larvae and share the 
food which the ants bring to their larvae. 



We now start the division CYCLORRAPHA (see p. 230) ; 
the last of the three joints of the antenna is not ringed or 
complex and always bears an arista; the third longitudinal 
wing-vein is never branched, and there are never more 
than three complete posterior cells. 

Syrphid^e 

This family is one of the richest in species of all Diptera. 
A characteristic of the Syrphids is a "false vein" in the 
wing between, and more or less parallel to, the third 
and fourth longitudinal veins. The adults are so frequently 
seen feeding on nectar and pollen that they are called 
Flower Flies. Some are almost bare and resemble wasps 
in appearance and manner of frying; others are hairy and 
resemble bees, even in the droning or buzzing noise they 
make; but all are quite harmless. 

For the Northeast, at least, the following key will serve 
to identify most of the common genera, if carefully used. 
1. Antennae with a terminal style. First two antennal 
joints elongated; wasp-like: Ceria. These joints short: 
Pelecocera (about .4 in. long; eyes bare ) and Calhccra 
(larger; eyes pilose). 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Antennse with a dorsal arista 2. 

2. Marginal cell of the wings open 3. 

Marginal cell of the wings closed or petiolate 20. 

3. Anterior cross- vein of the wings distinctly before the 
middle of the discal cell, almost always perpendicular. . . .4. 

Anterior cross-vein of the wings near, or beyond, the 
middle of the discal cell, usually oblique 15. 

4. Antennae longer than the head 5. 

Antennae not longer than the head 8. 

5. Side-margins of the thorax yellow. Chrysotoxum; 
pubescens (.5 in. long) frequents low foliage and bases 
of trees. 

Side-margins of thorax not yellow 6. 

6. Face with a projecting tubercle and wholly or partly 
yellow. Paragus; generally fly low in moist, shady 
places. 

Margin of mouth projecting and face wholly black. 
Chrysogaster; frequent on spring flowers. 

Face without a projecting tubercle and mouth-margin 
not projecting 7. 

7. Scutellum flattened, often with spines or tubercles 
on its border; a vein stump from the third longitudinal 
vein in the first posterior cell. Mixogaster (abdomen 
much narrowed at base) and Microdon (abdominal base 
not narrowed). The slug-like larvae of Microdon live in 
ants' nests. 

Scutellum without spines; no such vein-stump; 
less than .5 in. long. Pipiza; often hover in front of 
flowers with exposed nectar, such as buttercup. The 
larvae of radicum feed on root-lice. 

8. Ground-color of the face black. Both Chalcomyia 
(scutellum large, nearly square) and Myiolepta (scutellum 
not unusually large, broadest at its base) have the hind 
femora distinctly thickened. Several genera have the 
femora but little or not at all thickened; of these the follow- 
ing have a tubercle on the face but the margin of the 
mouth docs not project 9. 

Ground-color of the face yellowish 10. 

9. Facial orbits separated by a slender parallel groove; 
metallic green or black flies. Chilosia; commonly found, 
covered with pollen, on spring flowers. 

254 



KEY TO SYRPHID^E. 



Face without orbital grooves; black, with more or 
metallic green or blue and with yellowish, reddish 
or metallic cross-bands on abdomen. Wings not longer 
than the abdomen: Pyrophcena. Wings longer than the 
abdomen: Platychirus (Plate LX VIII; front legs of males 
with tarsi and end of tibiae dilated) and Melanostoma 
(these joints slender in both sexes). Common at flowers. 
10. Abdomen much narrowed toward the base, distinctly 
club-shaped or spatulate in outline. Hind femora slender: 
Baccka; frequently hover near flowers and tips of branches, 
especially • of pine. Hind femora thickened: Sphegina 
ird joint of antennas rounded) and Neoascia (this joint 
not rounded). 

Abdomen oval or slender, not club-shaped or spatu- 

ii. 

ii. Side-margins of thorax yellow 12. 

Side-margins of thorax not j-ellow. Abdomen 
without several definite yellow cross-bands: several not 
very common genera, including Leucozona (thickly pilose; 
a broad yellow band at base of black abdomen). Abdo- 
men with several definite, yellow cross-bands 13. 

12. A median, ashy line on thorax. Mesogramma (Plate 
LXVIII). The larvae feed on aphids, although those of 
polita are said to feed on corn-pollen. 

No median ashy line on thorax. Spharophoria 
(Plate LXVIII; face projecting below) and X a ntho gramma 
(face receding) . 

13. Hind femora much thickened. Syritta. 

Hind femora slender. Third longitudinal vein with a 
distinct bend into the first posterior cell: Didea. This 
vein straight or only gently curved 14. 

14. Margin of mouth produced into a long snout. . .Rhin- 
gia. 

Margin of mouth not produced. Syrplms (see 
below). 

15. Arista plumose , 16. 

Arista bare or merely pubescent 17. 

16. Antennas elongate, the third joint more than twice 
as long as wide Volncella (see below). 

Antennas short, the third joint not so proportionately 
icomyia. 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



17. Third longitudinal vein deepiy curved into the first 
posterior cell. Several genera; of which Helophilus has 
thickened hind femora, the face is not protuberant, and the 
third antennal joint is oval. It has been reared from 
brackish water as well as from carcasses. 

Third longitudinal vein only gently curved 18. 

18. Thorax with distinct yellow markings other than 
on the shoulder protuberances. Wasp-like flies of large 
size , 19. 

Not so. Numerous genera, some not rare. 

19. Hind femora with a conical, tooth-like protuberance 
below, near the outer end; sixth longitudinal vein directed 
obliquely outward beyond the anal cell. Spilomyia. 

Not so. Antennas inserted low down, near middle 
of head's profile; face not longer than the front: Tem- 
nostoma (Plate LXVIII). Antennas inserted on a conical 
process; face much produced downward: Sphccomyia. 

20. Third longitudinal vein deeply bent into the first 
posterior cell. Hind femora with a sharp, tooth-like 
projection below, near outer end: Milesia (Plate LX VI). 
Hind femora without such tooth, although sometimes 
thickened: Eristalis (see below). 

Third longitudinal vein not deeply bent; third 
antennal joint elongate; arista feathery. Volucella (see 
below). 

V. evecta (Plate LXVI) differs from its 
Volucella congeners by being furry. V. obesa is 

brilliant shining green; the wings are spotted at the end of 
the auxiliary vein and on the cross- veins; lives in and 
near the Tropics. V. fasciata is black with yellow markings 
on the thorax and three rather broad yellow bands on the 
abdomen; the wings have indistinct dark bands. Some 
say that the larvae of Volucella feed on the larvas of bumble- 
bees and wasps but probably they are merely scavengers 
in the nests of these Hymcnoptera. 

About the middle of the 18th Century 

Eristalis Rdaumur, known also for his thermometer, 

wrote voluminously, and exceedingly well, 

on life histories of insects. It was he who called the larva 

256 



THE RAT-TAILED MAGGOT. 



of tenax the Rat-tailed Maggot, a name which has stuck. 
This creature is extremely interesting but one must be 
interested in order to enjoy it, for it usually lives in foul 
water, such as privy vaults and the fluid in decaying car- 
casses. The yellow and black adults, Drone Flies, resemble 
honey bees, and it was this which led Ovid, Virgil, and 
other ancient writers to tell about bees originating from 
dead animals. Plate LXVIII shows both adult and larva; 
the larva's tail lengthens and shortens like a telescope so 
that the tip may reach the surface of the water and the 
larva breathe atmospheric air through it while feeding 
on decaying matter under water. Pupation occurs out 
of the water in the larval skin. This was originally an 
Old World species but it is now almost cosmopolitan. 
Olher species of the genus have similar habits. 

These (Plate LXVI) and the other aphid- 
Syrphus eating Syrphidae should be classed among 

our friends. I have seen ants stop milking their aphid 
cows to threaten a female Syrphus, and the ants even 
ran from the upper to the under side of the leaf and back 
again to keep her in sight but always she succeeded finally 
in depositing a minute egg in the midst of the herd. I do 
not believe the ants reasoned that here was an enemy of 
their friends; they were merely naturally pugnacious to- 
ward any intruder and, at any rate, they never noticed the 
e ggs> which doubtless hatched, in the course of time, into 
flat, transversely wrinkled, green larvae, pointed in front 
and eyeless, but able to search out the sedentary aphids 
and to suck their juices. 



Conopim: 

Physocephala sagittaria (Plate LXVIII) gives a fair idea 
of the family; some are even more wasp-like, some less; all 
are "thick-headed." They feed on nectar and pollen 
but the female, from time to time, leaves this sweet pas- 
time to lay an egg on some bumble-bee, wasp, or grass- 
hopper. The larval and pupal periods are passed in the 
abdomen of the host. 

17 257 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



The families of CALYPTERATE Diptera arc very 
difficult, even for specialists, but, on account of the im- 
portance of some of the Muscidas, an effort must be made 
to enable intelligent non-specialists to recognize a few of 
the species. Differing from ACALYPTER^ (see p. 274), 
these flies have well developed squamae; the auxiliary 
vein is always distinct throughout; the first longitudinal 
vein is never very short; the eyes of the males frequently 
touch; the thorax has a complete transverse suture; and 
the flies are never very small. 

The technical terms, about to be used, are explained on 
p. 230 and Plate LXIX, except ' ' hypopleura, " the space on 
the side of the thorax above the hind coxas, and "bucca, " 
the cheeks, below the eyes. It should be remembered 
that the keys will work only with the flies for which they 
are intended; if you apply them to some other creature, 
you will get weird results. 

Since it is the Muscidas which are of principal interest, 
it should be noted, when at 5, that Luciiia sylvarum has a 
pair of bristles on the posterior margin of the second 
abdominal segment but its legs are not noticeably long; 
when at 6, the Muscid genus, Muscina, may give trouble 
as the narrowing of the posterior cell is not very pro- 
nounced. 

1. Mouth-opening small; mouth-parts small or ves- 
tigial CEstrkle (p. 259). 

Mouth-opening normal; mouth-parts not ves- 
tigial 2. 

2. Hypopleurae with a tuft of bristles 3. 

No tuft of bristles on the hypopleurae 6. 

3. Antennal bristle (arista) bare or only slightly pu- 
bescent Tachinim: (p. 260). 

Arista plumose or very distinctly pubescent. . , 4. 

4. Arista bare on the distal (outer) half . . Sarcophagid^: 
(p. 262). 

Arista plumose or distinctly pubescent to tip 5. 

5. Back of abdomen usually bristly on the anterior 
part; legs usually long Dexiid^e (p. 260). 

No bristles on front part of back of abdomen; legs not 
noticeably elongated Some Muschxe (p. 266). 

258 



GAD FLIES OR BOT FLIES. 



6. First posterior cell narrowed in the margin or closed; 

arista plumose to the tip Some Muscid^e (p. 2C6). 

First posterior cell very slightly or not at all narrowed; 

arista may be plumose, pubescent, or bare 

: Anthomyid^e (p. 263). 

CE STRIDE 

These are the Gad Flies, Bot Flies, or Breeze Flics. 
The adults are moderate or large in size; the eyes are 
rather small and the lower part of the head is relatively 
large. • 

"One of the most interesting and injurious 
Gastrophilus ig the Horge Bot Fly> Gastrophilus equi. 

The female horse bot fly lays from 400 to 500 eggs, all of 
which may be placed, under favorable circumstances, 
upon one horse. These eggs are fastened to the hairs, 
generally of the fore legs, shoulders, or chest. A horse 
instinctively fears this pest, and it will be seen, if in the 
pasture, to start and strike with the fore feet, although 
the cause of its nervousness is not visible. The adult 
fly is brownish, more or less hairy, looking a little like a 
small honey bee. It is most skillful in depositing its 
yellowish eggs, 'nits' we sometimes call them, on the 
animal's hairs. The moisture and friction which these 
receive from the animal licking its hair cause them to 
hatch, and further licking, occasioned possibly by the 
irritation caused the skin by the presence of the tiny 
' larvae, carries the maggot into the mouth, whence it finds 
its way into the horse's stomach, and there completes its 
larval life, attached to the lining of the stomach, and 
sometimes so abundant as to completely cover a portion 
of it. . . . The bots live in the stomach or intestine 
eight or ten months, moulting twice during that period, 
and naturally, when numerous, sapping the vitality of the 
horse. They also cause great irritation by attaching 
themselves to the lining of the small intestine and rectum. 
In the spring these bots lose their hold and pass out with 
droppings, working their way into the soil an inch or two, 
or into some protected locality; each 'bot' or larva 
changes to a pupa, lying within a pupal case, from which 

259 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



the adult fly emerges after about thirty days" (Wash- 
burn). A number of other species of this genus live in 
the stomach of horses and asses. 

The Warble-flies of cattle, "whose larvae 
Hypoderma are f oun d [ n sma n tumors under the skin, 
also have their eggs swallowed, and the young larvae may 
be found in the mouth and oesophagus. But from here 
they burrow out into the body-tissues of the host, finally 
coming to rest underneath the skin along the back. When 
the larva or grub is full-grown it gnaws through the skin, 
drops to the ground, pupates, and in from three to six 
weeks changes to the adult fly. The hides of cattle 
attacked by these flies are rendered nearly valueless 
by the holes, and are known as ' grubby ' hides. Osborn 
estimates that these warble-flies, of which we have two 
species, Hypoderma bovis and H. lineata, cause a loss of 
$50,000,000 annually in this country" (Kellogg). 

CEstrus ovis is the sheep-bot. Its larvae live in the 
nasal and other head passages of sheep, causing the disease 
known as staggers, grub-in-the-head, or false gid. The 
larvae found in the throats of deer are those of Cephenomyia 
abdominalis. Our largest species in the East, and prob- 
ably our heaviest Dipteron, is Cuterebra buccata (Plate 
LXVIII), whose larvae are found under the skin of rabbits. 

Dexiid^e 

"In habits and life histories, the Dexiidae closely re- 
semble the Tachinidae, and the distinction between the 
two families is very difficult to make, if it is not actually 
evanescent" (Williston). 

Tachinidae 

This is a family concerning which, from the human view- 
point, nothing but good can be seen; but the taxonomy is 
difficult and the difficulties are being greatly increased by 
certain workers who found not only new species but even 
genera on intangible differences. Amateur Lepidopterists 
often raise Tachinids instead of Lepidoptera when they 
260 



Plate LXVIII 





MesogrammQ 
Plattjchirus marqinata 
hyperboreus 



Sphoerophoria 

cylindrica 





Temnostoma 
alternans 




Cuter ebra 

buCCQtQ 




Physocephala 
sagittaria 




Trichopoaa 
pennlpes 




LatreiUiniijia rJV:^ 
bifQSciatQ Epalpus 
- J ^ sioni erus 




Tetanocera 
plumosa 



Scatophaqa SaprornuzQ 
$tercoraria philadelphica 



261 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



work with caterpillars which were hatched afield. Plate 
LXVIII shows Latreiliimyia bifasciata and Epalpus sig- 
niferus; the former is parasitic on various Ceratocampidae. 
Trichopoda pennipes on the same plate has been bred from 
the squash-bug, Anasa. Bombyliomyia abrupta (Plate 
LXVI) is often seen at the edge of woods and in clearings. 
Williston says: "The habits of the mature fly are 
similar for nearly all the members of the group. They will 
be found on vegetation, on leaves or flowers, in such places 
as are frequented by the hosts which they parasitize. 
Not a few will be caught with the beating net. . . . The 
larvae of this group are all parasitic in habit so far as 
known, and the parasitism is probably confined to the 
early stages of other insects; and the individual fly is not 
very particular in the choice of larvae which she parasitizes. 
Their usefulness in keeping injurious insects in check is 
immeasurable. By far the largest number of species are 
parasitic upon Lepidoptera, of which not less than four 
hundred have been recorded [many more now]. About 
seventy species are known to be parasitic upon Hymen- 
optera, less than forty upon Coleoptera, a score upon 
Orthoptera, five upon Hemiptera, and as many upon 
other Diptera." 

SARCOPHAGID/E 

These are popularly called Flesh Flies. The family 
may be fairly well recognized by the key given on p. 258. 
To be perfectly frank, I dislike writing about unclean 
things and will use a short service with this family; be- 
sides it is a very difficult group, taxonomically. The 
Thomas Say Foundation, care of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, has just published a monograph 
of the family by J. M. Aldrich. It is claimed that 20,000 
eggs have been found in the ovaries of a single Sarcophagid. 
The principal genus is Sarcophaga (see Plate LXX). 
Although most of the Sarcophagidae justify their scientific 
name and its English equivalent, the larvae of others 
feed on dung and rotting vegetable material. Some 
larvae are found under the skin of turtles, others in the 
stomachs of frogs; while still others are parasitic in snails 
262 



THE LESSER HOUSE-FLY 



and insects. Nasal myiasis in man is due to species of 
this genus. The eggs frequently hatch in the female's 
body, so that she lays living larvae. 

Anthomyid^e 

This is a large family of inconspicuously colored, small 
to moderately large flies. The squamae are usually of 
considerable size. The larvae have four rows of thread- 
like processes on the segments. The common Radish- 
worm is the larva of Anthomyia radicum. The larva of 
Phorbia fusciceps is a general feeder in roots of cabbage, 
radish, onions, seed corn, and the like. It is an importa- 
tion from Europe, first noted in this country in 1856. 
The common Cabbage-maggot is the larva of Phorbia 
brassicce, which also attacks cauliflower and radishes. 
Just as the plants are commencing to make a good growth, 
they suddenly wilt and die although not cut off as by a 
Noctuid larva. Old cabbage stumps should not be allowed 
to stay in the garden, as they harbor late-generation 
larvae and overwintering pupae. A troublesome pest in 
onion bulbs is the Imported Onion-maggot (Phorbia 
cepetorum), although the native Phorbia ceparum does 
some damage (Chcstopsis cznea of the Ortalidae is another 
onion maggot). The larvae of Phorbia rubivora girdle 
the inner bark of the tips of young raspberry and black- 
berry shoots. The larvae of Pegomyia vicina make tortu- 
ous mines and large blotches in the leaves of beet and 
spinach. Pupation takes place in loose soil or under fallen 
leaves. Chittenden notes that "in many cases infestation 
can be traced directly to the insect having bred in lambs- 
quarters and similar weeds." Ophyra leuco stoma breeds in 
excrement. 

Especially in May and June this, at 

^nkularif* firSt Sight ' Sma11 edition of Musca domestica 
is sometimes abundant in houses. Those 
who do not know that insects do not grow after getting 
functional wings believe them to be the young of the larger 
and more common insect. However, all the veins run 
without sharp bends to the margins of the wings. The 
263 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



early spring adults have probably been hibernating in 
the house. The larvae of the Lesser House-fly live in 
waste vegetable matter, in the manure of different animals, 
and especially in human excrement. They have also 
been found in yellow-jacket ( Vespa) nests where they were 
probably cleaning up the debris. 

Muscid^e 

Insect pests, as well as diseases, were formerly taken 
very much as matters of course. Indeed, some people 
went further and gave reasons why they should be con- 
sidered blessings exceedingly well disguised. We have 
long since started to fight all diseases by all the means 
we can command and when this fight leads us to certain 
insects which are the transmitters of these diseases, it is 
only logical that we should combat those particular insects 
as well. Although this little book mentions a large num- 
ber of the insects which injure our persons and pocket- 
books, such represent a very small proportion of all insects; 
they have been given space because they are common and 
asked about. The best that can be said of common house- 
flies is that they are scavengers; but they are scavengers 
which come from their dirty surroundings to our tables 
without disinfecting themselves. Furthermore, however 
useful they may have been in the past, we are now able to 
attend to cleaning up the civilized portions of the world 
in a more cleanly way than by employing creatures which 
insist upon tracking the disease-laden dirt over our food 
and our persons. 

According to Dr. L. O. Howard, 22,808 out of 23,087 
flies actually captured on fly-paper in dining-rooms were 
Musca domestica. The remaining three hundred, or so, 
consisted of a number of different species. I have ar- 
ranged a chart (see p. 265) which shows that the 
Common House-fly, the Disease-carrying Fly, is the only 
species which is very abundant both in dining-rooms and 
on one of several things which we dislike to think of in 
connection with dining-rooms. " Swat the fly " but, better 
still, prevent its breeding by doing away with, or screening, 
all possible breeding places within a mile of your house. 
264 



FLIES FOUND ON HUMAN EXCREMENT 



p 
3 


% 

o 

ft 

fD 
P 

cr 

§ 

P 


> 

cr 
ft 

ft 

a- 
5 


ft 

g 










Co 

§ 

3 
<^> 

Co 

8 


< 

m 
w 

a 

o 
> 

H 




1. 

1 

Co 






> 

a 

u 

> 

H 


M 

40 Si 

-* 


2. 

Co 

S3 


<o 

<o 




td D 
d > 

H 5 


Pollenia rudis 
Calliphora erythrocephala 




Sarcophaga sarracenicz 
Ophyra leucostoma 
Pseudopyrellia ccesarion 
Myospila meditahunda 


§*§ 

co 8 

s* 

Co 


> 



265 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Fifteen genera, including a total of twenty species, have 
been found within fifty miles of New York City and are so 
widely distributed that they are to be looked for throughout 
the United States and, indeed, the whole world. Still 
another eastern genus {Protocalliphora) has the disagree- 
able habit of breeding in nestling birds, causing their 
death. It is hoped that the following key, taken in connec- 
tion with the descriptions and figures, will enable the 
careful student to identify the common species. 

i . Proboscis long, slender, horny, adapted for piercing . . 2. 

Proboscis not so, having fleshy labellae ("lips") at 

the tip » 3. 

2. Dark ash-gray, with a faint tinge of yellow; thorax 
and abdomen with no distinct markings; not larger 
than Musca domestica; palpi nearly as long as the 
proboscis Hcematobia irritans. 

Palpi much shorter than the proboscis 

Stomoxys calcitrans. 

3. Thorax with a fairly distinct median dark stripe. 
(When the stripe is very faint try 15) 4. 

Thorax with the median stripe light, or thorax with 
no distinct stripes 6. 

4. Abdomen non-metallic in color, spotted or macu- 
lated Graphomyia maculata. 

Abdomen metallic blue or green; not maculated 5. 

5. Face light yellow; thorax metallic, stripes very 
distinct Chrysomyia macellaria. 

Face reddish-brown; thorax non-metallic; stripes 
rather indistinct Cynomyia cadaverina. 

6. Abdomen opaque brown, a pair of triangular black 
spots on each of the second and third abdominal segments 
of the male. These spots are faint or wanting in the 
female Myospila meditabunda. 

Abdomen not marked in this way 7. 

7. The 4th longitudinal vein slightly bent 8. 

The 4th longitudinal vein sharply bent 10. 

8. First posterior cell narrowly contracted at the margin; 
bluish-black, shining; the tip of the scutellum not reddish; 
the median light stripe on the thorax more distinct than 
the others Morellia micans. 

266 



KEY TO MUSCID/E 



First posterior cell scarcely contracted at the margin; 
black, not shining; tip of scutellum reddish 9. 

9. Legs and palpi wholly black Muscina assimilis. 

Legs and palpi partly or wholly yellow 

Muscina stabulans. 

10. Abdomen non-metallic n. 

Abdomen metallic 12. 

11. Thorax without distinct stripes and usually covered 
with a yellowish "dust"; more than two pairs of acrostical 
bristles; two anterior and three posterior dorso-centrals. 

Pollenia rudis. 

Thorax with distinct stripes only in front, if at all; 
not more than two pairs of acrostical bristles ; two anterior 
and four posterior dorso-centrals . . . Myospila meditabunda. 

Thorax with four stripes ; not more than two pairs of 
acrostical bristles; three anterior and four posterior dorso- 
centrals Musca domestica. 

12. Metallic between the eyes; a prominent bristle on 
inner surface of each middle tibia . . P seudopyrellia ccesarion. 

Not so 13. 

13. Abdomen grayish Pollenia rudis. 

Abdomen greenish or bluish 14. 

14. Thorax not metallic; no spines on the 3rd longitudinal 
vein except at its junction with the 2nd 15. 

Thorax and abdomen bright metallic blue or green; 
spines on the first section of the 3rd longitudinal vein. . .17. 

15. Distal third of arista naked; bucca ("cheeks") red 
in front, black behind Cynomyia cadaverina. 

Distal third of arista bearing some hairs; bucca 
unicolorous. Calliphora 16. 

16. Bucca black, beard red C. vomitoria. 

Bucca brownish or reddish, beard black 

C. erythrocephala. 
Bucca black, beard black C. viridescens. 

17. Two stout bristles on dorsal posterior margin of the 
2nd abdominal segment Lucilia sylvarum. 

Not so 18. 

18. Acrostical bristles in front of the transverse suture 
wanting or feebly developed 19. 

Acrostical bristles in front of the transverse suture 

well developed 20. 

267 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



19. Posterior acrosticals feebly developed; thorax some- 
what flattened between the suture and the scutellum; 
usually bluish-black; squamae brownish 

Protophormia terra-nova. 

Posterior acrosticals moderately developed; thorax 

not flattened; dark greenish or bluish; squamae whitish. 

Phormia regina. 

20. Having two posterior acrosticals; greenish or 
bluish , Lucilia ccesar . 

Having three posterior acrosticals; greenish or 
bronzy, rarely bluish Lucilia serricata. 

Plate LXIX. The name Texas Fly was 
Haematobia based on the supposition that this species 

nutans 

originated in the West. It came from 
Europe to the vicinity of Philadelphia about 1887 and is 
now found from Canada to the Gulf and at least as far 
west as Idaho. It was formerly abundant in the East but 
is now quite rare. The name Horn-fly comes from the 
habit which the adults have of clustering about the base 
of the horns of cattle to suck blood. The larvae live in 
cow dung. 



The figure (Plate LXX) and the piercing 
Stomoxys mouth parts of the Biting House-fly make 

identification easy. Hough says that speci- 
mens taken on the borders of woods often have brownish 
wings. Their superficial resemblance to M. domestica 
and their biting habits have given rise to the error that the 
latter species is adding to its many sins by sucking blood. 
Both sexes suck blood. On account of calcitrans being 
more troublesome during rains, it is sometimes called 
the Storm-fly. Another common name is Stable-fly. 
It has recently been accused of carrying infantile pa- 
ralysis. The larvae feed on a wide range of decaying 
matter, including fermenting grass cut from lawns, 
horse manure, and human excrement. It is world-wide 
in its distribution. 



268 



Plate LXIX 





Cynomyia oadaverina &raphomyia macuiata 




Pseudopyrellia 
caesarion 




Pollenia 

rudis 




Haematobia Morellia 

irritans micans Myospila 

meditabunda 

I s - longitudinal vein ^p r-^r ^ "^ 

. , , I auxiliary vein f "> A\ v 

costal vein costal cell liwll_v 




urn 



H tJ> longitudinal vein 



269 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Plate LXIX. The squamae are slightly 
rap omyia dusky. Some, at least, American speci- 
mens lack the yellowish color which has 
been recorded for the European ones on the scutellum. 
The larvae are said to live in excrement. 



This species (Plate LXX) varies from 
Chrysomyia 2$ to { ^ j n length> The normal 

macellana ° ° . & . 

food of the larvae is carrion. Pupation 

usually occurs in earth or moist debris. The mature 

larva is .75 in. long and is provided with a ring of bristles 

between each pair of segments. These and its pointed 

shape make it somewhat resemble a screw, hence the 

common name, Screw- worm. They occasionally feed on 

living animals, including man, the eggs being laid in open 

wounds or in the nose. In the latter case, the larvae work 

their way into the cavities of the head and sometimes 

cause death. 



Adults (Plate LXIX) range from .25 to 
Sda^rina .50 in. in length. The thorax is slaty-black, 

with indistinct stripes on the anterior 
portion. It is very difficult to cite good characters for 
separating this insect from Caliiplwra. However, common 
species of Calliphora do not usually have markings on the 
thorax; if they have, the markings are indistinct and not 
as described for this species. Furthermore, the buccae 
of cadaverina are grayish-black posteriorly and brown to 
reddish anteriorly; those of Calliphora are usually uni- 
colorous. Although the adults are captured about excre- 
ment, it is probable that the larvae feed exclusively on 
decaying flesh. 



Plate LXIX. The squamae are yellowish. 

m Ttabunda The ^^ liVC in excremenL 0nl y a few 
(several dozen) eggs are laid by each female. 

The eggs have a black stripe on each side and, as continua- 
tions of these, a black curved appendage. This fly is 
common to both Europe and America. 
270 



HOUSE=FLlES 



Except that the tip of the abdomen is 

orellia brown with a hoary coating, there is little 

micans , , *1 ° 

which need be added to the characters given 

in the key and Plate LXIX. The larvae breed in excre- 
ment, often being abundant in human fasces. The life 
history is completed in about three weeks. 

Both stabulans (Plate LXIX) and assimi- 
Muscina , . ■. • 1 , 1 ■, 

lis are a bit larger and more robust than 

M. domes tica. The tip of the scutellum may be reddish. 

The larvae feed on excrement and a variety of decaying 

substances, including fungii and vegetables. M. stabulans 

has been reared from the pupae of other insects but the 

pupae had probably died first, as it is not likely that the 

species is parasitic. Both species are widely distributed 

in Europe and America, stabulans usually being the 

commoner. 

In addition to the characters given in 
Poiienia the k and plate LX IX, it might be said 

rudis . 

that the space between the eyes is white. 

On account of its habit of overlapping the wings when at 
rest, it often appears narrower than domes tica. The exact 
date of its introduction from Europe is unknown. It has 
been bred from manure, but probably only when the 
manure contained earthworms as it has been bred from 
these common creatures. The adults are rather sluggish 
and have been called Cluster-flies from their habit of 
congregating in masses, especially about the ceilings 
of rooms. They are looking for a place to hibernate and 
may find it in closets, behind curtains, or in other nooks. 
When mashed, these flies are very greasy and have an 
odor which has been described by some as like honey and 
by others as "very disagreeable." It is even more sus- 
ceptible to attack by a fungus (Empusa) than is M. 
domestica. 

Like most of the Muscidae, the sexes of 

^ usca . the House- or Disease-fly (Plate LXX) may 

domestica . , . , , , . 

be told apart by the fact that the eyes of 

the males are nearer together than they are in the females. 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



The sides of the abdomen of the males are brownish near 
the base and grayish elsewhere. The females are grayish 
over all the abdomen with a variable pattern of darker 
gray or black. It takes the egg about twelve hours, 
on the average, to hatch. In about five days the larvae 
are full-grown and the pupal stage lasts from five days to a 
month or longer. The puparium is the old larval skin, 
liardened and brown. Each female usually lays from one 
to two hundred eggs in the garbage or manure which is the 
food of the larvae. Adults may hibernate, but so also do 
pupae and larvae. See Homalomyia. 

Pseudopyrellia ccesarion (Plate LXIX) is easily recog- 
nized by the characters given in the key, especially those 
in couplet 12. The brilliant blue larvae are often abundant 
in cow dung. 

„ .„ « Other flies besides Calliphora "blow," 

Calhphora , . , , 

that is, lay eggs on meat, but the name 

Blow-fly is usually applied to members of this genus. 

The anatomy, physiology, and development of C. ery- 

throcephala are very well known, thanks to Lowne's classic 

work and Portchinski's careful observations. The other 

two species (see the key and Plate LXX) probably differ 

but little from it. It lays several hundred small eggs 

on meat and dead animals. These eggs -hatch in about 

twenty-four hours or less, sometimes even hatching in the 

female, so that she lays living larvae. It takes a week- or 

ten days to reach the pupal stage and then about two weeks 

for adults to emerge. The mature larva may be nearly 

or quite .75 in. long. Pupation usually takes place under 

the food-mass or slightly below the surface of the ground. % 

All three species occur also in Europe. 

T ... L. sylvarum is the bluest Blue-bottle; 

ccesar (Plate LXX) is more often greenish; 
and sericata usually has a bronzy gleam, especially on the 
abdomen. See also Phormia, p. 273. Carrion is their 
chief larval food but L. casar has been reared from excre- 
ment and garbage. The life-histories are completed in 
from three to four weeks and are about equally divided 
between larval and pupal stages. 
272 



Plate LXX 




Muscq domesticQ 





Stomoxijs 
cQlcitrans 





Chrusomyia 

maceNQriQ 



< V 

Cal-Iipnq/fQ 

vo mi tori a 



/ 





! LU\C I 1 1 Q 



i 

caesar 



Sarcopftaga 
hoemorrhoidal 15 



Drosophilo 
melanogaster. 



COMBATING DANGEROUS FLIES, 



Protophormia terrce-novcE is about .4 in. long; the eyes 
of the male are closer together than those of the female 
but not so close as in the male of Phormia regina; palpi, 
light brown or yellowish; prothoracal stigma, black; 
there are delicate spines along the proximal half of the 
first section of the third longitudinal vein. See also the 
next species. It is found about excrement but is not 
usually common. 

Phormia regina (Plate LXIX) is fairly common. Its 
larvae live in carrion. The palpi are tipped with black; 
prothoracal stigma red or yellow; and the spines on the 
third vein are well developed. Both it and the preceding 
species are likely to be confused with Lucilia, but in that 
genus the front, between the eyes, is usually distinctly 
margined with white and it is not in these species. 

Methods of Combating Dangerous Muscidas. 

The usual methods employed in fighting the dangerous 
Muscidae are really of little avail. Sticky fly-paper, wire 
fly-traps, and poisons will undoubtedly kill a large number 
but infinitely more are breeding where these came from. 
Screening our windows and doors will undoubtedly keep 
many out but it is not pleasant to live in a cage. Further- 
more, the people from whom we buy our milk and other 
food-stuffs may not be so careful. The only thorough- 
going method is to stop the trouble at its source — prevent 
breeding. If we could do away with the breeding-places, 
or make them unfit for fly-larvae, or keep adult flies away 
from them, the thing would be done. Nearly all the 
books and lecturers say that this is easy. It is well to be 
optimistic but better to recognize the whole truth. - It 
cannot be done easily. 

"The remedy is simple, effective, practicable, and 
inexpensive. Destroy their breeding-places and you will 
have no flies." The latter sentence is manifestly true. 
Stable manure should be kept in fly-proof bins; treatment 
with kerosene, chlorid of lime, etc., is not completely 
satisfactory. Cess-pools must also be made fly proof. 
Privies must be done away with, or all traces of excre- 
ment removed and buried deeply at least once a week. 
18 273 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Garbage must be buried or burned as often. Every bit of 
organic rubbish must either be kept dry or be destroyed. 
All these precautions can and should be taken. But — 
the author quoted above says also: "Of course your 
neighbor must keep his place clean too, for his flies are 
just as apt to come into your house [or to get on your food 
at the dealer's] as his, so the problem becomes one for the 
whole community." This is the heart of the matter. 
A few earnest individuals or well-meaning Improvement 
Societies, acting by themselves, can do little more than 
cause a great deal of trouble and achieve very little good. 
Laws must be framed and enforced, so that the ignorant 
or careless may not make of little or no avail the work 
of the intelligent and careful. Dr. Howard has well said 
"It is the duty of every individual to guard, so far as possible, 
against the occurrence of flies upon his premises. It is the 
duty of every community, through its board of health, to 
spend money in the warfare against this enemy of mankind. 
This duty is as pronounced as though the community were 
attacked by bands of ravenous wolves. " 



We are now about to take up flies which are in 
the ACALYPTERATE division of some authors. The 
squamae are small or vestigial ; the first longitudinal vein 
is short; the eyes of the males never touch each other; 
and the thorax is without a complete transverse suture. 
For the most part, these flies are small. The following 
families are those most likely to be noticed. 

SCATOPHAGID^ 

Several species of Scatophaga (Plate LXVIII) are com- 
mon about cow-dung; they are moderately large, yellow- 
haired flies, with rather slim bodies and longish legs. The 
adults are predaceous, even catching honey-bees. The 
larvae live in excrement. 

BORBORIDiE 

This is a small family of minute, active flies having no 
distinct auxiliary vein; the first (and sometimes the 
274 



ACALYPTERATE FLIES. 



second) joint of each hind tarsus is usually short and 
broad. The adults of Borborus and Sphcerocera are often 
seen in clouds about the excrement in which the larvae 
feed. 

The Tetanocerid^e (or Sciomyzidse) are somewhat 
sluggish, usually brown or yellow flies, many of which 
have receding chins and marking on the wings. See 
Teianocera (Plate LXVIII). They are usually found 
in moist places, the larvae being aquatic. 

Sapromyza (Plate LXVIII) is fairly typical of the 
Lauxaniid^. They are small flies whose larvae live in 
decaying vegetation. 

ORTALIDIXLE 

The flies of this and the next family have prettily marked 
wings. The distinctions between the families are, for the 
most part, rather difficult to grasp; perhaps the easiest 
concerns the auxiliary vein. In the Conopidae, Sepsidas, 
Ortalididae, and other families, it is present and ends dis- 
tinctly in the costa; in the Trypetidae, Drosophilidas, and 
other families it is absent or incomplete. In the three 
first-named families, the first longitudinal vein usually 
ends in the costa, near or beyond the middle of the front 
margin; in the two last-named ones, it usually ends before 
the middle. Numerous species of Ortalididae are usually 
found in meadows and some (e. g. Tritoxa flexa, Plate 
LXXI) have been bred from onions but the life-histories 
of most are unknown. The same plate shows Pyrgota 
undata. 

Trypetid.e 

The Peacock Flies spend much of their time strutting 
about with brown- or black-spotted wings elevated and 
waved back and forth. Some of the females have relatively 
long, horny ovipositors at the tip of the abdomens. See 
Enaresta, Plate LXXI. Most of the larvae live in plant 
rissues. 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Adults of the Apple Maggot (Plate LXXI) 

^omonella arG t0 be f ° Und fr ° m July t0 Se P tember - 

By means of her sharp ovipositor the 

female punctures the skin of the apple and lays her eggs 
directly in the pulp. The white larvas, which taper some- 
what toward the front, make winding burrows through the 
pulp and attain a length of .25 in. or more. They then 
bore out, usually after the apple has fallen, and go about 
an inch underground where they spend the winter and 
spring in a brownish puparium. 

The larvae of similar flies, Rhagoletis cingulata and 
R. fausta, are the cherry-worms, known to us all. The 
currant and gooseberry worm is the larva of Epochra 
canadensis. Several species make galls on goldenrod 
stems (see p. 457), others mine leaves, live in roots, berries, 
and fruits of numerous kinds, but practically all have 
wing-patterns which are distinctive of the species. 

PlOPHILID/E 

Ever see Cheese Skippers? Probably not unless you 
have lived moderately long or quite near to Nature. The 
acrobats are larvae of Piophila casei (Plate LXXI). 
They are about .2 in. long, smooth, and tapered toward 
the front. The leap is accomplished by holding the tail 
with the mouth, pulling hard, and then letting go. Why, 
I do not know. They live also in bacon or other fatty 
material. 

Drosophilid^e 

The little red-eyed Pomace-fly (Plate 
Drosophila LXX)— also called Sour Fiy and Vinegar- 

melanogaster _ . J . ° . 

fly — is sometimes common about the fruit 

basket on our sideboard, but it is in the study of heredity 
and sex that it has become famous, under the name of 
D. ampdophila. Its larvae feed on ripe, or over-ripe, 
bananas and other fruit, also on vinegar, stale beer, and 
the like. The average duration, at living-room tempera- 
tures, of the egg period is about 2 days; of the larval 
period, about 6 days; and of the pupal period, about 5 



Plate LXXI 




Euaresta 
bella 



A 




Rhaqoletis pomonella 



PiOphilQ ^ /. 

'casei Oljersia 

americana 




Melophagus 
ovinus 




Ctenoccpholus 

CQnis 



Pule* irritans 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



days. I have kept unmated adults alive, under the same 
conditions, for about three months. A bit of banana in a 
milk bottle is all the apparatus one needs to breed this 
creature and twenty generations a year are easily reared. 
These facts and its other virtues make it an ideal labora- 
tory animal. Not only have simple cases of Mendelian 
inheritance been conveniently studied but more complex 
ones and also the relations between body-characteristics, 
including sex, and the chromosomes in the germ-cells 
have been analyzed by its aid. The adults are perfect 
slaves to light (heliotropic). Put a number of them in a 
bottle and they will all crowd to the part which is nearest 
the window, no matter how much you may turn the bottle 
about. The males are a trifle smaller than the females 
and have the hind part of the abdomen more largely 
pigmented. The males have relatively immense "sex 
combs" on their front legs. These may be for the sake of 
appearing more attractive to the females, as the males go 
through their courtship dance, but, on numerous occasions, 
I cut them off without thereby noticeably decreasing the 
success of the combless males in the rivalry, which I then 
staged, with normal males. The "sex combs" may be 
to clean his antennae, but how does she keep hers clean? 
They may just happen to be. 

In this brief review of the Acalypterates the following, 
among other, families have been skipped. Heteroneuri- 
D-iEi.the larvae live in decaying wood, etc., and "skip" 
like Piophila. Sepsid^e: Piophila has been put here; 
they often swarm about the decaying vegetables and excre- 
ment in which their larvae live. Diopsid^e : our only species 
is Sphyracephala brevicornis, which occurs on skunk- 
cabbage and may be recognized by its eyes being on stalks. 
Ephydrid^e: these small or even minute flies are usually 
found about moist places; the aquatic larvae of some 
species have " rat- tails " like Eristalis but the tail is forked ; 
some larvae live in salt or alkaline water, others in the sap 
of trees and in leaves. Agromyzid^e: numerous small 
flics; some larvae are leaf-miners, others live in plant-galls; 
others feed on plant-lice, creeping like leeches or Geomcl rid 
larvae. 

278 



TICKS AND FLEAS. 



PUPIPARA 



This group is sometimes given the rank of Suborder. Its 
members are all ectoparasites, that is, they live on, but not 
in, their hosts. They are called Pupipara because the 
larvae live inside the mother until they are ready to pupate 
or have already done so. The wings are often vestigal or 
wanting. They are probably degenerate Acalypterates. 

The Hippoboscid^e (Plate LXXI) are parasitic upon 
birds or mammals. The jnore commonly observed of the 
winged species belong to Olfersia and live on hawks and 
owls. A wingless species is the sheep-tick, Melophagus 
ovinus. 

Members of the family Nycteribiid^e, also of Stre- 
blid^e, usually have no wings, although the halteres are 
retained. Almost without exception, they are parasitic 
on bats. 

SUCTORIA 



The adult Fleas are small, wingless, laterally com- 
pressed, jumping, sucking insects which are parasitic upon 
warm-blooded animals including man. The larvae (Plate 
LXXI) are worm-like; they live in rubbish and dust, such 
as accumulates at the edges of carpets and in the folds of 
upholstery. The pupae are enclosed in cocoons. The 
family Pulicid^e contains the common Dog-flea, Cteno- 
cephalus cams; the usually rare (with us) Human-flea, 
Pulex irritans (thorax and head shown in Plate LXXI); 
and a Rat-flea, Ceratophyllus fasciatus, which transmits 
plague in temperate regions. The Jigger-flea or Chigoe, 
Dermatophilas . penetrans, of the Dermatophilid^e, is 
confused with the Jigger or Chigger, which is a small red 
Mite and also burrows into human skin. It infests domes- 
tic animals and birds, as well as man. The male feeds 
externally but the female works her way under the skin, 
causing a serious ulcer through which the eggs are released. 
279 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



COLEOPTERA 



Beetles may usually be recognized, when adult, by the 
fact that their front wings ("elytra") are hardened. The 
elytra usually do not overlap but meet in a line (the "su- 
ture") along the middle of the back; in all Staphylinidae, 
and in some other groups, they do not, however, com- 
pletely cover the abdomen. They have chewing mouth- 
parts. Metamorphosis is complete. The larvae have no 
abdominal legs except (often) on the last joint. Twelve or 
fifteen thousand species are known from North America. 
The student who desires to specialize is referred to the 
following two books, from which many of the concise 
descriptions given here have been copied: 

Blatchley, W. S. An illustrated descriptive catalogue of the 
Coleoptera or Beetles {exclusive of the Rhynchophora) 
known to occur in Indiana. 

Blatchley, W. S. and Leng, C. W. Rhynchophora or 
Weevils of North-Eastern America. 

Coleoptera are divided by Sharp into the following six 
scries, not counting Strepsiptera (p. 405). For the con- 
venience of American students, I have followed the order 
of arrangement which is in general use in America. After 
some familiarity with the various groups has been gained 
by matching specimens with the pictures, the student will 
be able to assign most beetles to their proper family on 
"general appearance." 

ADEPHAGA. Tarsi 5-jointed, the fourth quite dis- 
tinct; antennas thread-like or nearly so, never lamelli- 
form; abdomen with one more exposed segment at the 
sides than along the middle, the numbers usually being five 
and six. See p. 281. 

POLYMORPHA. Antennae frequently with either a 
club, i. e. y the terminal joints broader than the others (the 
Clavicorns), or the joints from the third onwards more or 
Less saw-like, the serrations being on the inner face (the 
Serricorns); but these and all other characters, including 
the number of joints in the feet, very variable. See 
p. 292. 

280 



TIQER=BEETLES. 



LAMELLICORNIA. Tarsi 5-jointed; antennae with 
the three, or more, terminal joints leaf -like (or at least 
broader than the others), forming a club, the leaves of 
which are movable and, in repose, fit together so as to 
appear to be one piece. See p. 324. 

PHYTOPHAGA. Tarsi apparently 4-jcinted, the 
three basal joints usually densely set with cushion-like 
pubescence beneath; the third joint different from the 
others in form, being divided into two lobes, or grooved 
on its upper surface so as to allow the fourth joint to be 
inserted near its base instead of at its extremity; sometimes 
the tarsus is distinctly 5-jointed, a very small fourth joint 
being apparent. Head not forming a definite prolonged 
beak. See p. 336. 

HETEROMERA. Front and middle tarsi 5-jointed, 
hind tarsi 4-jointed; other characters variable. See p. 380. 

RHYNCHOPHORA. Head usually more or less pro- 
longed in front to form a snout or beak; tarsi apparently 
4-jointed but with a very minute additional joint at the 
extreme base of the last joint, usually at least the third 
joint broad and densely pubescent beneath. See p. 393. 

ADEPHAGA 

These are typically carnivorous, both as larvae and as 
adults. The larvae, which are usually very active, have 
two claws on each tarsus. The Cicindelidae and Carabidae 
are terrestrial and bear numerous fine, erect, bristle-like 
hairs, especially beneath; the others are aquatic and very 
smooth. 

ClCIXDELID,£ 

The adult Tiger-beetles have their eleven- jointed antenna? 
fastened to the front of the head above the base of the 
mandibles. These beetles have much recumbent hair, 
as well as erect bristles; the eyes are prominent; the head 
is held vertically and is wider than the thorax. "They 
are long-legged, rather slender, active beetles, predatory 
in habit, living usually in open sandy places, and flying 
readily when disturbed. The larvae are uncouth creatures, 
with large head and prominent jaws, that live in vertical 
281 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



burrows [usually] in sandy soil, watching at the mouth 
for such unwary creatures as may come their way " (Smith). 
The larvae have a hump on the fifth abdominal segment; 
this hump is provided with forward-pointing hooks that 
help the larvae to hold back if their prey should try to 
get away. See Plate LXXII. The burrow, which is 
often a foot or more deep and within which the larva 
pupates, may be recognized by the smooth, circular depres- 
sion, worn by the larva's feet, surrounding the opening. 

Tetracha of the South and Omus of the 
West live more like Carabidae but Cicindela 
is the largest genus of the family and the one whose habits 
have just been described. The following are some of the 
common species in the Northeast. C. dorsalis (Plate 
LXXII) is white with variable black markings; along 
the sea-shore in July. Plate LXXIII shows generosa, 
which lives on sandy plains, and sexguttata (the number of 
white dots is variable) of sunny, woodland paths. C. 
rcpanda, of pond and river banks, is bronzy-brown above 
with three white marks on each elytron: one (the "humeral 
lunule") at the shoulder, one (the "apical lunule") at the 
apex, and one, which is somewhat like an eighth-note 
in music, in the middle. C. hirticollis is like it but hairier 
and the humeral lunule is upturned at the tip. C. tran- 
quebarica is larger (about .6 in. long), the tip of the humeral 
lunule is down- turned; frequents sandy roads. The 
last three are most commonly found in spring and fall. 
C. punctulata, which is dark above (greenish-blue beneath) 
except for white dots, is abundant on roads, garden paths, 
and even city streets, flying freely to light in midsummer; 
each elytron has a row of green punctures along the suture 
in addition to densely placed, uncolored ones. C. modesta 
is black and C. rugifrons is green, each with three large 
white spots; found in pine barrens. 

Carabid^: 

Most of the many Ground-beetles are plain black or 
brown. The antennae of the adults start from the side of 
the head between the base of the mandibles and the eyes, 
which are usually of moderate size; ornamental hairs art 

282 



Plate LXXII 




qer beetle larva 



'Cicindeh dorsalis 




Cychrus 
elevQtus 



Harpalus 
Carabus caiiginosus 

vinctuS 




Potsimachus 
depressus 




Pterostichus 
Dicaelus lucublandus 

elonqatus 

283 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



found only in Brachynus and Chlanius but erect setae are 
present and are important in technical classification; the 
head is held horizontally or slightly inclined and is usually 
narrower than the thorax. Although some bright-colored 
Lebiini hunt by day on plants, the majority hide under 
stones or other cover. If disturbed, they run rapidly but 
rarely fly except at night, when some species swarm about 
lights. They are beneficial because of their predaceous 
habits; the musky odor of many species telling of their 
diet of flesh. The larvae are relatively long, and rather 
flat; they have sharp, projecting mandibles and a pair of 
posterior bristly appendages; they usually live in under- 
ground burrows, pupating in small earthen cells. 

Cychrus is a genus (late authors divide it into several 
genera) which is usually rather rare and, since the violet 
or brownish-purple beetles are of good size, they are 
often sought by collectors. The pronotum is more or less 
turned up at the edges. The head and mandibles are 
long, narrow, and straight, so that they may be thrust 
into snail-shells in order to draw out the owners; the palpi 
are shaped like a long-handled spoon. As might be guessed , 
they are to be found only where snails are common: in 
moist woods and similar places. See Plate LXXII. 

Carabus may be separated from Calosoma by the fact 
that the former has the third joint of the antennas cylindri- 
cal and the latter has it compressed. 

The species of Carabus are black or brown- 
ish-black, and about an inch long. C. 
sylvosus: margins of the turned-up pronotum and of 
elytra blue; striae on elytra very fine; usually in sandy 
woods. C. serratus: margins of pronotum (slightly turned 
up) and of elytra violet; elytra with two or three slight 
notches in the margin near the base; usually in damp 
places. C. limbatus: bluish margins; pronotum a half 
wider than long; elytra deeply striate; usually in moist 
upland woods. C. vinctus (Plate LXXII) : bronzed, prono- 
tum with a greenish tinge at borders; usually under bark in 
low, moist woods. All may be caught by sinking bottles 
or cans, baited with molasses, in the soil. 
284 



CATERPILLAR=HLNTING BEETLES. 



These are usually found, under cover, 
in gardens, fields, and open woods. They 
are often abundant at light. Their common name, 
Caterpillar Hunters, should recommend them, as it is 
well given. Plate LXXIII gives sufficient help in identify- 
ing calidum and scrutator. C. externum is about 1.25 in. 
long; margins of pronotum and elytra blue; pronotum 
with the sides rounded, flattened, and turned up behind. 
Mr. Davis told of a "specimen which was found under an 
electric light and squirted its acrid fluid into my face at a 
distance of about a foot." They will do that sometimes. 
C. willcoxi is similar to scrutator but only about .75 in. 
long; the thorax is relatively narrower, and the margins 
of the elytra are sometimes green. C. frigidum: about 
.8 in. long; black above, greenish-black below; pronotum 
and elytra with narrow, green margins; spots on elytra, 
green. C. sayi: similar, but found from N. Y. southward 
while frigidum occurs from N. Y. northward. C. syco- 
phanta has recently been introduced from Europe to aid in 
righting the Brown-tail Moth. 



Even alter I was supposed to know 
Elaphras , . , _ V T • -, 

something about Entomology I tried to 

place E. ruscarius in Cicindela. All of the genus have the 

general form of Tiger-beetles, but they are smaller and 

lack the ornamental hairs. They inhabit sand-bars and 

mud-flats. E. ruscarius is about .25 in. long; dull brassy 

above, metallic green beneath; the numerous, circular 

impressions on the elytra are purplish; legs, reddish-brown. 

Adults have been taken at Christmas time as far north as 

Indiana. 



Pasimachus 



A black Carabid, which is an inch or so 
long and whose pronotum seems too big for 
it (suggesting a collar that has come loose and moved up 
the neck), probably belongs to this genus. They occur 
especially where the soil is sandy, and are caterpillar hun- 
ters. P. depressus (Plate LXXII) is blue-margined, but 
often faintly. P. sublarcis occurs on the beach; the 
pronotum and elytra are margined (often faintly) with 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



blue; pronotum squarish but pushed in at the front and 
somewhat bulged at the sides; tip of closed elytra rounded. 

Species of Scarites are narrow; the pro- 
notum is rounded behind and somewhat 
"too big"; the wide, flat front tibiae are toothed. The 
common species of our gardens is subterraneus. It is 
usually less than .8 in. long; the southern substriatus may 
be only a large variety of it (an inch or more in length). 
These species are shiny black; the head has two, deeply 
indented, parallel lines; the sides of the squarish pronotum 
are nearly straight and it is separated from the elytra by a 
neck; the eltrya are distinctly striate. They are often 
turned up in gardens and feign death by holding the body 
rigid for a time, but soon run off to shelter. 

. Circular, yellow beetles, tessellated with 

dark green, that live by day in the damp 
sand of brook and pond shores and come out at night to 
seek their prey. O. americanum is our common species. 

Numerous, small species of Dyschirius and Clivina live 
in damp soil, especially sandy or muddy banks, and may 
be collected by throwing water on the banks, forcing the 
beetles out of the ground for air or to satisfy their curiosity 
as to the state of the weather. They are usually less 
than .4 in. long and have two bristle-bearing punctures 
above each eye and at each hind angle of the pronotum. 
Pasimachus and Scarites have only one at each of these 
places. The pronotum of Dyschirius is globular or oval 
and that of Clivina is squarish. Other, less common, 
genera may be distinguished from Dyschirius and Clivina 
by the fact that their front tarsi are dilated, while those of 
D. and C. are slender, and by the absence of a neck be- 
tween the thorax and the elytra. Bembidium and Tachys 
are remarkable for the speed with which they move and 
are easily recognized by the short, sharp, needle-like last 
palpal joint. Bembidium quadrimaculatum, less than 
.15 in. long, with four conspicuous yellow spots, is common 
in gardens. Tachys nanus, all black, and Tachys flavi- 
cauda, brown with a yellow tip, both less than .12 in. long 
are common under the bark of dead trees. 
286 



Plate LXXIII 





* 



Cicindela 
sexqultQtQ qenerosQ 



Lebi q 
gra ndis 




calidum 




GalosomG 




Platynus _ 
cupripennis 



Agonoderus 
pallipes 



A? 



Brachinus fumans 



BRACHINUS, THE BOMBARDIER. 



^ . . The members of this large genus are 

Pterostichus r f, 6 P ,.< 

among the most common of the Carabidae, 

but it is difficult to describe, without technicalities, even 

lucublandus, which lives in tilled fields. Plate LXXII 

shows its general form; its color is greenish or bluish. 

Amara and Platynus (Plate LXXIII) are related and also 

large genera. All the species are small. Amara angustata, 

shining bronze, is common in gardens, running rapidly on 

paths in midsummer, especially when weeding operations 

disturb its shelter. 

Similar to the preceding, but differing 
sufficiently in form to be recognized from 
the illustration on Plate LXXII is Dicalus elongatus, a 
black, shiny beetle often found under stones. 

A slender Carabid, .75 in. long, with 
blackish head and elytra, and a narrow, 
reddish-brown pronotum, is fairly certain to be this genus; 
if the head is strongly rounded behind the eyes, it is 
probably janas. G. bicolor is similar but has the back 
of the head tapering, rather than rounded. They are 
often abundant about lights but their home is in fence 
rows or open woodlands. The larvae are bluish and 
yellow. 

_ .. Plate LXXIII shows a species, grandis, 

Lebia 

which is credited with feeding on the eggs 

and young larva? of potato beetles. It is fairly typical, 

although one of the largest, of its genus, the members of 

which live under stones and leaves but often climb plants 

to feed on injurious insects. Their tarsi are comb-like, 

a feature which probably helps them in climbing, and the 

elytra are square-cut at apex. 

The beetles mentioned from Bembidium (p. 286) to this 
point have two bristle-bearing punctures above each eye. 
The Carabidae which follow have but one. 

„ ... These beetles (Plate LXXIII) have the 

Brachinus . , , ' , , . 

tip of the elytra square-cut; the head is 

tapering behind and both it and the thorax are very 
287 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS 



narrow, as compared with the abdomen. They occur on 
the ground under things, usually in damp places. Many 
Carabidas, when disturbed, give off a defensive fluid from 
a gland at the end of the abdomen but species of Brachi- 
nus do it with a distinct "pop." For this reason, they 
are called Bombardier Beetles. The discharged fluid 
is either volatile or it is shot out in a fine spray, so that 
it looks like smoke. 

. Under stones and logs in damp places 

are often found Carabidae with a pro- 
nounced musky odor and brilliant, bronzed or green, 
backs, very finely clothed with short hair. C. sericeus 
is all green, .6 in. long, with yellow legs, while other species 
of the genus are smaller and variously colored. 

__ . Plate LXXII shows one of the largest 

Harpalus . . ,. . , 

and commonest species, caligmosus. It 

is black with reddish-brown antennas and tarsi. H. 

pennsylvanicus is also common and is, superficially 

much like caliginosus except that it is rarely more than 

.7 in. long. For that matter, there are a dozen or more 

species of Harpalus, in almost any region, for which our 

figure would do except as to size. It might also pass for 

related genera such as Selenophorus, Stenolophus, and 

Anisodactylus. Unlike their relatives, some species of 

Harpalus are said to feed, when adult, largely on seeds. 

Harpalus viridiczneus, with shining, greenish-bronze 

back, is common under boards in farmyards. 

Agonoderus pallipes (Plate LXXIII) is a small relative 
of Harpalus that often enters houses at night, attracted 
by the lights. 

The next three families are aquatic (see also Hydrophiii- 
dae), although the adults may leave the water to seek 
mates and new abiding places. The compound eyes of 
the Gyrinidae (series Polymorpha) are divided so that they 
seem to have four such eyes; the abdomen has seven 
segments; the middle and hind legs form short broad pad- 
dles; the antennae are short. The eyes of Haliplidac and 
Dytiscidae are not divided; the antennas are thread-like; 
288 



PREDACEOLS DIVING BEETLES. 



and the abdomen has six segments. Haliplid antennae 
are io-jointed and none of the legs are modified for swim- 
ming. Dytiscid antennae are n -jointed and the hind 
legs have fringes of long hairs, acting as oars. 

Haliplid^ 

These beetles are small, oval, brown or yellow, more or 
less spotted with black, and have very much rounded 
backs. They are widest near the front of the elytra. 
They crawl about aquatic plants, usually in shallow water, 
but do not swim well. The larvae are slender and each of 
the body-segments has a fleshy lobe on the back, the hind 
one being long and tapering. Matheson states that they 
feed on filamentous algae; if this be so, they are an excep- 
tion to the carnivorous habits of the Adephaga. 

Dytiscid^: 

See above for the characteristics of these Predaceous 
Diving Beetles. Their larvae (Plate LXXIV) are called 
Water-tigers. The adults are said to hibernate in under- 
water earth but they come out from time to time, especially 
in early spring. During the summer they are frequently 
attracted to lights. The males of certain genera, e. g. 
Dytiscus, have the three basal segments of the front 
(and, to a lesser extent, of the middle) tarsi modified to 
form cup-like suckers, which may help them to cling to the 
females while mating. Some females have furrowed 
elytra. The adults have large spiracles near the hind end 
and smaller ones along the side. When at rest, they 
hang head-down with the tips of the elytra sticking out of 
the water. In this way, the spiracles have access to the 
upper air. When the beetle dives, a supply of air is 
carried along under the elytra. Adults discharge, from 
behind the head and also from anal glands, fluids which 
differ somewhat from species to species but all of which 
are probably defensive against fish and other enemies. 
The mature beetles live for a long time, Harris having kept 
a Dytiscus "three years and a half in perfect health, in a 
glass vessel filled with water, and supported by morsels 
of raw meat." Eggs of Dytiscus, as far as known, are 
289 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS, 



laid singly in slits made by the females in underwater 
plant stems. It is said that Acilius lets the eggs drop 
upon the mud while swimming about and Colymbetes 
arranges its eggs upon leaves. Miall remarks that many 
a raw naturalist has put these beetles into his collecting- 
bottle or aquarium, to find after a few hours that they 
have destroyed or mutilated almost his whole live stock. 
When the larva swims about in a leisurely way, the legs 
are the chief means of propulsion, but it can also make a 
sudden spring by throwing its body into serpentine curves. 
It may also be seen to creep on submerged leaves, and to 
cling to them when resting or lying in ambush. The tip 
of the tail carries two small appendages. These, as well 
as the last two segments of the abdomen, are fringed 
with hairs, which no doubt increase the effect of a stroke 
given to the water. But these appendages are chiefly 
used to buoy up the tail, when the larva requires to breathe. 
At length the larva ceases to feed, creeps into moist earth 
near the edge of the water, makes a roundish cell there, 
and changes to a pupa. 

The species of some genera, e. g. Bidessus, are less than 
.12 in. long. The following are among the largest species. 
Colymbetes sculptilis: about .7 in. long; top of head black, 
with two small, pale spots; pronotum, front of the head, 
and margins of elytra, dull yellow; a black, transverse, 
median bar on pronotum; elytra dark. The general 
color of Dytiscus is greenish black. Dytiscus fascivenlris: 
length, an inch or slightly more; abdominal segments 
reddish-brown with darker margins; pronotum margined 
with yellow only on the sides, or with a faint trace of yellow 
at base and apex; each elytron of female with ten grooves, 
which reach beyond the middle. D. hybridus: a trifle 
more than an inch long; abdominal segments uniform 
black; pronotum like fas civentris but shorter; yellow margin 
of elytra of nearly equal width throughout, a narrow 
yellow bar near apices; elytra of female smooth. D. 
verticalis: length usually at least 1.4 in.; abdominal segment 
uniform black; pronotum margined with yellow only on 
the sides; marginal yellow stripes on elytra narrowing 
behind; narrow, oblique, yellow cross-bars, near apices, 
often indistinct; elytra of females smooth. D. harrisii: 
290 



Plate LXXIV 




Gynnus 



Dytiscus 





Hvj d ro phi I us 



291 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



length usually at least 1.5 in.; all edges of the pronotum 
distinctly margined with yellow; elytra marked much like 
verticalis but cross-bar more distinct; females usually have 
the elytra grooved. Cybister fimbriolatus is about 1 .3 in 
long; brown with a faint greenish tinge; pronotum and 
elytra broadly margined with yellow; front of head, two 
front pairs of legs, and spots at sides of the third to sixth, 
inclusive, abdominal segments yellow; pronotum and 
elytra of female, except along the suture, with numerous, 
fine, short grooves. 

POLYMORPHA 

The following family has also been put in the Adephaga. 

Gyrinid^e 

All who observe have seen the steel-blue or black 
Whirligig Beetles (Plate LXXIV, and p. 288) gyrating in 
crowds on the surface of relatively still water or basking 
like turtles on logs and stones. When disturbed, Whirligig 
Beetles squeak by rubbing the tip of the abdomen against 
the elytra. They also give off a fluid which is sometimes 
ill-smelling but in other cases rather pleasantly suggests 
apples. Although they spend most of their active time 
on the surface of the water, they can fly well, if they can 
climb out of the water so as to get a start, and they dive 
freely, carrying down a bubble of air at the tips of, and 
under, their elytra. The front legs are long and grasping. 
Adults are, apparently, not very predaceous, but the 
larvae seem to be. The female lays a number of elongate, 
oval eggs, end to end, upon the leaves of plants, usually 
beneath the surface of the water and sometimes at a 
considerable depth. The general appearance of the larva 
is that of a small Centipede. The pupa of Gyrinus is so 
well hidden that few have ever seen it. Probably about 
the beginning of August the larva creeps out of the water 
by climbing up the water-plants, and then spins a grayish 
cocoon pointed at both ends, the adult emerging towards 
the end of the same month. Adults hibernate, coming 
out during mild weather for mid-winter dances. 
292 



" WATER=SCAVENGER " BEETLES. 



The two principal genera are Gyrinus (length less than 
.35 in.; the triangular piece, scutellum, between the 
bases of the closed elytra distinct) and Dineutes (length 
.4 in., or more; scutellum hidden). Dineutes vittatus: 
.5 in. or longer; sides of pronotum and elytra with an in- 
distinct, bronzed, submarginal stripe. D. discolor: about 
.5 in. long; above very dark, almost black, bronze, shining; 
below, yellowish. D. emarginatus: less than .5 in. long; 
above and below black, slightly bronzed, and not very 
shiny; middle and hind legs, narrow margin, and tip of 
the abdomen, paler. D. assimilis: length a trifle under 
.5 in.; above black, strongly bronzed; beneath black, 
very shining; abdominal segments often tinged with brown; 
legs brownish yellow; is a common species with an apple 
odor. 

The CLAVICORN series starts here and includes the 
families to, but not, the Elateridas. Only Hydrophilidae 
are aquatic. 

Hydrophilim: 

These are called Water-Scavenger Beetles. The 
adults do feed on decaying material but they also eat 
water-plants and living animals, and, furthermore, not all 
are aquatic; the larva? are largely predaceous. The 
adults have five joints in each tarsus, but the first joint is 
often very small. The eggs of Hydrophilus are usually 
laid in a floating silken case with a handle-like mast (see 
Plate LXXIV). The silk comes from glands at the hind 
end of the female. The larvae are much like those of 
Dytiscus but clumsier and their tarsi never have more than a 
single claw, while those of the Dytiscidas and the Gyrinidae 
have two. Pupation occurs in very moist earth at the 
water's edge; the pupa being kept from touching its cell's 
bottom by projecting hook-like spines. Unlike Dytiscus, 
the largest spiracles are well forward and air is taken in 
through the notch between the head and the thorax, the 
velvety hairs keeping out the water and the hairy club of 
the antennae helping to break the surface film. These 
antennae, which are less than n-jointed and broadened 
at the tip, are sometimes overlooked by the inexperienced, 

293 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



who mistake the long palpi for antennas. One of the 
main groups in the family, the Helophorini (HelopJwrus 
and Ilydrochus are the principal genera), is made up of 
small species which usually have the pronotum narrowed 
behind, so that it is not as wide as the two elytra. The 
others have it narrowed in front, the base being as wide 
as the elytral base. Of these, the Hydrophilini and 
Hydrobiini have the tarsal joints short. The metastemum 
of an insect may be described as its breast-bone; it 
is just in front of the bases of the hind legs. The meta- 
stemum of the Hydrophilini is prolonged into a distinct 
spine and that of the Hydrobiini is not. Finally, the 
Sphaeridiini (late authors make them a separate family) 
have the first joint of each middle and hind tarsus elon- 
gated. Some Sphasridiini, living in manure, decaying 
sea- weed, and the like, have a wide distribution. 

As might be guessed from its generic 
Sphaeridium name thig insect belongs to the Sphasridiini ; 
scarabasoides 

the specific name was suggested by the 

fact that it resembles the Scarabasidae in looks and habits. 
It is a European insect which was introduced in the latter 
part of the last century and is rapidly extending its range. 
It lives in dung. The adult is about a .25 in. long; has a 
very convex back; shining black above except that the 
elytra have a reddish spot near the base and the apical ' 
fourth is yellowish. 

„ a ... This genus (Plate LXXIV) contains the 

Hydrophilus , . „ „ 

two largest species (as well as some smaller 

ones) of the family. They are both shiny black. 77. 
ovatus is about 1.25 in. long; the abdomen, which is 
unmarked, is pubescent except for a narrow, smooth 
streak down the middle of the last three segments. 77. 
triangularis is larger, even reaching 1.5 in.; the under side 
of the abdomen is pubescent except for a broad, smooth 
streak down the middle of all but the first segment; the 
abdominal segments have more or less distinct, triangular, 
yellow spots at the sides. They are at times common 
under electric lights. 

Hydrocharis is a related genus; obtusatus is quite convex 
294 



CARRION BEETLES, 



in cross-section, regularly oval in outline, and .6 in. long. 
It is common in brackish pools. 

SlLPHID^E 

Plate LXXV is sufficient help for the identification of 
Silpha and Necrophorus, the only two genera of this 
family which ordinarily attract notice as Carrion Beetles, 
although there are not only numerous small species which 
feed on carrion but some on decaying fungi and a few are 
found only in ants' nests. There are six ventral abdominal 
segments; the front coxae are conical, prominent, and, 
except in eyeless species found in caves, nearly or quite 
touch each other. 

Species of Necrophorus are called Burying 
Beetles. So many have testified, either from 
hearsay or from observation, to their burying small car- 
casses and feeding on them under ground, that it must be 
true. Probably I have been unfortunate: I have fur- 
nished them with numerous carcasses but they ate 
them all on top of even loose sand. Perhaps the right 
species did not come to my feast. The sensory pits in the 
enlarged portion of the antennae are doubtless olfactory 
and explain the insects' quickness in locating their particu- 
lar kind of food. They are all black, usually marked 
with red or yellow. The following three species of 
Necrophorus have their hind (and, to a lesser extent, their 
middle) legs bowed. N. americanus: an inch or more long; 
pronotum rounded; orange- red on vertex of the head, 
central part of pronotum, two irregular spots on each ely- 
tron, and club of antennas. It usually feeds on reptiles. 
N. sayi: less than an inch long; pronotum rounded; orange- 
red in a cross-bar near base and a spot near apex of each 
elytron. Not usually common. N. marginaius: (Plate 
LXXV) the elytral spots are sometimes connected along 
the margin, the basal spot sometimes divided. One of 
the commonest. The following three have straight legs. 
N. orbicollis: marked much like sayi. N. pustulatus: 
pronotum transversely oval, very little narrowed behind; 
orange- red on antennal club and two spots, the apical 
one sometimes double, on each elytron. Wholly black 

295 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



individuals have been recorded. N. tomentosus: not 
over .8 in. long; pronotum broader than long, very little 
narrowed behind; the disc clothed with yellow hairs; elytral 
markings resemble those of marginatus but are narrower. 

These beetles are extremely flattened. 
S. surinamensis: .6 to i in. long; rather 
elongate; eyes prominent; hind femora of males quite 
stout; black, usually with a narrower orange- red cross-bar 
(often broken into spots) near apex of each elytron. The 
following are oval in shape, the eyes are not prominent, and 
the hind femora are not enlarged. S. incequalis: about 
.5 in. long; all black. S. noveboracensis: see Plate LXXV. 
S. americana: about .75 in. long; pronotum yellow with a 
black central spot; elytra brownish with the crinkly eleva- 
tions slightly darker; pronotum nearly twice as wide as 
long; much narrowed in front. It occurs on toadstools 
and in dung, as well as on carrion. 



The Scydivlenid.e are usually less than .12 in. long; 
shining; oval; convex; brownish or blackish; and usually 
having erect hairs on the upper surface. They occur 
beneath bark or stones in moist localities, also in ant's 
nests. They differ from the Silphidae in having coarser 
eye-facets. The hind coxae do not touch. Brathinns, 
which is found in the North about mossy springs, has 
been put in this family but its coxae nearly touch and a 
separate family, Brathinid^e, is justified. 

The Pselaphid^e are also very small. They agree with 
the Staphylinidae in having short elytra, but the abdomen 
is relatively shorter and not flexible. The head and 
thorax are usually narrower than the combined elytra. 
Some species "excrete from small tufts of hairs a sub- 
stance of which ants are very fond, and they are therefore 
tolerated in numbers in the nests of these insects. They 
are even said to be fed by the ants and to ride about on 
the backs of their hosts when so inclined." In general, 
they are found with Scydmamidae, and both families are 
best obtained by sifting. 

296 



Plate LXXV 



• 



Silpha noveboracensis 




Mecrophorus 
marqinatus 




i 

Jothinus I 

jUeophilus fimbriatus 

villosus 



'r-r&i 



* 



f 





Coccinel la 9- not ata 



MeqillQ "y^ 7 

fuscilobris «»», 

J Ailalia.W 

bipunctata Hippodamia 

converqen: 







v* 



A . Epi Iq chin- 

Analis 1 5- punci a\a boreal 1 b 



ROVE BEETLES. 



Staphylinid.e 



The Rove Beetles may be known by their long, narrow 
form and elytra, which rarely half cover the abdomen. 
The number of tarsal joints varies from 3 to 5 and is not 
always the same in the different feet of the same insect; 
the abdomen has 10 dorsal segments, fewer below. Sharp 
says that "it is probable that one hundred thousand 
species or even more of StaphyJinidae are at present in 
existence." About 2,000 have already been described 
from the United States and the number is rapidly increas- 
ing. Probably fully 200 species can be found in almost 
any region but their identification is rather technical and 
no differentiation will be attempted here. "They live 
on decaying animal or vegetable matter, in excrement, fun- 
gi, or fermenting sap, and are among the most universally 
distributed of all beetles. Many of them are predatory, 
and some have been accused of feeding on living plants; but 
on the whole they are of importance to the agriculturist 
only as scavengers, and as they aid in reducing the dead 
animal and vegetable matter into shape for assimilation 
by plants" (Smith). Creophilus villosus (Plate LXXV) 
is common about carrion and excrement. When adults 
are disturbed/ they raise their tails as though they would 
sting, but all the species are perfectly harmless. Tachinus 
fimbriatus (Plate LXXV) is often found in mushrooms. 

We now skip a number of families of very small beetles: 
Trichopterygid.e, in decaying vegetable matter; Scaphi- 
diidje, generally shining black, sometimes marked with 
red or yellow spots, living in rotten wood, fungi, and the 
like; Phalacrid^e, shiny black, very convex, living on 
flowers or under bark; and Corylophid.e, black or brown, 
marked with yellow, in fermenting sap, fruits, and other 
vegetable matter, on dead branches, and under bark. 

COCCIXELLID.E 

I suppose it is a relief to the reader also when we reach, 
as now, a family whose habits we like. Many of us have 
quoted 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Lady-bird, lady-bird! Fly away home. 
Your house is on fire. 
Your children do roam. 

Some of us add 

Except little Nan, who sits in a pan 
Weaving gold laces 
As fast as she can. 

And a few of us know what it is all about. Many Lady- 
bird (Coccinellid) larvse live on aphids and this rhyme 
started in the Old Country, where they burn the hop- 
vines after the harvest. These vines are usually full of 
aphids and Coccinellid children. A Nan who can not 
roam but sits in a pan weaving gold laces is shown on 
Plate LXX V. She is the yellow pupa. ' ' Why ' Lady-bird ' 
or 'Lady-beetle'?" That goes back still further: to the 
Middle Ages when these insects were dedicated to the 
Virgin and were the "Beetles of Our Lady." There are a 
lot of superstitions about them. 

The most distinctive characters of the family are the 
(apparently) 3-jointed tarsi and the broad, hatchet-shaped 
terminal joint of the maxillary palpi. They have the 
antennas 11 -jointed, terminating in a more or less distinct 
3-jointed club; head deeply immersed in the thorax, 
which is transverse, rather small, and strongly emarginate 
in front; elytra convex, not truncate at tip. Plate LXXV 
shows a number of common species, some of which are 
rather variable with respect to color and markings. Smith 
says that "in a very general way, and subject to many 
exceptions," those which are red or yellow, with black 
spots, feed on plant-lice (aphids), and those which are 
wholly black, or black with red or yellow spots, feed on 
scale-insects. The larvae are often prettily marked with 
black, blue, or orange, and are even more greedy feeders 
on pests than are the adults. Some species have the 
curious habit of congregating, as adults, in great masses 
on mountain tops to spend the winter. Horticulturists 
of California collect these masses "by the ton," put them 
in cold storage until wanted, and distribute them among 
the farmers at the proper season for controlling aphids. 

2Q8 



PLANT-EATING LADY-BEETLES. 



Epilachna should be disowned by its family but it can 
not be. Except for Epilachna borealis, all of our species 
are distinctly beneficial because of their food habits, 
although the ignorant often accuse them of being the 
authors of the damage done by the Aphids and Coccids 
upon which they are feeding. Some Coccinellidae take a 
bit of pollen by way of a change, but borealis, larva and 
adult, eats nothing but the leaves of pumpkin, squash, and 
allied plants. The larva is yellow and armed with six 
rows of forked, black spines. The adults hibernate. In 
the West the Mexican E. varivestis eats the leaves and 
green pods of beans. 

Here we skip a number of families which are not well 
represented in the United States. The Endomychid^e 
are something like Coccinellidas but the tarsal claws are 
simple instead of being dilated or toothed at the base. 
They live in fungi. The Erotylid^e also live in fungi; 
"elongate or oval in form, and of medium or small size. 
Many of them are very prettily bicolored, possessing a red 
thorax, with black or black and red elytra, or the reverse. 
A number, however, are of one hue." The tarsi are 5- 
jointed, the fourth joint being small; antennas distinctly 
clubbed. The Colydiid^e are slender, rather cylindrical, 
usually brown, often with ridged wing-covers. They live 
under bark, in fungi, or in the ground. Some, at least, 
are predaceous. Up to several years ago only four North 
American species of Rhyssodid^e had been described. 
They live under bark; and are narrow, elongate, somewhat 
flattened, brown beetles; head and thorax deeply grooved 
("wrinkled"); head constricted to form a pronounced 
neck ; scutellum wanting ; first three ventral segments of the 
abdomen solidly united to each other. 

CuCUJID^E 

Most of these also live under bark and the last sentence 
would fit them fairly well except for the last three clauses. 
The Cucujid head does not taper behind to form a neck; 
the scutellum is distinct; and the abdomen has five free 
ventral segments. Cucujus clavipes is all-red in color, 
.5 in. long, and flat as a piece of cardboard. Some Cucujid 
299 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS 



larvae are predaceous but the following, among others, 
unfortunately is not. 

Silvanus The enlarged figures on Plate LXXYI 

surinamensis are sufficiently descriptive except as to 
color ; the adult is chestnut-brown and the larvae are dirty 
white with darker areas. It is one of the most abundant 
beetles in all kinds of stored grains, especially in the 
South, and it is sometimes destructive to dried fruits. 
It is not a weevil, but two of its nicknames are Grain- 
weevil and Saw-toothed Weevil, the latter referring to its 
thorax. "The larva, when living in granular material, 
like meal, usually builds a thin case out of the particles 
and the whitish pupa may be found within. When the 
insect is living in substances like fine flour it does nut 
build a case " (Herrick). It is cosmopolitan in its distribu- 
tion. Several other Cucujids also feed on stored grain, 
fruits, and nuts, e. g. Catharius advena, which is particu- 
larly fond of such as are stale. It is about the same size 
and color as surinamensis but the pronotum is straight - 
edged and nearly square. 

Sharp states that the " Colydiidae, Cucujidae, and Rhysso- 
didas, exhibit relations not only with other families of 
Coleoptera Polymorpha, but also with most of the great 
series; Adephaga, Rhyncophora, Phytophaga, and Hetero- 
mera, being each closely approached." 

The Cryptophagid^e are usually less than .1 in. long 
and "often of a light yellowish-brown color, with a silken 
lustre produced by a very fine pubescence. Their habits 
are exceedingly variable, some living in fungi, others 
about wood and chip piles or in cellars, beneath dead leaves, 
in rotten logs, or on flowers." The last three of the eleven 
antennal joints are enlarged, loosely forming a club. 
Some of the males have only 4 joints, instead of 5, in each 
hind tarsus; the front and middle coxae are very small 
and deeply imbedded. 

To the Mycetophagid^e "belong a limited number of 
small oval, slightly convex beetles which live on fungi and 
beneath bark. They have the upper surface hairy and 



Plate LXXVI 






Silvanus surinamensis 





My Dermestes larflarius 




Anthrenus 
Attaqenus pueus scrophulonae. 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



densely punctured and the 'elytra are brown or blackish, 
usually prettily marked with yellow spots or bands, or 
yellow with black spots." The tarsi are thread-like and 
4-jointed, except that the front ones of the males are 3- 
jointed, more or less dilated and pubescent beneath. 

Dermestid^e 

The name means "skin-devouring" and the species 
mentioned in detail below are fairly typical of the family. 
The hind coxag are dilated into plates, which are grooved 
for the reception of the femora; the under side of the 
thorax is hollowed to receive the usually short, clubbed 
antennas; tarsi 5- jointed. 

D. lardarius is the common Larder- or 
Bacon-beetle. The light areas (Plate 
LXXVT) are pale yellowish. The larva is brown, some- 
what hairy, and has two curved spines on the top of the 
last segment. It feeds on animal substances such as 
smoked meats, cheese, hoofs, horn, skin, feather, and hair. 
There may be four or five generations a season. The 
adult of D. vulpinus, the Leather-beetle, is like that of 
lardarius except that the elytra have no light areas, being 
sparsely and uniformly clothed with a mixture of black 
and grayish-yellow hairs; the last abdominal segment has 
two white spots below. Its food habits are much like those 
of lardarius but it prefers skins. Herrick says that certain 
London merchants offered a prize of £20,000 for a "practi- 
cal and effectual remedy" but he does not say whether it 
was awarded or not. There are other species outdoors 
that seldom do indoor damage. 

This is the Black Carpet-beetle. In 
Attagenus ^he males the last antennal joint is about as 

long as all the remainder of the antenna. 
The larva (Plate LXXVI) is reddish-brown. Like most of 
the Dermestids the adult does but little damage to our 
goods; it much prefers pollen as food. The larva goes in 
for almost anything of animal origin, especially woolens, 
feathers, and the dried specimens of entomological collec- 
tions. 

302 



BUFFALO=BUGS. 



These are the Buftalomoths or -bugs and 

Anthrenus , . ... 

some are the worst enemies ot entomological 

collections. A. mustzorum has only 8 joints in each an- 
tenna, including the two-jointed club, and the outline of 
the eyes is not indented. It is found on flowers but is 
not a frequent visitor in houses. The following species 
have ii joints in each antenna, including a three-jointed 
club, and, except for verbasci, the outline of eyes is in- 
dented. The pronotum of A . verbasci is black, the central 
part sparsely clothed with yellow scales, the sides more 
densely with white ones; elytra black, with a large basal 
ring and two transverse, zigzag bands of white scales 
bordered by yellow ones ; under surface of abdomen clothed 
with fine, long, grayish-yellow scales. It is the common 
museum pest. A. scrophularia is the Buffalo Moth. 
The elytra have brick-red, or dull yellow, markings as 
shown in Plate LXXVI. I do not know why this genus is 
connected, by name, with the buffalo, unless the larva 
has a fancied resemblance to that animal. Possibly it 
got its nickname by being destructive of buffalo-robes in 
the days when there were such things. The species 
frequently injure carpets, but are also found on flowers. 
The}- breed in organic matter, presumably in outbuildings 
or outdoors as well as within, fly to the flowers and may 
then, in the case of the Carpet-beetle at least, be carried 
into dwellings before eggs are deposited. Infested carpets 
should be taken up, thoroughly cleaned, and, if badly 
infested, sprayed with benzine. Local injur}- can fre- 
quently be stopped by passing a hot iron over a damp 
cloth laid on the affected part of the carpet. 

The habits of this creature are not those 
Byturus Q £ ot j ier Dermestida? but, in view of the 

unicolor - 

fact that aaults ot most ot the other species 
mentioned here regularly leave hides and hair for a sojourn 
among flowers, it may be retaining the ancestral activities. 
The adult is about .14 in. long, reddish-yellow or reddish- 
brown, and covered with a thick coat of pale, tawny hairs. 
It appears about the middle of May and feeds on the 
flower-buds and tender foliage of red raspberries. The 
larva is plump, white, with tawny cross-bands and numer- 
3^5 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



ous short white hairs. It feeds in the cup of the berries. 
Pupation and hibernation occur in an earthen cell just 
beneath the surface of the ground. 

HlSTERID^E 

It has been suggested that Linnaeus, in naming the type 
genus of this family Hister, had in mind a filthy Mr. Hister 
of Juvenal's Satires. I have not looked up the original 
but, if the Roman was very bad, the name is not appropri- 
ate for all the Histeridae, as some of them live in a fairly 
cleanly manner under bark and in ants' nests. Even 
those which take to carrion and excrement probably do 
not eat it but feed on the other more Hister-like insects. 
They are "small, usually black, shining beetles having 
the elytra truncate behind, leaving two segments of the 
abdomen uncovered. In form they are variable, either 
oblong and flat or, more usually, round, oval, globose, or 
cylindrical. All are very compact, have a very hard 
surface, and the elytra are usually marked with a number 
of striae." The antennae are elbowed and have a short. 
compact club. 

Nitidulid^e 

Some adults are much like the Histeridae in form but 
the antennae are straight ; others suggest Staphylinida ; 
and, all in all, it is difficult to tell them "at a glance." In 
most species the pronotum has wide, thin sides. Some 
feed on fungi or carrion, others are found chiefly in flowers, 
but the majority feed on the sap of trees arid juices of 
fruits. Dury tells of trapping hundreds of specimens by 
laying chips on top of a freshly cut maple stump. They 
are also attracted to a mixture of vinegar and molasses. 
Some of the species arc prettily marked with yellow or 
red. The genus Ips is often common under fallen, decay- 
ing fruit as well as about flowing sap. /. obtusus is .3 in., 
or more, in length and /. quadriguttatus is less than .3 in. 
long; both are black with two reddish-yellow {obtusus) 
or yellow {quadriguttatus) spots on each elytron. 1. 
sanguinolcntus is less than .25 in. long; head and thorax 

304 



THE CADELLE. 



black; abdomen and elytra red, except for tip and two 
black spots on each elytron. Carpophilus hemipterus 
is an introduced species which is found in grocery and 
bakery shops. It is about .17 in. long; black, except for 
the pale legs, a dull yellow shoulder-spot and an irregular 
area of the same color covering the distal half of each 
elytron. Omosita colon is often seen on greasy bones in 
the back yard. 

The Lathridiid^e are rarely more than .1 iri. long. 
They are usually reddish-yellow or brownish. Most of 
the species occur under bark and stones, or in decaying 
leaves; some are found on plants and some, e. g. Corticaria 
ferruginea, in dried products such as drugs. 

Temnochilid^e 

There are not many species and most of them live 
under bark. 

_i . . .. Two species, mauretanica (the Cadelle) 

Tenebnoides , f. ' r , • • 

and corticahs, are found in granaries 

throughout the world. The eighth antennal joint of 
mauretanica is equal to the ninth; in our other species it is 
smaller. Plate LXXV.II is sufficient additional descrip- 
tion of the blackish adult Cadelle. The dark areas shown 
in the illustration of the larva are reddish brown. It 
feeds on wheat, flour, and other foodstuffs. The fact that 
it has been found in milk has been used to help prove 
that milkmen enrich their goods with cornstarch. This 
larva seems to be rather hardy as Webster recorded its 
feeding on hellebore. It is said also to feed on other 
insects and it has been known to bore into the wood of 
grain bins. 

The Parnid^e are small (less than .25 in.) beetles which 
cling with their long tarsal claws to sticks and stones in 
water, often even in swift streams. The flat, circular 
larvas occur in the same places, clinging tightly to their 
support. Neither stage swims. 

It may be of some use to name the families we now 
skip. It would be of little use to describe them, as the 

20 305 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



small and not numerous species are rarely noticed. They 
are the Monotomid^e, Derodontid^e, Byrrhid^e, Geo- 
ryssid^e, and Heterocerid^e. 

The remainder of the Polymorpha are known as SERRI- 
CORNIA. "This series is primarily distinguished, as 
its name indicates, by the serrate or saw-tooth character 
of the antennae. The serrate antenna is, like the filiform, 
usually slender and of nearly the same width throughout, 
but differs in having each joint project more or less in- 
wards, this projection being sometimes so long as to form 
what is called the pectinate, or comb-toothed antenna" 
(Blatchley) . However, Nature is not clear-cut in any of her 
divisions. Apparently she does not use a card catalog. 
"System" is a human invention. Passing by the Dascyl- 
lid,e and Rhipicerid^e we come to a large family some 
members of which most people have noticed. 

Elaterid^e 

With the exception of the subfamily Eucneminae, which 
is considered by some authorities to be a separate family, 
these beetles have a unique method of getting on their 
feet if, by chance, they are on their back. They spring 
into the air and turn over as they go. This trick has won 
them various names such as Skip Jacks, Click Beetles, 
Spring Beetles, and Snapping Bugs. Once, in Arizona, 
I had a guide who had never noticed them before. I 
made some of the species, which came to the camp light, 
perform. He immediately christened them Break-backs 
and began to count up how much he would win, after he 
got back to Tucson, by betting on "whether they would 
or wouldn't land right side up." I advised him to put 
his money on "would" and for nights, thereafter, he 
hung around my moth-tent, turning Elaterids on their 
backs to see whether they would or wouldn't. I do not 
know how he made out. 

Break-backs is really not a bad name, as their pronotum 
is very loosely joined to the rest of the body. Its hind 
angles are prolonged backward but the elytra slope so 
that the back can be bowed. This is done when the 
beetle finds itself wrong side up and then the body is 
306 



Plate LXXVII 



-^ 





Tenebrioides mQuretonicQ 




Corymbitcs 
hieroglyphicus 



ft 








Eloi&r 

niqricollis 




Melonotus 
communis 




Phoning 

the click'oppQrotus 



Alaus oculatus 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



suddenly a little more than straightened, causing the beetle 
to bounce into the air. The body is kept from bending 
too far ventrally by a spine on the hind edge of the pro- 
sternum. The antennae fit, when at rest, in grooves in the 
presternum. Most of the species are brown or black and 
of medium or small size. The larvae are commonly called 
Wire-worms. They are long, narrow, cylindrical, hard- 
shelled, brownish or yellowish-white creatures. Some 
live in the ground, feeding on the roots of grasses and 
other plants; some, especially the larvae of the snapless 
Eucneminae, live in dead wood and under bark; and some, 
at least, are predaceous. 

Two species occur in the Northeast (and 
elsewhere) but oculatus (Plate LXXVII) 
is the more common. The black-and-white adult flies 
throughout the season. The larva, which lives in decayed 
trunks of apple and other trees, reaches a length of nearly 
2.5 inches. Lugger concluded that this larva "largely 
subsists upon other insects ' ' as all that he kept in decaying 
wood soon died if they were not provided with living in- 
sects, "which were soon discovered by these cannibals and 
devoured." If this be so, it is curious that myops is found 
only in pine, for we would expect that it would be predace- 
ous also and so not particular as to woods. The adult 
myops averages somewhat smaller than oculatus and the 
eye-like spots are not only narrower and smaller but their 
gray margins are indistinct. 

In the South, there are Elaterids which have a pair of 
very luminous spots on the pronotum. Several years ago 
some enterprising individual secured a large number of the 
Cuban Pyrophorus noctilucus and sold living specimens 
at Coney Island. They were probably purchased as 
curiosities but, in the tropics, ladies wear them as orna- 
ments. 

The following United States species occur at least in the 
Northeast and have relatively conspicuous characters 
which help in their identification, but which should not 
be considered conclusive. 

308 



ELATERID/E. 

Adelocera discoidea is from .3 to .5 in. long; black except 
for the yellow head and margins of the pronotum. Hiber- 
nates under bark. 

Elater nigricoliis (Plate LXXYII) : head and thorax 
black; elytra all dull yellowish; occurs under bark and in 
rotten wood, usually in damp woods. See Corymbites. 
E. linteus, similar, but usually smaller, and the elytra are 
black along the suture and at the apex. Under bark, 
usually in dry situations. In E. discoideus the black covers 
all the elytra except for the yellow outer margins. Under 
the bark of hickory, beech, and other trees. E. rubricollis 
is .5 to .7 in. long; pronotum, except the apex and hind 
angles, red; otherwise black. Under bark and on flowers. 
E. collaris is similar but is about .3 in. long and has no 
black on pronotum. E. sanguinipennis is about .3 in. 
long; pronotum black, elytra all red. E. xanthomas is 
about the same size but only the bases of the elytra are 
red; otherwise black. 

Pityobius anguinus is an inch or so long but narrow; 
black; antennae feathered in male. Usually on pine. 

Corymbites pyrrhos is about .75 in. long; dark reddish- 
brown; narrow; pronotum relatively long and narrow. 
C. tarsalis is about the size and color of Elater nigricoliis. 
They belong to different groups of genera, the Elaterini 
having the hind coxal plates suddenly dilated about the 
middle, the outer part much narrower than the inner, 
and the Corymbitini having them gradually, sometimes 
scarcely, dilated on the inner side. It is such technical 
differences which make untechnical catch-characters little 
more than hints. C. hieroglyphicus (Plate LXXYII) 
is found northward, especially on pine. 

Melanactes piceus is 1 to 1.4 in. long and polished black. 
It occurs under stones and rubbish in dry situations. 

Melanotics communis (Plate LXXYII) is found under 
the loose bark of fallen trees and is widely distributed. 
With a strong lens its claws are seen to be comb-like. 

The family Throscid.*: "contains only a few small, 
oblong, black or brownish beetles which resemble the 
Elaterids and the next family, the Buprestids, in form and 
in having the presternum prolonged behind into a spine 

309 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Al 



St 

tc which fits into a cavity in the mesosternum. They differ 

tc from the Elateridas in having the pro- and mesosterna 

st firmly joined, and so without the power of leaping possessed 

pj by most click beetles. From the Buprestidae they are 

Q f distinguished by having the ventral abdominal segments 

^ all free" (Blatchlcy). They are usually found on dead 

s l wood or on flowers, and are inconspicuous as well as 

jj, small. 

° Buprestidae 
E 

af These are usually elongate, usually stout (but some- 
times cylindrical) beetles, with broad thorax, and elytra 
tapering back from the shoulders; the prothorax closely 
united to the mesothorax. ■ A large proportion of them 

is are bronzed or metallic in color or reflection, and others 

tl: are gaudily marked with red or yellow bands or spots, 

tr Many of them have the upper surface deeply grooved or 

2. pitted, and, altogether, they are very characteristic in 

sr appearance. Most of them are very active and fly readily. 

w Square-heads is a local name for them, coined in recog- 

se nition of their broad, flat, square-cut front. 

d( The larvae are wood-borers, usually living under bark 

01 and making broad, rather shallow furrows, galleries, or 

01 chambers. In shape they are very much elongated, some- 

m what flattened, the body segments well defined, head small, 

e} the anterior segments much enlarged so as, apparently, to 

gr form part of the head, giving rise to the common nanus 
Hammer-head or Flat-head borers. Adults are fond of 
basking in the sunshine, usually on their own food-plant, 

v( and may best be collected by holding an umbrella under 

sc branches and then jarring them. Since a *taxonomic 

C key involves numerous technicalities, the species to be 

at mentioned will be grouped by their principal food-plants. 



Orchard Trees 



This (Plate LXXVIII) is called the 

N S^a?a° thriS Flat - hcaded Apple-tree Borer, the name 

referring to the larva, which, however, 

, attacks numerous other trees such as pear, plum, cherry, 

peach, oak, sycamore, chestnut, hickory, maple, horsc- 

310 



Plate LXXVIII 




Chrysobothris 
{emorata 




DJcercQ 
divaricata 





Photurts ^. phot . ,r \Mf 
pennsylvanica sciniillans 



Calopteron 
reticulatum 





ChQuliognathus 
pennsylvanVcus 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



chesnut, mountain ash, linden, boxelder, and beech. 
Adults appear about May, or later, and are given to sitting 
on tree trunks where they are somewhat difficult to see on 
account of their dull metallic brown color and roughened 
elytra. When flying, the bright metallic greenish-blue 
abdomen is quite conspicuous. The young larvae make 
shallow galleries in the sapwood, but as they get older 
they form somewhat dilated, irregular, flattened burrows 
in the heartwood, where they hibernate. In the spring 
they excavate a pupal-cell near the surface, completing the 
life-history in one year. 

The larva of this species bores in peach, 

Dicerca cherry, beech, maple, and other deciduous 

ivancata ^^ The ^^ ^^ LXXVm) {& 

coppery or brassy above; the size and the spreading tips 
of the elytra, whence the specific name, help to identify it. 
The males have a little tooth on the under side of each 
middle femur. 

Small Fruits 

The Red-necked Cane-borer causes the 
« ir swellings, usually with numerous slits, 

which have been called " gouty galls," on 
raspberry and blackberry. Adults emerge in May and 
June; they are not over .3 in. long; head short but wide, 
black; pronotum coppery-red; elytra bronzy-black. "The 
young larva enters the bark at the axil of a leaf-stem, and 
eats around the stem in a long spiral. By early August 
the galls commence to form where the bark has been 
girdled, though sometimes no gall results from the injur)-, 
and the larvae mine into the pith. The larvae probably 
become practically full grown in the fall and remain in 
their burrows over winter, in which they transform to 
pupae in late April " (Sanderson). 

Coniferous Trees 

Buprestids are very fond of conifers and, although this 
division is quite restricted botanically, relatively few 
species (all occurring on pine) can be mentioned here. 
312 



BUPRESTID/E. 

Chalcophora virginiensis is one of our largest Buprestids, 
attaining a length of i or i .25 inches. Much larger Bupres- 
tids occur in the tropics, the family home, and many of 
them are brilliantly colored. In this genus the hind tarsi 
have the first joint elongated and the males have a distinct 
sixth ventral segment. This species is dull black, feebly 
bronzed, the impressions of the thorax and elytra often 
brassy; head with a deep, median groove, which is broader 
and deeper in front; pronotum one-third wider than long, 
sides rounded on apical third, disk with a broad median 
impression and two others each side, in the regions of the 
front and hind angles ; elytra each with four to six elongate 
impressed spaces which are finely and rather densely 
punctate. 

Buprestis lineata is .5 in. or more, long. Each elytron 
has, typically, two longitudinal, yellowish stripes. The 
general color, above, is metallic black; beneath, dull 
bronze; head and presternum, yellowish. 

Buprestis ultramarina is about .5 in. long; brilliant green 
with the sutural and outer margins of the elytra coppery 
red. 

Dicerca punctulata is superficially much like D. divaricata 
(p. 312) but smaller (about .5 in.), and has a pair of promi- 
nent, shining, longitudinal ridges on the middle of the pro- 
notum and parts of a second pair outside of these. 

Melanophila acuminata (also called longipes) is often 
nearly .5 in. long and all black. It is found on various 
conifers. M. fulvoguttata is about the same size, and 
has three yellow dots on each elytron ; found on spruce and 
hemlock. M. ceneola is rarely longer than .25 in.; prono- 
tum bronzy; elytra metallic black. 

The males of Chrysobothris floricola have a single, acute 
tooth on each front tibia; those of dentipes have none, but 
the tibiae are dilated at the tip (those of femorata, p. 310, 
have numerous fine teeth on the inner edge). 

Deciduous Forest Trees 

The following are among the more easily recognized : 
Buprestis fasciata about .6 in. long; brilliant metallic 
green, often with blue iridescence; a wavy yellow band 

313 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



across each elytron, back of the middle, a yellow spot 
back of this and sometimes one in front. On maple and 
poplar. 

Chrysobothris azurea is usually a little more than .25 in. 
long. Its color varies from blue to greenish, coppery, and 
violet. Each elytron has the following brilliant blue or 
green markings, which appear to be depressed: a somewhat 
variable streak or combination of spots at the base, one 
circular spot near the middle, and one two-thirds of the 
way to the apex. On birch, sumac, and dogwood. 
-Brachys — The several species of this genus are leaf- 
miners and abundant. The adult larva makes a curious 
noise, within the mined leaf, by switching his body rapidly. 

Herbaceous Plants 

Pachyscelus purpureus mines in the leaves of the bush- 
clover (Lespedeza). The adult is usually less than .2 in. 
long and the shoulders are so broad that, from above, it 
looks hunched up. The head and pronotum are black; 
elytra, purple. 

LAMPYRIDjE 

Nearly all Americans who are blessed with eyes have 
seen Fireflies and many have seen Glowworms. These 
insects belong to this family but most of the species of 
Lampyridae are not luminous. A family characteristic 
is that the elytra, when present, are thin and flexible; 
there are seven or eight visible, ventral, abdominal seg- 
ments. For the most part, the species are predaceous, 
especially as larvae. The larvae usually live under rubbish 
or the bark of logs and dead trees. 

Folsom says: "In Lampyridae, the light is emitted from 
the ventral side of the posterior abdominal segments. In 
our common Photinus, the seat of the light is a modified por- 
tion of the fat-body — a photogenic plate, situated immedi- 
ately under the integument and supplied with a profusion 
of fine tracheal branches. The cells of the photogenic 
plate, it is said, secrete a substance which undergoes rapid 
combustion in the rich supply of oxygen furnished by the 
tracheae. 

3M 



THE LIGHT OF FIREFLIES. 



"The rays emitted by the common fireflies are re- 
markable in being almost entirely light rays, with almost 
no thermal or actinic rays. According to Young and 
Langley, the radiations of an ordinary gas-flame contain 
less than three per cent, of visible rays, the remainder being 
heat or chemical rays, of no value for illuminating purposes; 
while the light-giving efficiency of the electric arc is only 
ten per cent, and that of sunlight only thirty-five per 
cent. The light of the firefly, however, may be rated 
at one hundred per cent.; this light, then, is perfect, and 
as yet unapproached by artificial means. 

"As to the use of this luminosity, there is a general 
opinion that the light exists for the purpose of sexual 
attraction — a belief held by the author in regard to Pho- 
tinus, at least. Another view is that the light is a warning 
signal to nocturnal birds, bats, or other insectivorous 
animals; this is supported by the fact that lampyrids are 
refused by birds in general, after experience; young birds 
readily snap at a firefly for the first time, but at once 
reject it and thereafter pay no attention to these insects." 
In some species the eggs, also, are luminous. 

The Lampyridae may be divided into four subfamilies: 
Lycinas, Lampyrinae, Telephorinse, and Drilinse. 

The Lycinas have the middle coxas rather widely sepa- 
rated by the mesonotum. The elytra usually have a 
coarse network of fine elevated lines. The head is some- 
times prolonged in front of the eyes into a long, narrow 
beak. The antennas are usually conspicuously saw-toothed 
or comb-like. 

Lycostomus lateralis: about .4 in. long; black, with the 
sides of the pronotum, the shoulders, and the front half of 
the margin of the elytra, yellow. 

Calopteron: the elytra gradually widen from base to 
apex and each has six longitudinal ridges (costae) ; antennae 
saw -toothed. C. terminate is .5 to .7 in. long; black, 
except for the yellow basal half or two-thirds of the elytra 
and a very narrow margin of yellow on the sides of the 
pronotum. C. reticulatum and typicum are about the 
same size as termviale, but the pronotum, especially of 
reticulatum (Plate LXXVIII), is broadly margined with 

315 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



yellow, and the yellow area of the elytra is crossed by a 
black band, which is very wide in typicum. 

Celetes basalis is about .3 in. long; color much as in 
Lycostomus lateralis but the elytral yellow much reduced. 
The antenna?, especially of the male, are decidedly comb- 
like (feathered on one side). 

Cceniella dimidiata is apt to be confused with Calopteron 
terminate but its antennae are comb-like, not merely saw- 
toothed. 

Eros. Most of the species of this genus, and also of 
Plateros and Calochromus, are black, with yellow-mar- 
gined pronota. However, E. aurora has scarlet elytra; 
the under surface of the body is black. 

The subfamily Lampyrinae contains the luminous 
species. The middle coxa? touch each other; the elytra 
are not reticulate (netted) ; and the head is nearly, or quite, 
covered by the pronotum. The Lampyrini usually have 
the bases of the antennas near together. Of the Lampyrini, 
all except Photuris have the head completely covered by 
the pronotum and the second joint of the antenna? small. 
Polydasis is the only genus of this tribe having pectinate 
(comb-like) antennae, and in it there are pectinations on botli 
sides. In Lucidota, Ellychnia, and Pyropyga the eyes are 
small and the light-organs are feeble. For the most part, 
they are black species with yellow on the pronotum. In 
Pyractomena and Photinus the eyes are large, but larger in 
the males than in the females and the light-organs are 
well developed. Pyractomena and Photinus are dark 
brown, or black, with yellow on the pronotum and margins 
of the wings. These yellow margins are particularly 
pronounced in Pyractomena angulata; the narrow-margined 
forms are not easily differentiated. The females of 
Pyractomena have the light-organs on the sides of the 
abdomen and those of Photinus have them on the middle. 
Pyractomena angulata is not usually common but is very 
brilliant. Pyractomena ecostata is usually found about 
marshes, its larvae probably living on snails. Photinus 
marginellus and scintillans (Plate LXXVIII), are very 
common. The males fly low and have a yellow light. The 
females have only partially developed wings and do not fly. 
316 



THE FIREFLY FAMILY. 



Photuris (see above) pennsylvanica about .5 in. long, 
or a little longer; head and pronotum dull yellow, the 
latter with a central red area crossed by a narrow median 
dark stripe; elytra brownish, with pale markings (Plate 
LXXVIII). This is the largest and most brilliant of our 
common fireflies. Photuris frontalis is similar but smaller. 
Both have a greenish light. 

The males of Phengodes, a genus, which has been placed 
in both Lampy rinse and Telephorinse, are not luminous 
but the larva? and wingless females, which usually live 
under stones, are the most brilliant of our forms, giving 
off light from lateral joints along the body. They are 
usually rare. The males may be recognized by their 
resemblance to the species shown in Plate LXXVIII. 

The subfamily Telephorinse differs from the Lampyrinse 
in not having the head at least partly covered by the 
pronotum. None of the species are luminous and the 
sexes are much alike. For the most part, they are black 
or brownish, with more or less yellow on the head and 
pronotum. ' 

In Podabrus modestus the pronotum is all yellow; elytra 
narrowly margined with yellow; legs black. 

In Telephorus rotundicollis the head, pronotum, and 
legs are reddish ; elytra, dark gray-brown. 

Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Plate LXXVIII) and 
C. marginatus are called Soldier Beetles. "The species 
of this genus are known from all others by the elongate 
head, and by the singular structure of the maxillary lobe, 
which has a long, extensile, pilose, thread-like process 
which can be pushed out and used to gather food. In 
this respect it is somewhat similar to the tongue or pro- 
boscis of a moth or butterfly. The mature beetles are 
said to feed solely upon the honey and pollen of various 
flowers. , The larvae are, however, strongly carnivorous, 
those of our common species being very beneficial in that 
they feed upon the larvse of the plum curculio and other 
injurious forms." The two species mentioned above 
may be separated by the facts that in pennsylvanicus 
the pronotum is wider than long and the head black, while 
in' marginatus the pronotum is longer than wide and the 

317 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



head is yellow with black spots. In both, the light color 
is yellow. The amount of black on the elytra is very 
variable, sometimes covering nearly the whole elytra. 
Adults of marginatus appear in the spring and early 
summer, while those of pennsylvanicus are autumn crea- 
tures, delighting especially in the goldenrod. 

The subfamily Drilinae has but recently been doubtfully 
detected in America. Telegeusis was described from the 
Pacific Coast by Horn and is put in this subfamily by 
some authorities. It was found in 191 6 by the author 
in Arizona. The maxillary lobe is nearly as long as the 
beetle. 

Malachiid/E 

There are not many species in this family. The elytra 
are soft, as in the Lampyridae; but Malachiidae are not 
luminous, and they have only five or six visible, ventral, 
abdominal segments. All of them are found on flowers 
or herbage, some only in moist or low places, where they 
are said to feed on insect eggs, larvae, and smaller insects 
generally. The larvae, so far as known, are predaceous. 
Collops quadrimaculatus (Plate LXXIX) is one of our 
largest and commonest species. The head and abdomen 
are black; pronotum and elytra, reddish-yellow, each 
of the latter having two blue or bluish-black spots. 

Clerid^e 

The Checkered Beetles are rather small, but, for the 
most part, they are graceful and pretty. The thorax is 
generally elongate and often much narrower than either 
the head or the combined elytra. Some look like ants; 
others resemble Lampyrids. The 11- (or, rarely, 10-) 
jointed antennae are enlarged toward the tip somewhat 
like a club. The tarsi are all 5-jointed but the first 
and fourth joints are often inconspicuous; all but the fifth 
have membranous appendages. The usually pubescent 
adults occur chiefly on flowers, about flowing sap, and on 
the foliage of trees and low shrubs. Both they and the 
larva' arc predaceous, especially on wood-boring larvae. 



Plate LXXIX 






Collops 

4-moculatus * W Thaneroderus 
Trichodes wMneus 
nutlalli 




Necrobia rujipes Sitodrepa 

panicea 





Us 10 derma 

Ptinus serriGorne, 

i ur . .: Lycius 

striaius 




Luccinus 
dama 



PqssqIus Nicaqus 
cornufus obscurus 



319 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



We have three cosmopolitan species of Necrobia. They 
are known as Bone Beetles because they are usually found 
on carrion after most of the flesh is gone, probably feeding 
on other insects there rather than on the carrion. N. 
rufipes (Plate LXXIX) is called the Red-legged Ham- 
beetle from its frequent appearance in that staple. Herrick 
says: "When the larva gets ready to transform it makes 
a curious and interesting cocoon in a rather novel way. 
.The larva leaves the fatty portions and gnaws its way 
either to the harder, more fibrous parts of the ham or may- 
be into a near-by beam. Here it makes a glistening white 
cocoon that looks much like paper. The cocoon is not 
made from silk like the cocoons of most insects, but is 
composed of small globules of spit out of the mouth of the 
larva. These globules adhere to each other and when 
dry form the paper-like cocoon." The three species 
may be separated as follows (none exceed a quarter of an 
inch in length) : 

i. Pronotum and base of elytra red; rest of elytra blue 

or green; head and abdomen black ruficollis. 

No red on dorsal surface, but bluish 2. 

2. Legs and basal joints of antennae red rufipes. 

Legs and antennae dark violacea. 

Necrobia is one of those genera in which the fourth 
tarsal joint is indistinct and the disk of the thorax is 
separated from the flanks by a marginal line. In Trichodes 
(front margin of eyes indented; antennal club triangular) 
and Thaneroclerus (eye-margin not indented; the 3-jointcd 
antennal club gradually formed) the fourth tarsal joint is 
of normal size (the first joint is very small and covered, 
above, by the second; tarsal claws toothed). Trichodes 
nuttalli (bluish, with reddish-yellow markings) and 
Thaneroclerus sanguineus (brown, with red elytra) arc 
shown in Plate LXXIX. 

Ptinid.*: 

The small (.25 in. and less in length) beetles of this 
family are so various that it is difficult to characterize the 
family. The thorax usually extends above the head like 
320 



AN OMNIVOROUS BEETLE. 



a hood, the head being bent under and rarely visible from 
above; the front and middle coxae are cylindrical or nearly 
globular; the first of the tarsal joints is often longer than 
the second. They live on dry animal and vegetable 
products and in dead wood. The following are rather 
frequently noticed. 

I had not been at the American Museum 
Sitodrepa of Natural History very long before a 

mystified lady brought in some red pepper 
which had been kept in a tight tin box and which, never- 
theless, had in it reddish-brown beetles about .1 in. long. 
A lens showed the characteristic form (Plate LXXIX) 
and bristling yellow pubescence of this Drug-store Beetle. 
I assured her that even red pepper is not too strong for it. 
At least forty-five different drugs, including aconite, 
belladonna, squill, orris root, and ergot, are in its menu. 
It has been known to bore through tin-foil and sheet- 
lead. Printed books are not too dry for it; and it eats all 
sorts of seeds and dry groceries. There still remained, 
in the visitor's mind, curiosity concerning the sufnciency 
of air and water in the "tight tin box." I took her pepper 
and beetles, put them in a glass vial, corked it, sealed it 
with paraffin, and put it in an exhibition case, suggesting 
that she come back occasionally to see how her captives 
were getting along. At the end of two years and a half 
there had been numerous generations of offspring which, 
by that time, had reduced the pepper and part of the cork 
to such an unnutritious powder that even Sitodrepa had 
to give up. Under favorable conditions there is a genera- 
tion every two months. 

This is a good place to say that there is no such thing 
as the Book Worm among insects. This insect is one. 
Another of the same family has a record of having "pene- 
trated directly through twenty-seven large quarto volumes 
in so straight a line that a string could be passed through 
the opening and the whole series of volumes suspended." 
This was Ptinus fur (Plate LXXIX) the small reddish- 
brown Spider Beetle whose female has two white patches 
on each elytron. In fact, almost any insect which feeds 
on dry, starchy material may eat books. 
21 32I 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



A spider-like creature, .1 in. long, with 

globose, mahogany back and pale brown, 
psylloides ° ' / i . - 

velvety head and thorax, infests old, not 

over clean dwellings. It occasionally is found in New York 

restaurants in the sugar bowl. 

The, small burrows in cigars and cigarettes 
asio erma are usua ]_jy ^ e WO rk of this species (Plate 
serncorne 

LXXIX), the Cigar and Cigarette Beetle. 

Although very fond of tobacco, its dietary is much the 
same as that of Sitodrepa. It averages less than .2 in. 
long, and the last three joints of the antennae are not 
enlarged like those of Sitodrepa; the front angles of the 
pronotum are more acute. The white larvae resemble 
those of the Drug-store Beetle but are hairier. 

This and several related species bore in 
Anobium ^ e wooc [ f houses and furniture. In the 

striatum A 

role of Death-watch they sometimes play a 

grim joke on superstitious humans who believe that the 
ticking sound which the beetle makes portends the death 
of some one in the house. Swift had the right idea: 

"A kettle of scalding hot water ejected 
Infallibly cures the timber affected ; 
The omen is broken, the danger is over, 
The maggot will die, and the sick will recover." 

They make the noise by bobbing their heads up and 
down, tapping the wood. Instead of foretelling death, 
it is doubtless a call for a mate and new lives. 

BOSTRYCHID/E 

These are distinguished from the Ptinidae by, among other 
characters, their more cylindrical form and by having 
the first joint of the tarsi very short and imperfectly sepa- 
rated from the second. The eyes are small, rounded, and 
somewhat prominent (See Scolytidae). From Scolytidae 
they may be differentiated also by the loose- jointed club 
of the antennae. In Scolytidae this club is a compact knob. 

Sinoxylon basilare (length about .25 in.; black, with basal 
third of elytra dull reddish-yellow; apical fourth of elytra 
322 



POWDERPOST BEETLES. 



bent downward nearly at right angles on apical fourth, 
with three tubercles on each side of the declivity) makes 
short, curved galleries in the branches of a number of 
trees such as hickory, persimmon, mulberry, apple, peach, 
and grapevine. 

Bostrichus bicornis (length, .3 to .5 in.; blackish with 
irregular patches of yellowish scales; pronotum prolonged 
in front in two serrate, hooked processes) bores into dead 
twigs, under bark, and in fungi. Several other similar 
species occur but this is usually the commonest. 

Amphicerus bicaudatus is about .3 in. long; dark brown, 
pubescent; has the pronotum roughened in front with 
minute, elevated points (two little horns in the male); 
and males have a thorn-like projection near the end of each 
elytron. In early spring the adults bore into twigs of 
apple, pear, and cherry, apparently solely for food and 
shelter, as the larvag live in the roots of cat-brier (Smilax) 
and the dead shoots of grapevines. 

Lyctid^e 

Lyctus striatus (Plate LXXIX), and related species, 
bore into dry wood of furniture, trimmings, and construc- 
tion timber, often doing a great deal of harm that is 
difficult to prevent. They are sometimes called Powder- 
post Beetles and "all live in dry wood, either in cylindrical 
burrows or beneath the bark, and sometimes in such 
numbers that the timber is wholly destroyed by them." 
Frequently the interior of the wood is largely reduced to 
powder before the small exit holes of the beetles are noticed. 
The common species are reddish-brown, cylindrical, and 
about .2 in. long. 

The Serricorn series ends with a number of small families 
of, for the most part, small, not frequently noticed, species. 

CuPESIDiE 

Cupes is our only genus and the pale brownish or ashy 
gray concolor, .3 in. long, is the commonest species. The 
eyes are prominent; the head and thorax are narrower 
than the combined elytra, which are beautifully sculptured 

3-3 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



in impressed rows separated by ridges. These insects are| 

_ found on dead wood and under bark. 

G 

pl . Lymexylonid^e 

° The name of the typical genus, Lymexylon, means "to 

r< ruin wood," and the long (about .5 in.), slender, brown 
with silky pubescence, L. sericeum, may occasionally be 
L found, particularly under the bark of oak logs. The very 
s ' slender larvae make small, irregular galleries. 

* ClOID^E 

s 

1, These are somewhat cylindrical, black or brownish 

e beetles, which rarely are more than .13 in. long. They 
j are usually found under the bark of trees and in dry, woody 
t fungi. Some species have been accused of making small, 

round holes in woodwork and books, but they are not 

usually injurious. 

£ Spindid^e 

j Similar to the Cioidae in appearance and habits. Not 

common. 

LAMELLICORNIA 

Seep. 281. The front tibiae are dilated and strongly 
toothed or scalloped on the outer edge. 

Lucanid^e: 

These are the Stag-Beetles and Pinching Bugs par 
excellence. The terminal joints, or lamellae, of the antennae 
of this family arc not decidedly flattened but are pro- 
longed on the inner side to form a pectinate club, the 
joints of which can not be brought closely together. 
Some of the species come freely to lights. The larvae are 
fat, white grubs, living in decaying wood. 

1. Elytra with longitudinal grooves 4. 

Elytra without longitudinal grooves 2. 

2. Antennae elbowed at end of first joint, which is nearly 
or quite as long as all the others united 3. 

Antennae straight, first joint not so long; length, less 
than .5 in Kicagus. 



LUCANID/C : STAG-BEETLES. 



3. Length, .75 in. or more Lucanus. 

Length, usually not more than .5 in.; elytra with traces 

of longitudinal grooves Platycerus. 

4. Antennae elbowed at end of first joint, which is nearly 
or quite as long as all the others united 5. 

Antennae straight 6. 

5. Length, more than .5 in.; eyes strongly notched by the 
margin of the head Dorcus. 

Length, less than .5 in.; eyes not strongly notched. 

Platycerus. 

6. Length, more than 1 in.; front of head with a short 
bent horn on head Passalus. 

Length, less than 1 in. ; no horn on head .... Ceruchus. 

Lucanus ^ * s on ty ^ e ma -l es which have abnor- 

mally long mandibles. L. elaphus is a 
southern species which gets as far north as New Jersey and 
Indiana. The mandibles of the male are as long as the 
abdomen. The female may be separated from the other two 
species mentioned by her black legs and chestnut-brown 
elytra. Length of male (not including mandibles), 1.3 to 
1.6 inches; of female, about 1.2 inches. L. dama (Plate 
LXXIX), the common species near New York: like 
placidus, the mandibles of the male are only about as long 
as the thorax; each mandible has but one tooth on the inner 
side; the head of the male is broader than the thorax; 
femora, light brown; length, 1 to 1.4 in. The mandibles 
of the male placidus, a. species said to be common in the 
Mississippi Valley but rare along the coast, are straight 
and have several teeth on the inner side; the head of the 
male is not broader than the thorax; the femora are dark 
brown. 

Dorcus pardllelus: brownish black; male's head nearly 
as broad as the pronotum, female's narrower. 

Platycerus guercus: blackish or dark reddish-brown; 
male's mandibles as long as the head, longer than the 
female's, and with about six teeth at the tip; grooves on 
elytra usually reduced to three or four faint ones near the 
suture. Found most frequently under bark of, as its 
name indicates, oak. 

325 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Ceruchus piceus: black or dark reddish-brown; male's 
mandibles as long as the head, with a large median tooth; 
female's mandibles about half as long as the head, with 
three or four blunt teeth on inner side; elytral grooves 
shallow. 

Passalus cornutus (Plate LXXIX) can make a creaking 
or a hissing noise by rubbing the elytra. The third pair 
of larval legs are aborted but in some species, at least, 
are used to make a noise by scratching the roughened 
middle legs. Some authors put this genus in a separate 
family, Passalid^e. 

Nicagus obscurus (Plate LXXIX) occurs under drift 
in damp, sandy places. 

SCARAB^ID^ 

This large family (nearly 20,000 species and "increasing 
by the discovery of about 300 new species every year") 
contains such forms as the May Beetles (June Bugs), the 
"shard-borne beetle with his drowsy hum" of Shakespeare, 
and the Sacred Scarab of Egypt. The larvae are usually 
yellowish-white, with a brown, chitinized head bearing 
prominent mandibles; they are wrinkled, fat (especially 
at the hind end) "grubs" which live in excrement, in 
decaying wood, or in the ground, and normally lie on their 
side with the hind end almost, or quite, touching the legs. 
Several methods of classifying the members of this family 
are in use, of which the following is about as convenient 
as any. 

Coprinae 

Most of these differ from the rest of Lamellicorns by 
living in dung and other animal matter. The abdominal 
spiracles (breathing holes) are placed in a line on the 
membrane connecting the dorsal and ventral plates and 
are covered by the elytra when the wings are closed; upper 
surface of the head usually much dilated on the front and 
sides. All except the Acanthocerini and Trogini have six 
visible, ventral, abdominal segments. 
326 



Plate LXXX 




Canfhon laevis 



Geotrupes 
biackburnii 




Copns Carolina 




Phyllophaga 




Trox suberosus 




Pelidnota punctata 




Macrodactylus 
subspinosus 



327 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS, 



Cloeotus is the only genus of the Acanthocerini (rounded, 
smooth, shining; scutellum relatively large; five visible, 
ventral, abdominal segments) that is likely to be found in 
our region. The species are less than .25 in. long, and 
live under bark and in rotten wood. Their body is partly 
contractile so that it can be rolled up into a somewhat 
hemispherical mass. 

Of the Coprini (hind tibiae usually with a single terminal 
spur; tip of abdomen not covered by elytra), Canthon 
may be recognized by the slender, somewhat curved, 
middle and hind tibiae being but little enlarged at the 
tip; the males never have horns. The others have these 
tibiae much expanded at the tip and the males usually 
have horns on the head or pronotum. Of these, Chceridium 
and Onthophagus rarely exceed .3 in. in length. 

Canthon These black or bronzed beetles are the 

Tumble Bugs, which make balls of dung 
and industriously roll them about (Plate LXXX) . Scara- 
bcBus sacer is a related insect with similar habits; it occurs 
in the Mediterranean region and was considered sacred 
by the Egyptians. It seems that this creature, in its form 
and actions, was believed by them to be emblematical of 
such abstruse things as the planetary movements and 
future life, not to mention minor matters. As a matter 
of fact, we have a great deal to learn about the whys and 
the hows of the ball-rolling. Comstock wrote that "this 
is one of the instances, rare among insects, where the male 
realizes that he has some responsibility as a father, and 
assists the female in providing for the young." On the 
other hand, Fabre, observing S. sacer, tells of females 
helping each other to the extent of stealing the ball. 

Copris Species of this genus do not roll their 

food to some distant hole for burial but dig 
a hole in the ground under or near the source of supply, 
usually cow dung. This hole is then provisioned and a 
single egg is laid in it. Our three common species are 
plain black. C. Carolina (Plate LXXX) is rarely less than 
.9 in. long and each elytron has but seven longitudinal 

328 



SCARAB/EIDAE. 



striae. C. minutus is less than .5 in. long, while the size of 
anaglypticus is intermediate; they have eight striae on 
each elytron. 

Phanaeus These are brilliantly colored beetles. 

The males of our species have quite a horn 
on their heads and lack tarsi on their front legs. The first 
joint of the antennal club is hollowed out to receive the 
others. The male of carnifex is shown in Plate LXXXI. 
The female has a short, blunt tubercle in place of the 
male's horn. 

No attempt will be made here to give the genera of 
Aphodiini (hind tibiae with two spurs ; abdomen covered by 
elytra; antennae 9- jointed) in detail. Aphodius is the 
largest, both as regards the number of species and by having 
the largest-sized species. They are dung-feeders which 
frequently fly in great numbers during warm autumn after- 
noons and, like their relatives, come freely to light. Apho- 
dius fossor is shiny black, nearly .5 in. long. Aphodius 
fimetarius has shiny black head and pronotum and brick- 
red elytra; it is about .3 in. long. There are many smaller 
species. 

The principal genus, in the Northeast, of the Geotrupini 
(antennae 11-jointed; mandibles prominent and visible 
from above) is Geotrupes (Plate LXXX). The antennal 
clubs are not very large and the plates are of equal thick- 
ness. Individuals of our common species range from .5 
to .75 in. in length and vary from black to purple and 
dark metallic green. Some provision holes, as does 
Copris, with dung; others live in decaying "toadstools,'' 
especially in the underground stem. Some, possibly 
all, of the species can make a faint sound by rubbing the 
hind coxae against the abdomen. As for the other genera, 
their antennal clubs are large, round, and convex on both 
sides. The eyes of Bolboceras are partially divided by a 
process from the side of the head, and those of Bolbocero- 
soma (black-and-brown beetles in which the process between 
the middle coxae has an erect tooth-like elevation) and of 
Odontceus (brown beetles without this "tooth") arc 
entirely divided. 

329 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



As far as we are concerned, Trox (Plate LXXX) is the 
only genus of Trogini. Its species are oblong, convex, 
dirty-looking, brown beetles, which occur under or about 
carrion, old hides, or feathers. The surface is usually 
roughly sculptured and covered with a crust of earth which 
is difficult to remove. Adults stridulate by rubbing the 
abdomen against the elytra, special areas being roughened 
"for this purpose." 



Melolonthinae 

Here belong the June Bugs or Cockchafers. The adults 
are often very abundant about lights and feed chiefly on 
leaves. The abdominal spiracles are placed almost in a 
line but not more than the front three spiracles are on the 
membrane connecting the dorsal and ventral parts of the 
abdomen. The larvae live in the ground and feed chiefly 
on roots. Our principal genera may be separated as 
follows : 

1. Middle and hind tibiae with only one spur, this some- 
times obsolete; hind tarsi with a single claw Iloplia. 

Middle and hind tibiae with two spurs; all tarsi with 
two equal claws 2. 

2. Form elongate, slender; colors metallic green or 
bronzed or dull yellow 3. 

Form robust, heavy; color brownish, sometimes 
iridescent 4. 

3. Elytra pubescent, not densely scaly; claws capable 
of being folded along the last joint of tarsi. . . Dichelonycka. 

Elytra densely covered with elongate, yellowish 
scales ; tarsal claws not as above Macrodactylus. 

4. Five ventral, abdominal segments; elytra either 
uniformly and rather finely punctured or with punctured 
striae Diplotaxis. 

Six ventral, abdominal segments 5. 

5. Less than .5 in. long; elytra with indistinct but regular 
grooves Serica. 

Usually more than .5 in. long; most of the elytra 
without striae or grooves Phyllophaga. 

3M> 



JUNE BUGS, COCKCHAFERS. 



Iloplia. Adults are usually found on flowers during 
the day. The two sexes often differ in size and color. 

Dichelonycha. Adults are usually found on leaves of 
trees and shrubs. The eyes are rather large and promi- 
nent. The antennal club of males is nearly as long as the 
rest of the antenna. 



Macrodactylus The name means "long fingered" and 
all who grow roses will agree that it fits, 
in both a literal and a figurative sense. There is little 
you can do to combat this pest unless you wish either 
to keep your roses, flowers and all, sprayed with poison 
when the beetles are around or to plow deeply your lawn 
and the lawns of all your neighbors every winter in order 
to turn the young of these Rose Beetles out into the cold. 
It is of some help to go out several times a day and knock 
the adults which have made their appearance in the 
intervals into a cup of kerosene. It is said that chickens 
die from eating them. The Rose Beetle (Plate LXXX) 
also feeds on grape blossoms. Its specific name is sub- 
spinosus. A mcich fess common species, angustatus, also 
occurs. It is more southern in its distribution and confines 
its attentions chiefly to oak and other wild plants. The 
specific distinctions are slight and technical. 



Phyiiophaga These (Plate LXXX) are. the beetles 

that buzz and bang about the room in the 
early summer evenings, usually going under the name of 
Lachnosterna. There are numerous species but distinguish- 
ing them is a matter of considerable difficulty. The female 
is said to deposit her eggs, enclosed in a bail of earth, among 
the roots of grass. The larvae are "white grubs"; they 
get to be about as thick as a man's little finger and are 
frequently very injurious to the roots of various plants. 
Cases have been reported in which they were so numerous in 
lawns that they had completely cut the roots; the turf 
could be rolled up like a carpet. The larval stage of some 
species, at least, lasts for two or three years. Pupation 
occurs in an underground cell. 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



The remainder of the subfamilies have the abdominal 
spiracles placed in two lines on each side, the front three 
on the connecting membrane and the others on the ventral 
segments. 

Of the four genera of Rutelinae (claws on each tarsus 
unequal in size, the inner one much more slender than the 
outer) to be mentioned here, Anomala and Strigoderma 
have 9-jointed antennae, and mandibles, when closed, 
covered by the clypeus; Pelidnota and Cotalpa have 10- 
jointed antennas and the mandibles are usually visible 
beyond the clypeus. The elytra of Anomala are convex, 
not notched at the base, shallowly striate, and with small 
holes (punctate); the thorax is not hairy. The ehytra of 
Strigoderma are flattened, notched at the base, deeply 
striate but not punctate; the thorax is hairy and has 
impressed lines. 

Cotalpa lanigera, the Goldsmith Beetle (Plate LXXXI), 
is found on willow and poplar, occasionally on oak, and 
at light. Its specific name refers to the whitish "wool" 
on the under side. 

Pelidnota punctata is, by day, common on grape, drawing 
the leaves together for shelter, and by night at lights. It 
is dull reddish-brown or brownish-yellow above, with 
spots as shown in Plate LXXX. The larvae live in decay- 
ing stumps, especially of oak and hickory. 

Of our more common Dynastinas (claws on each tarsus 
equal in size; front coxae transverse, not very prominent; 
body usually convex above), Cyclocephala and Dyscinetus 
have the head and pronotum plain; the others have at 
least a ridge or a tubercle on one or the other or both. 
The color of our species of Cyclocephala is brownish - 
yellow; the mandibles are narrow and scarcely curved. 
Our species are about .5 in. long. The color of Dyscinetus 
trachypygus, our common species, is practically black; 
the mandibles are broad, rounded on the outer side, and 
curved. It is nearly .75 in. long and is found under 
rubbish along the shores of the sea, lakes, and larger 
streams, as well as at lights. Of the others: 

33? 



Plate LXXXI 








Phand&us Allorh'ina 

co mi lex / \ nitida 




Cotalpa ! aniqera 




Desmocerus Saperda CijUene^ 
pol 1 Iatu5 Candida robin? fie 



* 









Chrijsochus 
auratus 




Galerucella 
luteolo 



OX=BEETLE AND RELATIVES. 



Dynastes tityus is over 1.5 in. long. It is usually greenish - 
gray with brownish or blackish spots scattered irregularly 
over the elytra. The common name, Unicorn Beetle, is 
scarcely correct, for the males have three horns on the pro- 
notum, the ones on the sides curved and very short, the 
median one with yellowish hair beneath, notched at the 
tip, and projecting forward to meet a long, curved horn 
arising from the head. The females have only a slight 
tubercle on the middle of the head. It is a southern 
insect, rarely seen even in southern New Jersey, for 
example; I have found larvae, pupae, and adults abundant 
in rotten wood in southern Mississippi. 

Stratczgus antoEiis, the Ox-beetle, is an inch or more 
long; shiny, dark reddish-brown, the male's pronotum 
almost black. The male has one stout horn on each side 
of the pronotum, and one on the front of the same 
segment; the female has merely the front horn, much 
reduced. 

Xyloryctes satyrns is also an inch or more long and 
rather stouter than the preceding species. Its color is 
also much like that of the preceding but the male, instead 
of horns on the thorax, has a long, stout one on the head. 
It is called the Rhinoceros Beetle, but this is confusing 
as that name is applied more aptly to certain tropical 
species. 



The Cetoniinas have the claws on each tarsus equal; 
coxae conical, rather prominent; body rather flattened 
above; the antennas are 10- jointed. In flying, these 
insects usually "do not raise the elytra as most beetles 
do, but the inner wings pass out from the side under the 
elytra, which are a little narrower at the tips than the 
base and do not at all embrace the sides of the body. 
The members of this subfamily differ from the other 'leaf 
chafers' in being for the most part flower beetles, the 
mouth organs being furnished with a brush of hairs with 
which they collect the pollen. They are therefore mostly 
diurnal, flying about from flower to flower during the 
heat of the day. At night and in cloudy or rainy weather 
they are to be found beneath bark or other cover." 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Plate LXXXI. In the South it is called 

nitida ina the Fi S- eater - When fl y in g» {t is easil >* 

mistaken for a loudly buzzing bumble-bee. 
The head is deeply excavated, the front with a horizontal 
spine extending forward nearly to the upturned spine of the 
clypeus. The larvae feed upon the roots of grass and 
other plants, sometimes being decidedly- injurious. 



The pronotum is triangular; scutellum 
uphona not covere( j. s j^ e pieces of the mesothorax 

visible from above; elytra more or less wavy on the sides. 
Comstock calls inda the Bumble Flower-beetle — a name 
which covers its habits of humming, when flying, and of 
feeding in flowers. However, the name might well be 
applied to its relatives also. The adults often feed on 
fruit and green corn. The elevation between the middle 
coxae is transverse; head and pronotum dark, feebly 
bronzed, the latter often with yellowish spots; elytra brown- 
ish-yellow, mottled with black spots which often tend to 
form cross-bands; pronotum woolly; length somewhat 
over half an inch. E. fulgidus is similar in size and form 
but brilliant polished green in color. 



This genus differs from Euphoria in 
Cremastochilus having the pron otum quadrate, with promi- 
nent angles. The species are uniformly blackish and, 
while not especially rare, they are not often seen, as they 
live in and about the nests of ants. Our species are not 
over .5 in. long. There are pubescent areas near the 
angles of the pronotum which are glandular and furnish 
agreeable food for ants. Sometimes even the angles arc 
gnawed off. The beetles are sluggish and "seem to be 
held in captivity by the ants, which pull them back into 
the vicinity of the nests whenever they attempt to escape." 
However, it is probable that , the advantages are not 
entirely one-sided. 



334 



ODOR=OF=LEATHER BEETLES. 



The name refers to the "odor of leather." 
Osmoderma Both of Qur species are l arge ly nocturnal 

and come to lights. 0. eremicola is an inch, or more, long; 
shiny dark brown; head deeply excavated between the 
eyes in both sexes, the edge with a tubercle above the base 
of the antennas; elytra sparsely punctate. 0. scabra 
is not more than an inch long; purplish-black, bronzed; 
head of male as in eremicola, of female nearly flat; elytra 
roughly sculptured. The larva of the latter, and probably 
of the former also, lives in the hollows of beech, cherry, 
and apple trees, feeding upon the rotten wood. In the 
autumn, it makes an oval cell of fragments of wood strongly 
cemented with a kind of glue. In this it pupates, emerging 
the next summer. 



We have only two species of this genus. 
Valgus Their pronotum has a deep median groove, 

and the body is more or less covered with whitish scales 
instead of hairs. Adults hibernate in groups on the ground 
but under some shelter such as half-buried logs. V. 
canaliculatus is .25 in., or less, long; reddish-brown, feebly 
shining; sides of pronotum, and base, middle, and apex 
of elytra sparsely clothed with yellowish scales; front 
tibiae with three or more slender, widely separated teeth 
on the outer side. V. squamiger is slightly larger and 
darker; front tibiae with five or six closely placed, stout, 
rounded teeth. 



The hind coxae touch each other; the 
pronotum is rounded at base and has no 
median groove; elytra not longer than wide; body pubes- 
cent. Three of our more common species may be partially 
separated as follows, all being a trifle less than .5 in. long. 
Elytra reddish-brown, tinged with green, without trans- 
verse, whitish bands or velvety spots on the sides; head', 
thorax, body beneath, and legs, bright metallic green: 
bibens. Elytra reddish-brown, each with two short, 
oblique, whitish bars; head and thorax greenish-black: 
piger. T. affinis is much like piger but more shining and 
separated on technical characters. 

335 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



PHYTOPHAGA 

The tarsi are really 5- jointed but are usually referred 
to as 4-jointed for the small nodule ("true fourth joint") 
at the base of the long claw-joint is not usually counted. 
With this convention and excepting the Spondylidas, 
we may say that the tarsi are "apparently four-jointed, 
the three basal joints usually densely set with cushion- 
like pubescence beneath; the third joint different in form, 
being divided into two lobes, or grooved on its upper 
surface so as to allow of the fourth joint being inserted 
near its base instead of at its extremity; head not forming 
a definite prolonged beak; labrum always visible." Al- 
most without exception, the larvae feed on some part or 
another of plants. Although the families are sufficiently 
distinct, once you know them, it is difficult to give a 
satisfactory elementary key. 



Spondylid.e 



These are called Aberrant Long-horned Beetles and, 
although apparently related to the Cerambycidae, they do 
not fit in the system very well. The fourth tarsal joint is 
distinct, though not large, so that the tarsi are clearly 5- 
jointed; the tarsal joints are neither much dilated nor pu- 
bescent beneath; the antennae are short and inserted at the 
sides of the head near the bases of the mandibles. Only one 
genus, Parandra, and two species need be mentioned here. 
Both are oblong, reddish to mahogany brown, somewhat 
flattened, and varying from .4 to .75 in. in length. The 
antennae reach about to the back of the pronotum; the 
second joint about half as long as the third. In P. brunnea 
the pronotum is distinctly wider than the head and punc- 
tured; in P. polita it is not wider than the head and is not 
punctured. Both breed in decaying deciduous and coni- 
ferous trees, the adults usually being found just under 
the bark. 

336 



LONG=HORNED BEETLES. 



Cerambycid^e 



The more than 13,000 species, in addition to the general 
characteristics of Phytophaga, usually have very long 
antennas, extending back of the pronotum and often 
back of the tip of the abdomen. For this reason, they 
are often called Longicornes or "Long-horns." Their 
form is usually oblong, with parallel sides; and they have 
distinct tibial spurs. When caught, the adults often 
make a peculiar, squeaking noise. Sharp says they do it 
"by rubbing a ridge inside the pronotum on a highly 
specialized, striate surface at the base of the scutellum, 
and therefore covered up when the Insect is contracted 
in repose. A few [e. g., some of the Prioninas] produce noise 
by rubbing the hind femora against the edge of the elytra, 
somewhat after the fashion of grasshoppers." The larvae 
are white, or yellowish, wood-borers and have powerful 
jaws; the body tapers slightly from the fore part backwards. 
They are called Round-headed Borers, in contrast with the 
larvae of Buprestidae. Although many of the adults come 
to light, the "good species" are usually obtained by the 
use of good eyes on felled timber or by beating branches, 
especially dead ones, above an upturned umbrella. Some 
are also to be found under bark. Large numbers, especi- 
ally of Lepturini, are attracted in early summer by flower- 
ing shrubs. The three 1 subfamilies may be separated as 
follows : 

1. Pronotum "margined" (i. e., sides flattened and thin 
for almost the whole length) and usually toothed along the 
sides; body usually broad and flattened. Prioninas (p. 338). 

Pronotum not margined; body usually more or less 
cylindrical 2. 

2. Front tibiae not grooved; last joint of maxillary palpi 
not sharp at tip, often more or less triangular 

Cerambycinae (p. 338). 

Front tibiae with a more or less distinct oblique groove 

on the inner side; palpi with the last joint cylindrical, 

pointed at tip Lamiinae (p. 352). 



1 Craighead, following studies of larvae, makes five 
subfamilies. 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Prioninae 



These are among our large beetles, and some tropical 
species attain a length of six inches or more. The adults 
are nocturnal. 

i. Form elongate; antennae n -jointed, the joints not 
overlapping; width of pronotum more than twice its length, 
three sharp teeth on each side; length, from I to 1.7 in.; 
light chestnut-brown, shining. Larvae in oak (and other?) 

stumps and logs Orthosoma brunneum. 

Form, stout, broad; antennae (in our species) 12- to 
20-jointed, the joints, especially in males, more or less 
overlapping each other. Prionus. Length from .9 to 
2 in.; shining reddish-brown or black 2. 

2. Antennas with 16 to 18 joints in the female and 18 to 
20 in the male; pronotum very short and broad, its teeth, 
especially the hind ones, not very distinct 

Prionus imbricornis. 
Antennae with only 12 joints 3. 

3. Elytra, combined, at base not wider than the pronotum ; 
all joints of the hind tarsi densely pubescent beneath; 
antennae of male longer than the body, of female about 
half the length. (Plate LXXXIL) The larvae live in 
the roots of many trees and shrubs, including orchard 
trees and small fruits such as blackberry; they are three 
years in reaching maturity Prionus laticollis. 

Elytra, combined, at base wider than the pronotum; 
basal joint of each hind tarsus nearly smooth. Middle 
and Southern States .Prionus pocularis. 

Ccrambycinas 

Quite a few of the very many species are pretty and 
sure to attract attention. 

1. Base of antennae not enveloped by the eyes 2. 

Base of antennae partly enveloped by the eyes; bead 

inserted in the thorax 8. 

2. Front coxae transverse, not prominent; antennae 
with second joint rather large, one-third or more the length 
of the third; head inserted in the thorax. (Division 
Callidioides) 3« 

338 



KEY TO THE LONG-HORNS. 



Front coxae conical (globose in Distenia), prominent; 
second joint of antennas small; head usually attached to 
thorax by a rather distinct neck, this appearance being 
caused by the head being narrowed behind the eyes and the 
thorax narrowed in front; elytra usually tapering behind 
the middle. (Division Lepturoides) 4. 

3. Second joint of antennae more than one- third as 
long as the third; antennae, densely punctured and pubes- 
cent; scutellum rounded behind; fifth ventral, abdominal 
segment of the males transverse and the sixth visible, 
fifth segment of females prolonged and the sixth invisible. 

Tribe Asemini (p. 341). 
Second joint of antennae not more than one-third as 
long as the third; eyes finely granulate (i. e., the lines be- 
tween the facets are feebly impressed) and deeply emargi- 
nate; pronotum and elytra not spined; antennae of males 
thicker at the base than those of females and usually longer 
than the body Tribe Callidiini (p. 342). 

4. Front coxae globose; mandibles chisel-shaped, not 
fringed on the inner margin; pronotum spined on the sides, 
and elytra spined at tips; body elongate; head large; 
eyes large, feeble emarginate; antennae long, tapering, 
first joint as long as the head. Tribe Disteniini, of which 
only Distenia undata need be mentioned. It varies from 
.7 to 1 in. long; dark brown, densely clothed with short, 
gray pubescence; elytra marked with three serrate cross- 
bands of darker pubescence. It occurs beneath the 
bark of hickory, oak, and chestnut trees. 

Front coxae conical 5. 

5. Joints 3 to 5 of antennae much thickened at tips; 
mandibles simple, not fringed; eyes nearly rounded, 
suddenly and deeply emarginate. Tribe Desmocerini. 
Plate LXXXI shows Desmocerus palliatus. Its larvae bore 
in the stems of elder (Sambucus). 

Joints 3 to 5 of antennae normal, usually slender; 
mandibles acute, fringed on the inner margin; elytra not 
colored as above 6. 

6. Elytra short, not covering the wings. Tribe Necy- 
dalini, of which only Necydalis mellitus is likely to be found 
by users of this book. The abdomen, front and middle 

339 



J 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



legs, and basal joint of antennae are dull yellow; elytra 

reddish-brown or yellow; otherwise black; .5 to .9 in. long. 

Elytra of normal length. 7. 

7. Front of face nearly vertical; neck, very short; first 
joint of hind tarsi much longer than the other joints 
combined. Tribe Encyclopini. In Encyclops, the only 
genus occurring in eastern United States, the first, hind- 
tarsal joint is cylindrical. E. ccernleus is about .3 in. 
long; almost linear; shiny blue or green. 

Front of face oblique or horizontal; elytra usually 
tapering to the apex Tribe Lepturini (p. 349). 

8. Second joint of antennas small, not over one-fourth 
the length of the third; front coxae not conical though 
sometimes prominent. (Division Cerambycoid.es) ..... .9. 

Second joint of antennae about one-third the length 
of the third joint; front coxae globose, widely separated. 
Division Atimioides. Rare with us. Atimia confusa is 
about .3 in. long; dull black, clothed with rather long, 
yellowish pubescence, with irregular, smooth, hairless 
spots; hind tarsi with the first joint equal to the second 
and third combined. On conifers. 

9. Eyes coarsely granulated (i. e., the lines between the 
facets deeply impressed) 10. 

Eyes finelygranulated 11. 

10. Front coxal cavities open behind; abdomen normal 
in both sexes; antennae with the second joint small; scutel- 
lum rounded behind, except in Chion; eyes not divided, 
though always deeply emarginate Tribe Cerambycini 

(p. 344)- 

Front coxal cavities angulated, closed behind; first 
segment of abdomen very long. Tribe Obriini. There 
are two genera: Phyton, pronotum much narrower at 
base than at apex; and Obrium, pronotum equally nar- 
rowed at base and apex. The species are less than .3 in. 
long. 

11. Elytra cither only about as long as the pronotum, 
or elongated and awl-shaped. .Tribe Stenoptini (p. 345). 

Elytra normal 12. 

12. Scutellum either rounded behind or broadly tri- 
angular 13* 

340 



KEY TO THE LONG=HORNS. 



Scutellum acutely triangular; front coxal cavities 

open behind; eyes finely granulated. 

Tribe Trachyderini (p. 345). 

13. Tibial sp'jirs large; pronotum never with tubercles 
or spines 14* 

Tibial spurs small; legs long and slender; femora very 
slender at base, strongly and suddenly club-shaped at 
apex. Tribe Rhopalophorini. Rhopalophora longipes is 
about .3 in. long; bluish-black; pronotum red, with a 
small obtuse tubercle on each side. 

14. Tibae strongly ridged; form slender; puncturation 
(pittings) sparse and coarse. Tribe Stenosphenini. 
Sienosphenus notatus, breeding in hickory, is black; prono- 
tum reddish with a central black spot; under side of head 
and thorax reddish; about .4 in. long. 

Tibiag not ridged; form rather stout; puncturation 
fine. Our species usually have the elytra banded with 
yellow, or white, and black pubescence; eyes finely granu- 
lated and deeply emarginate, the lower lobe always 
large Tribe Clytini (p. 346). 



Asemini. (See page 339.) 

1. Color, black or dark brown; form, cylindrical, scarcely 
depressed 2. 

Color, pale yellowish; form, depressed; length, about 
.3 in.; eyes coarsely granulated and very deeply emargi- 
nate. Occurs under unloosened bark of dead poplar, oak, 
and other trees Smodicum cucujiforme. 

2. Eyes not wholly divided, often deeply emarginate. ... 3. 
Eyes divided, apparently four in number, rather 

finely granulated; length, about .5 in.; dull, sooty brown. 
Northern Tetropium cinnamopterum. 

3. Eyes moderate in size, finely granulated and hairy; 
antennae finely pubescent; length, .5 in. or more; black. 
Northern Asemum mosstum. 

Eyes large, coarsely granulated, not hairy; about 
1 in. long Criocephalus. 

341 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Callidiini. (See page 339.) 

1. Elytra bluish-black, with narrow, raised, longitudinal, 
white lines on the middle; pronotum with very deep, 
median groove; femora distinctly club-shaped; general 
color, black; .5 to .7 in. long. Larvae bore in elm 

Physocnemum brevilineum. 
Elytra without distinct, raised, white lines . 2. 

2. Pronotum very short, strongly rounded on the sides, 
red; upper surface not shining; black; about .75 in. long. 

Rhopalopus sanguinicollis. 
Pronotum not very short, the width not much exceed- 
ing the length; upper surface more or less shining 3. 

3. Front coxae at least moderately separated. Merium 
(pronotum with a broad, smooth, shining median space 
on the basal half) and Ilylotrupes (pronotum with a narrow 
median elevation and moderate or small ones on the sides). 
H. ligneus is usually not over .5 in. long; elytra yellow 
except for apical third and a circular spot on each, which 
portions are, together with the head and pronotum, 
bluish-black. Breeds in cedar. H. bajalus is about* .75 
in. long; brown to black, with grayish-white pubescence 
that may form two irregular bands on the elytra. Breeds 
in pine and spruce. 

Front coxae touching Phymatodes and Callidium. 

Phymatodes varius is black to (especially thorax and 
basal part of elytra) reddish-brown; two slightly curved 
crossbars on elytra; about .3 in. long. The larvae mine 
the inner bark of diseased oaks. P. variabilis (about .5 in. 
long; elytra blue, or yellow, or blue with yellow margins. 
Larvae in oak bark.) and P. amcenus (about .25 in. long; 
elytra bluish. Larvae in dead grape stems.) have the 
pronotum reddish-yellow. P. dimidiatus has an almost 
black pronotum; elytra reddish-brown, lighter at the 
base. The larvae are "bark-slippers" of cord-wood. 
Callidium antennatum (over .5 in. long; surface rough) 
and janthinum (about .5 in. long; surface shining) are 
dark blue. They breed in conifers. C. areum is less than 
.5 in. long and brownish-yellow. Its larvae mine the inner 
bark of chestnut. 

342 



Plate LXXXII 




Prionus 
loficollis 



Monohammus 
titillot.or 




Elophidion 
villosum 





Tetraopes 
telraophthoimus 



up 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Cerambycini. (See page 340.) 

1. With six cross-bands of yellow pubescence, two on 
pronotum and four on elytra. West of the Alleghanies. 
Larvae bore in dead beech and maple. Dryobius sexfasciatus. 

With not more than one yellow cross-band 2. 

2. Scutellum acute, triangular, pronotum with a short 
spine on each side; antennae of female about the length 
of the body, of the male longer; brownish, with sparse, 
fine, gray pubescence; each efytron with two short spines 
at apex and usually with an oblique, yellow blotch in front 
of the middle; length varies from .6 to 1.3 in. Larvae in 
hickory, oak, and plum Chion ductus. 

Scutellum rounded behind 3. 

3. Each elytron with two pairs of elliptical, elevated, 
ivory -like spots on each; pale brownish-yellow. Larvae 
bore in hickory, ash, and honey-locust 

Eburia quadrigeminata. 
Elytra without pairs of ivory-like spots 4. 

4. Femora not distinctly club-shaped; antennal joints 
and elytra with spines 5. 

Femora distinctly club-shaped; elytra without spines 
at tip. Tylonotus bimaculatus (antennae grooved on 
the outer side; two rounded, yellow spots on each elytron; 
.5 in. long. Larvae in ash.) and Heterachthes (antennae 
not grooved or hairy; less than .5 in. long). II. quadri- 
maculatus is brownish-yellow with pale spots (sometimes 
tip also pale) on each elytron. Larvae in hickory. H. 
ebenus is dull black. 

5. Not less than .75 in. long 6. 

Usually less than .75 in. long 7. 

6. Dark brown, with irregular spots of short, grayish 
pubescence; pronotum without spines on sides. Occurs 
beneath the bark of walnut, hickory, and hackberry. 

Romaleum atomarium. 

Reddish-brown with uniform pubescence of the 

same color; pronotum with a small tubercle each side of 

the median line. Larvae bore in oak and probably other 

trees Romaleum rufulum. 

7. Antennae and elytra with long spines; femora spinose 
at tips; dull reddish-brown, irregularly clothed with grayish 

344 



KEY TO THE LONG=HORNS. 



yellow pubescence; length, nearly, or quite, .75 in. On 

various deciduous trees, also on grape 

Elaphidion mucronalum. 
Antennal spines small; femora not spinose at tips. 
Elaphidion unicolor. Uniform reddish-brown, very 
sparsely pubescent; pronotum sparsely and irregularly 
punctate; elytra with a short spine on tip of each. Larvae 
bore in twigs of red-bud, plum, and (?) oak. E. incertum. 
Dark reddish-brown, mottled with smallpatches of grayish- 
brown pubescence; prothorax almost globose, wider than 
long, sides rounded ; small elevations, sometimes connected, 
on each side of polished median line of pronotum ; each 
elytron with two short spines at tip. E. v-illosum. (Plate 
LXXXII.) Dark brown, clothed with grayish-yellow, 
somewhat mottled pubescence; pronotum rather rough 
and with coarse, deep punctures; the outer of the two 
spines on the tip of each elytron the longer. The larva 
is the Pruner. It breeds in a large variety of deciduous 
trees, developing in the heart of a small shoot and, when 
full-grown, girdling the shoot from within, so that it falls 
in the first high wind. Pupation and hibernation usually 
occur in this fallen twig, but the twig does not always fall. 

Stenoptini. (See page 340.) 

Molorchus bimacidaius. Dull black, with sparse, long, 
grayish hairs; elytra scarcely longer than the pronotum, a 
large, dull, yellow spot often nearly covering each elytron; 
antennas and legs reddish-brown; less than .3 in. long. 
Breeds in dead hickory, maple, ash, dogwood, red-bud, 
and walnut. 

Callimoxys sanguinicollis. Dull black; pronotum of 
male red, with narrow, black, apical, and basal margins ; 
elytra brownish, elongate awl-shaped; femora swollen; 
hind legs yellow, the tips of the joints black. 

Trachyderini. (See page 341.) 

This is a large tribe in the South and Southwest, but 
only four northern species will be mentioned here. 
1. Pronotum not shining, its sides with a spine or large 
tubercle; length not less than .5 in 2. 

345 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Pronotum shining, its sides unarmed; usually not 
longer than .3 in.; dark red; antennae, legs, and often the 
suture of the elytra varying from dusky red to black. 
Adults often abundant on flowers Batyle suturalis. 

2. Body pubescent; black; each elytron with a large 
rounded orange spot near the base . . . Tragidion coquus. 

Body not pubescent 3. 

3. Black; each elytron with a large, triangular, scarlet 
humeral area. Larvae probably in oak and hickory. 

Purpuricenus humeralis. 

Black; front half of elytra orange yellow 

Purpuricenus axillaris. 

Clytini. (See page 341.) 

1. Head small, face short; process of first ventral abdomi- 
nal segment between the hind coxae rounded 2. 

Head large, face long; process between the hind coxae 
acute 7. 

2. Pronotum with three yellow crossbands and exca- 
vated transversely at the sides near the base 3. 

Pronotum without yellow crossbands, but sometimes 
with yellow, oblique bars on each side; not excavated at 
the sides 5. 

3. Second joint of hind tarsi without hairs at the middle; 
antennae of male longer than the body; velvety black: 
head, pronotum, and efytra with narrow, yellow cross- 
bands, the third one from the base of the elytra W-shaped, 
the three behind it sinuous; length .5 to .8 in. Larvae 
bore in hickory and elm. Adults in spring and early 
summer Cyllene caryce (also called pictus). 

Second joint of hind tarsi densely pubescent; antennae 
not longer than the body 4. 

4. Closely resembles C. caryce. Larvae bore in black 
locust (Robinia). Adults in late summer and fall. (Plate 
LXXXI) Cyllene robinia:. 

Basal third of elytra orange yellow, remainder black 
except for a yellow band behind the middle, and yellow tip ; 
pronotum yellow, with three short, narrow, black cross- 
bars. A southern and western species Cyllene decorus. 

5. Antennae compressed, somewhat serrate; black, dense 

346 



KEY TO THE LONG=HORNS. 



yellow pubescence covering the greater part of the head 
and forming two short oblique bands on each side of the 
pronotum and five on each elytron, the first two of which 
are decidedly oblique and the last (apical) one broad and 
including a dark spot; length, about I in. Larvae bore 

in maples and are often injurious. Northern 

Plagionotus speciosus. 
Antennas thread-like 6. 

6. Brownish-black, densely clothed with velvety pubes- 
cence; each elytron usually with a rounded, yellow spot at 
the base, a small one near it and the margin, a larger one 
before the middle, and two narrow, transverse, sinuous 
bands on apical half; antennae one-half the length of the 
body, which is .8 in., or more Calloides nobilis. 

Not more than .75 in. long; black; head and pronotum 
covered with grayish pubescence, the latter with a large, 
black spot in the center and a small, round one on each 
side; elytra marked with obscure, zigzag bands of grayish 
pubescence. Breeds in chestnut, oak, and butternut. 

Arhopalus fulminans. 

7. Elytra flat on basal third ; not less than .3 in. long. ... 8. 
Elytra swollen on basal third; small, ant-like species, 

not over .4 in. long 18. 

8. Front of head with one or more ridges 9. 

Front of head without ridges •. 13. 

9. Ridges on the front "of the head reduced to an elongate 
space; length usually not much more, if any, than 
•5 in 10. 

Ridges on face V- or Y-shaped; length usually not 
much less, if any, than .5 in 11. 

10. Ridge on face divided or impressed longitudinally; 
black; thorax with four spots of yellowish pubescence; 
elytra with the sutural line and three oblique extensions 
from it dull yellow. Usually on black alder 

Xylotrechus quadrimacidatus. 

Ridge on face scarcely divided; shining black beetle, 

with yellow margins Xylotrechus nitidus. 

11. A spine on the outer angle of the obliquely-cut apex 
of each elytron; brownish, with white pubescence. Usually 
on dead pine Xylotrechus sagittatus. 



347 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



No distinct spine on the outer angle of the obliquely- 
cut apex 12. 

12. Black or brown; yellowish or whitish pubescence 
arranged to form variable markings; usually four such 
markings on the pronotum, and three bands (the front 
one narrow and curved) and an apical spot on the elytra. 

Xylotrechus colonus. 
Black or dark brown; pronotum with light pubes- 
cence on front and back margins; each elytron with a 
narrow stripe of yellow pubescence running from the 
scutellum to about the middle and then curving to the 
outer margin, a short line of yellow in front of this and 

two behind it. Breeds in spruce and hemlock 

Xylotrechus undulatus. 

13. Pronotum with short, transverse lines or ridges ... 14. 
Pronotum without transverse ridges 17. 

14. Middle and hind femora spined at apex 15. 

Middle and hind femora not spined at apex; black; 

whitish pubescence on thorax; pronotum with narrow, 
light, front margin; each elytron with a white or yellow 
marking which nearly forms a circle near the base, a jagged 
one just behind the middle, and an oblique one near the 

apex. Breeds in ash, elm, and hickory 

Neoclytus caprcea. 

15. Pronotum with a longitudinal, elevated ridge; 
antennae thread-like 16. 

Pronotum with a few distinct, transverse ridges 
arranged in a median row; antennae thickened towards 
the apex; reddish-brown; elytra dark behind the first 
band and with four, nearly straight, narrow crossbars 
of bright yellow pubescence, the one at the base the least 
distinct. Breeds in a variety of trees such as elm, maple, 

black locust, hickory, and dog-wood 

Neoclytus erythrocephalus* 

16. Blackish; two vertical yellow bands on the front 
of the head and three transverse ones on the pronotum; 
elytra with the base reddish-brown, the scutellum and 
three narrow curved bands yellow. Said to breed in 
hickory, elm, and grape Neoclytus scutellaris. 

Very similar but the median yellow band is lacking 
from the pronotum and there is often a red spot (not of 

348 



KEY TO THE LONG=HORNS. 



hairs, but in the chitin) on each side. In hickory 

Neoclytus luscus. 

17. Black with the following yellow markings: a marginal 
line on the pronotum, interrupted at the base; scutellum; 
an oval, oblique spot on basal third of each elytron; a 
strongly angulated band back of this; and an oblique bar 
back of the middle. Has been taken on hickory, elm, 
and oak Clytanthus ruricola. 

Blackish-brown, except reddish basal half of elytra. 
Each elytron with the following markings of whitish 
pubescence: a„ narrow, oblique line on basal half; a long, 
narrow, curved band behind the middle; and a spot on 
the apex. Has been taken on hickory, grape, and oak. 

Clytanthus albofasciatus m 

18. Each elytron with an oblique, wavy band; shining 
black or dark reddish-brown. Looks like an ant. Breeds 
in hickory and chestnut branches, possibly in other trees. 

Euderces picipes. 
No such band -. 19. 

19. Eyes emarginate; second joint of antennse distinctly 
shorter than the fourth, third joint with a spine; black; 
femora and basal three-fifths of elytra reddish-brown, the 
latter marked with three narrow, oblique lines of whitish 
pubescence and separated from the black portion by a 
similar transverse line. Bores in beech, linden, chestnut, 
and other trees Cyrtophorus verrucosus. 

Eyes not emarginate; head and pronotum black; 
elytra with markings of silvery hairs. Has been bred 
from sumac and hickory. Rare, . . . Tillomorpha geminata. 



Lepturini. (See page 340.) 

Members of this tribe may often be found on flowers. 

1. Spurs of hind tibiae not terminal but at the base of a 
deep excavation; pronotum tuberculate at the sides. 
Toxotus. T. vittiger has two long, longitudinal, whitish 
stripes on each elytron. T. cylindricollis is also black 
(or reddish) but without whitish markings. 

Spurs of hind tibiae terminal 2 . 

2. First joint of hind tarsi with the usual brush of hair 

349 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



beneath; pronotum, with rare exceptions, distinctly tuber- 
culate or spined at the sides; head obliquely narrowed 

behind the eyes 3. 

First joint of hind tarsi without the brush-like sole; 
pronotum usually broadest at the base, its sides never 
spined or tuberculate; head constricted behind the eyes. . .8. 

3. Antennae scarcely reaching the base of the elytra; 
pronotum with a sharp spine on each side; elytra with 
longitudinal raised ridges; black, mottled with brown and 
gray pubescence; reddish-brown spots on elytra; length, 
•5 to .75 in. Larvae under pine bark, making a nest of 
chips Rhagium lineatum. 

Antennas longer; elytra not strongly ridged 4. 

4. Eyes globose and prominent; pronotum with a short, 
acute tubercle on each side 5. 

Eyes not prominent; pronotum angulated or rounded 
on the sides; length, about .3 in 6. 

5. Elytra uniform reddish-brown, somewhat square-cut 
at tips. Bores in butternut and beech. Centrodera decolorata. 

Elytra clay-yellow with irregular brown stripes and 
blotches, the tips rounded; length, .5 in. Bores in hickory. 

Centrodera picta. 

6. Head, pronotum, and under surface black; elytra 
shining bluish-green; antennas and legs pale brownish- 
yellow. Breeds in butternut and probably other trees. 

Gaurotes cyanipennis. 
Not so. Acmceops. For two species see 7. 

7. Stout; usually dull brownish-yellow; pronotum with two 
black spots and each elytron with two longitudinal, 
black stripes. Western A. bivittata. 

Slender; head, pronotum, elytra, and under surface, 
yellow except for the black suture, a median stripe, and 
side margin of each elytron A . directa. 

8. Form very slender, strongly tapering behind; last 
ventral, abdominal segment of male deeply excavated. ... 9. 

Form less slender and less tapering behind; last 
ventral segment not excavated 12. 

9. Longer than .75 in.; elytra strongly sinuate on the 
sides; chestnut-brown to black, the elytra with paler 
areas. Breeds in ash Bellamira scalaris. 

Smaller 10. 

35° 



KEY TO THE LONG=HORNS. 



10. Head and pronotum wholly black; elytra dull yellow, 
with margin and suture blackish .... Strangalia acuminata. 

Head and pronotum not wholly black n. 

ii. Elytra yellowish, usually marked with black. Stran- 
galia famelica (antennae black) and S. luteicornis (antennas 
yellow). 

Elytra wholly black; head and pronotum reddish- 
yellow Strangalia bicolor. 

12. Antennae with smooth, impressed, pore-bearing 
spaces near the bases of the sixth or seventh and the 
following joints. Typocerus. T. Lugubris is all-black. 
The elytra of velutinus are reddish-brown with four yellow- 
ish spots (which may be enlarged to form partial bands) 
on each, and of zebraius are black with one or two 
basal spots and three bands, all yellowish, on each 
elytron. 

Antennae without such spaces. The large genus 
Leptura, of which the following are fairly common 13. 

13. Pronotum rather triangular or bell-shaped, widest 
at base 14. 

Pronotum more squarish or rounded, usually con- 
stricted in front and behind, hind angles not prolonged; 
length, .3 to .5 in 16. 

14. Hind angles of pronotum prolonged 15. 

Hind angles not prolonged; length, .4 to .6 in. L. 

rubrica (antennas ringed with yellow; elytra reddish; 
pronotum black; abdomen of male red, of female black) 
and proxima (antennae not ringed; elytra dull yellow 
except at tips, which are broadly and obliquely marked 
with black) . 

15. Over an inch long; pronotum black, with yellow 
pubescence; elytra red, with black tips. . .L. emarginata. 

About .5 in., or less, long. L. lineola (narrow; elytra 
decidedly narrowed behind, yellow, with black sutural, 
median, and marginal stripes, which may be broken) and 
nitens (pronotum black, with yellow pubescence, much 
rounded in front of middle; elytra black with four golden 
crossbars) . 

16. Pronotum scarcely narrowed in front and not con- 
stricted behind; black; the elytra sometimes dull yellow 
or with the tip alone dark L. mutabilis. 

35i 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS, 



Pronotum much narrowed in front but only feebly 
so at base; elytra protuberant at base, L. vittata (head 
prolonged behind the eyes; shining black but each elytron 
with a yellow stripe, rarely wholly black) and pubera 
(head not prolonged; entirely black). 

Lamiin.e 

A.dultsof this subfamily (see p. 337) are, as a rule, not as 
brightly colored as those of the preceding one, nor are 
they as active by day as some of their relatives. The 
larvae differ from the remainder of the Cerambycidae in that 
they have no legs. Those with elytra about half the 
length of the abdomen, and front tibia not grooved, belong 
to the tribe Methini, which some authors place in the 
Cerambycina?. 

1. Elytra about as long as the abdomen and with a 
spine or protuberance near the scutellum; rarely more 
than .25 in. long 2. 

Elytra about as long as the abdomen but without 
such a spine or protuberance ; usually at least .25 in. long . 3. 

2. Frontal coxal cavities rounded. Tribe Cyrtinini. 
Cyrtinus pygmaeus is dark brown; antennae ringed with 
yellow; elytra with a transverse blotch of white pubescence 
before the middle. It lives on oak, hickory, locust, and 
box elder. 

Frontal cavities angulated. Tribe Psenocerini. Pseno- 
certis supernotatus is reddish-brown or blackish; scutellum, 
a narrow oblique band about the middle of the elytra, 
and a wider curved band, not reaching the suture, on a] 
third, white. Larvae in stems of currant, goosebi 
grape, and sometimes in apple twigs. 

3. First joint of the antenna? with a scar-like structure near 
the tip (except in Dorca schema); body elongate, nearly 
cylindrical; antennae as long as, in males much longer than, 
the body; mostly large species Tribe Monohammini. 

(p. 

First joint of the antennae without the scar-like 
structure 4. 

4. Tarsal claws (at least those on the front legs) ar: 

at opposite sides of the joint and separating widely. . 5. 



KEY TO THE LONG=HORNS. 



Tarsal claws spreading only slightly from a common 
base 8. 

5. Front coxal cavities rounded; middle coxal cavities 
closed or nearly so; body usually broad; antennae usually 
very long in males Tribe Acanthoderini (p. 355). 

Front coxal cavities angulate ; middle cavities open. . . 6. 

6. Tarsal claws simple (except the outer one of the front 
and middle tarsi in some males of Saperda) 7. 

Tarsal claws cleft or with appendages 

Tribe Phytceciini (p. 361). 

7. Small, flattened species; pronotum with a spine or 
tubercle on the sides Tribe Pogonocherini (p. 358). 

Rather large, cylindrical species; pronotum without 
spines or tubercles Tribe Saperdini (p. 359). 

8. Front of face large and flat; front coxae angulated. 
Tribe Onciderini. Oncideres cingulata is about .6 in. long; 
antennae of male longer than the body, of female about as 
long; general color, smoky or reddish-brown to clay-yellow, 
almost always lighter in a broad band across the elytra; 
usually three small black dots in a cross-row on the prono- 
tum. The female lays her eggs in twigs of hickory 
(especially), apple, pear, plum, elm, linden, and other 
trees ; then chews a girdle around the twig below the eggs. 
The twig dies and, broken off by the wind, falls to the 
ground where the larvae mature. Adults are somewhat 
abundant in August and September. 

Front of face bent in; form very slender and elongate. 
Tribe Hippopsini. Hippopsis lemniscata is about .5 in. 
long; dark reddish-brown; pronotum with two whitish 
lines on each side; each elytron with three whitish lines; 
antennae pale brown, darker at bases, more than twice as 
long as the body, fringed with hairs beneath. Breeds 
in stems of ragweed {Ambrosia) and in other herbaceous 
plants. ' 

Monohammini. (See page 352.) 

1. Legs, especially the front ones of males, relatively 

long 2. 

Legs not especially long and all about equal; pronotum 
with a spine on each side 8. 

23 353 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



2. Pronotum with spines on the sides 3. 

Pronotum without spines 5. 

3. The sutural angle of elytra acute or projecting as a 
short spine; brownish, the elytra mottled with gray; 
antennas of male sometimes four and a half times the 
length of the body; Plate LXXXII. The variety caro- 
linensis is paler and not much over half as long. Breeds 
in pine .■ Monohammus titillator. 

The sutural angle not prolonged 4. 

4. Black, distinctly bronzed, the elytra with very small 
or no patches of white and brown pubescence; length .6 
to 1.1 in. Breeds in pine Monohammus scutellatus. 

Brown; elytra sparsely mottled with small patches 
of gray and brown pubescence; length about 1.2 in. Larvae 
in the inner bark and sapwood of dead and dying pines, 

spruces, and balsams 

Monohammus notatus (also called confusor). 

5. Elytra rounded at the tip ; black or grayish-brown. ... 6. 
Elytra pointed at the tip; black, densely clothed 

with uniform ash-gray pubescence; length, .3 to .5 in. 
Breeds in walnut, mulberry, osage-orange, and hickory. 

Hetcsmis cinerea. 

6. Thorax cylindrical, longer than wide; brown with 
grayish pubescence 7. 

Prothorax slightly narrowed behind the middle, 
nearly as wide as long;. uniform dull black; length, .3 to .4 
in. Breeds in hickory Dorcaschema nigrum. 

7. Pronotum transversely wrinkled, indistinctly punc- 
tured; length, .6 to .9 in. Breeds in mulberry and 
osage-orange Dorcaschema wildii. 

Pronotum not wrinkled, distinctly punctured; length, 

.3 to .5 in. Breeds in mulberry and osage-orange 

Dorcaschema alternation . 

8. Surface brownish; antennae of male not more than 
a fourth longer than the body 9. 

Shining black, pubescence whitish; elytra coarsely 
punctured and each with a small, black spot behind the 
middle ; antennae of male about twice the length of the body, 

which is about .4 in. Breeds in oak and hickory 

Goes oculata. 



354 



KEY TO THE LONG-HORNS. 



9. Elytra with a conspicuous space on the apical half 
which is not pubescent 10. 

Elytra without a conspicuous bare space on the apical 
half; nearly an inch long 12. 

10. Length about an inch 11. 

Length about .5 in.; brown; head, pronotum, and last 

third of elytra with reddish-yellow pubescence, basal part 
of elytra mottled with grayish pubescence. Breeds in 
oak, probably also in chestnut and hickory. . .Goes debilis. 

11. Pubescence white. Breeds in hickory, oak, and 
possibly other trees Goes tigrina. 

Pubescence dark brown, silvery, and reddish-yellow; 
there is a broad, transverse, lighter band across the 
elytra and the tips of these have golden pubescence. 
Breeds in hickory Goes pulchra. 

12. General pubescence brownish; elytra with small 
spots of yellowish hairs arranged in irregular rows. Breeds 
oak Goes tesselata. 

General pubescence grayish or whitish; elytra in-, 
distinctly crossbarred at base, and again behind the 
middle, with pale-brown pubescence; scutellum sometimes 
clay-yellow. Apparently breeds in elm, ironwood, beech, 
and oak Goes pulverulenta . 

Acanthoderini. (See page 353.) 

1. Basal joint of antennae club-shaped; pronotum with 
dorsal tubercles and a large, acute spine near the middle 
of each side; about .5 in. long 2. 

Basal joint of antennas cylindrical; spines on sides of 
pronotum, if present, behind the middle 3. 

2. Dark brown, with yellowish-brown pubescence; each 
elytron with a large, wavy, white crossbar near the middle 
and a row of small alternate brown and white spots along 
the suture. Larvae live in oak, hickory, beech, and 
hackberry Acanthoderes quadrigibbus. 

Dark brown, with yellowish and gray pubescence in 
about equal proportions, the gray on elytra in three 
obscure, oblique, nearly parallel bands; an indistinct, 
M-shaped, black mark behind the middle of each elytron. 
On poplar and hickory Acanthoderes decipiens. 

355 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



3. Females with an elongated ovipositor. This is a 
very unsatisfactory sort of a character to have in a key, 
but I know of no better. Acanthocinus has no erect hairs 
in the pubescence above; the antennae are very long, with 
at least joints 3 and 4 densely fringed beneath with short 
hairs. A. obsoletus is dull yellowish with small blotches 
and three undulated crossbars on elytra; length, .4 to 
.6 in. Ceratogr aphis (mesosternum narrow) and Graphi- 
surus (mesosternum broad) have erect hairs. G. fasciatus 
occurs under the bark of deciduous trees. It is grayish, 
sprinkled with black spots and usually having two larger 
blotches back of the middle of each elytron; .3 to .6 in. 
long. 

Females without elongated ovipositor; except as noted, 
usually not over .3 in. long 4. 

4. Pronotum distinctly angulate, or more frequently 
with acute tubercles or short spines behind the middle. . . 10. 

Pronotum only feebly tuberculate or angulate at the 
sides a little behind the middle '. 5. 

5. Elytra with small, tubercular elevations, each bearing 
on its summit short, black, scale-like hairs 6. 

Elytra without such structures; .2 to .4 in. long 9. 

6. Pronotum densely punctured; elytra with densely 
placed, coarse, deep punctures; brownish, irregularly 
mottled with grayish pubescence; each elytron with an 
elongate, dark spot behind the base, another (sometimes 
becoming a bar) behind the middle, and a third near the 
apex. Breeds in pine Leptostylus sexguttatus. 

Pronotum not densely punctured; elytral punctures 
not closely placed, often inconspicuous or concealed 7. 

7. Surface of pronotum not tuberculate, regularly 
punctured 8. 

Surface of pronotum more or less tuberculate, the 
punctures irregularly placed; blackish-brown with grayish 
pubescence; elytra with a whitish band behind the middle, 
this band narrowing toward the sides and edged with a 
black line behind which the surface is smoky brown; 
joints of basal half of antenna; spotted, those of apical half 
ringed at tips with brown. Larva; under the bark of 
diseased or recently cut sycamore, oak, apple, and other 

trees Leptostylus aculiferus. 

356 



KEY TO THE LONG=HORNS. 



8. Dull brownish-yellow; sides of pronotum and of 
base of elytra black; elytra very indistinctly punctured, 
especially at the apex, and having an angulate, white 
band behind the middle. Breeds in hickory 

Leptostylus biustus. 

Brownish, with very fine, dark gray pubescence; 

elytra distinctly punctured over the entire surface, the tips 

slightly prolonged, an acutely angulate, oblique, white 

band behind the middle. Breeds in oak and box elder. 

Leptostylus parvus. 

9. Brownish; pronotum with whitish pubescence forming 
a broad stripe on each side, banded within by a narrow, 
blackish stripe formed by a row of elongate, bare tubercles; 
each elytron with a broad, irregular, white blotch behind 
the middle and with six lines of minute, black spots. Breeds 
in butternut, walnut, hickory, beech, and other twigs. 

Leptostylus macula. 

Dull clay-yellow; elytra sprinkled with minute, 

black spots and irregular patches of dark and gray. 

Breeds in chestnut Leptostylus collaris. 

10. Antennae without fringed hairs beneath; first joint 
of hind tarsi as long as the next two 11. 

Antennas distinctly fringed beneath with hairs; 
first joint of hind tarsi as long as the next three 13. 

11. Form cylindrical; elytra with erect hairs, which 
may be seen when viewed from the side; prostrate ash- 
gray hairs cover the black color; an acute spine on each 
side of pronotum near the base; .3 to .4 in. long. Breeds 
in ragweed {Ambrosia), the larvae hibernating in the 
stems Dectes spinosus. 

Form somewhat flattened; elytra without erect 
hairs 12. 

12. Purplish-brown, mottled with black; elytra with 
numerous, small, irregular, black spots and a dark blotch, 
bordered behind by gray, back of the middle; .3 to .5 in. 
long. Breeds under the bark of honey-locust and box- 
elder Liopus variegatus. 

Usually dull reddish-brown with sparse, grayish 
pubescence; elytra usually with four rows of small, black 
dots and with an acute-angular, black band behind the 
middle; pronotum with three, small, blackish spots. 

357 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



c Breeds in sumac, apple, hickory, and locust . Liopus alpha. 

^ Much like alpha but the oblique band on each elytron 

1 (making the acute angle when the elytra are closed) is 

i replaced by an obscure band of gray. Breeds in dog- 

£ wood (Comics) and plum Liopus punc talus. 

1 13. Each elytron with a distinct ridge on the outer side. 

i Hyperplatys, of which aspersus is our common species. It is 
reddish-brown, with grayish pubescence; pronotum with 
four black dots in a transverse row; each elytron with 

< three irregular rows of similar dots and usually a large, 

i black blotch behind the middle. 

1 Elytra without a ridge on the outer side. Lepturges, 

of which we have several rather variable species. The 
spines on the sides of the pronotum of symmetricus are 
rather broad and very close to the base. In the others 
they are more slender, and acute, not so close to the base 
and the tips are recurved. The crossbar on the elytra 
of signatus is interrupted at the suture; in querci (apex 
of elytra not black ; crossbar angular) and in facetus (apex 
black; bar transverse) it is broad and complete. 

Pogonocherini. (See page 353.) 

These beetles usually have long, erect hairs, in addition 
to the ordinary pubescence. The antennae are about the 
length of the body, the joints progressively shorter toward 
the tip. The following species are .25 to .5 in. long. 

1. Femora club-shaped; vertex of head concave; antenna 
tubercles prominent 4. 

Femora not club-shaped; vertex flat or convex; antcn- 
nal tubercles not prominent; eyes coarsely granulated, 
lower lobe as wide.as long. Eupogonius 2. 

2. Spine on side of thorax acute, well-marked 3. 

Spine on side of thorax obtuse, small; black, with a 

broad line of yellowish pubescence on each side of 
pronotum. On elm and linden £. subarmatus. 

3. The puncturation of elytra feeble, almost obsolete 
near apex; pubescence ash-gray or yellowish, forming 
more or less transverse nettings. Has been bred from 
apple twigs but is said to occur also on pine. E. tomentosus. 

The puncturation coarse, gradually finer, but distinct, 

358 



KEY TO THE LONG=HORNS. 



at tip ; pale yellow pubescence arranged in irregular, small 
patches. Breeds in dog-wood, hickory, walnut, pine, 
and perhaps other trees E. vestitus. 

4. Lower lobe of eyes elongate; spines on sides of prono- 
tum large, median; pubescence mottled, gray and black, 
mixed with short, scattered hairs on elytra. Breeds in dry 
twigs of beech and linden Hoplosia nubila. 

Lower lobe of eyes as wide as long, squarish or some- 
what triangular 5. 

5. Pronotum with spines on sides; black, elytra varie- 
gated with dull brownish-yellow, and with a broad, oblique 
band of white pubescence. Beneath bark of dead pine, 
also on pear and willow Pogonocherus mixtus. 

Pronotum with feebly rounded sides; pale grayish- 
brown; elytra with,a narrow, curved, black band on basal 
third. Breeds in red-bud, hickory, and probably other 
trees Ecyrus dasycerus. 

Saperdini. (See page 353.) 

Saperda is our only genus. 5. Candida is shown in 
Plate LXXXI. The larva is known as the Round-headed 
Apple-borer (seep. 310) but it also lives in quince, Crataegus, 
and Amelanchier. The larvas usually work in the base of 
the trunk and in the large roots, more rarely in the large 
limbs. Their presence may often be detected by piles 
of "saw-dust" pushed out of the burrow through an open- 
ing in the bark. From egg to adult takes three years. 
Pupation occurs in the burrow. The adult, in emerging, 
makes a hole in the bark as big around as a lead pencil. 
Adults emerge throughout the season, starting as early as 
April. 

Two more of our species have complete, longitudinal 
stripes on the elytra: puncticollis (two pairs of black dots 
on top of the yellow pronotum and one dot on each side) 
and lateralis (pronotum dark, with yellowish side-stripes). 
The latter breeds in hickory and some specimens (variety 
connecta) lack the narrow, yellow sutural line but have 
developed oblique crossbars. Virginia creeper is the food- 
plant of puncticollis. 

S. concolor is about .5 in. long and evenly clothed with 

359 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



fine, gray pubescence. Its larvae make galls in poplar 
and willow stems. The male discoidea also has unmarked 
elytra; they are dark; there are light grayish lines on the 
pronotum and the underside is silvery; legs reddish. 
The female is yellow on the head, pronotum, scutellum, a 
crescentic bar in the middle of each elytron, and a spot in 
front and behind each of these. It breeds in hickory and 
butternut. 

5*. vestita, the Linden-borer, is olive-yellow but each 
elytron has three small, black dots. Large specimens are 
an inch long. 

Our largest species is calcarata, the Poplar- and Cotton- 
wood-borer. It is usually at least an inch long; dense, 
gray pubescence, with the front of the head, three stripes 
on the pronotum, the scutellum, and numerous lines and 
blotches on the elytra, orange-yellow. 

5. obliqua (reddish, with lighter, oblique markings on 
the elytra, which are spined at the tip; .6 to .8 in. long) 
and mutica (black, with light markings; elytra not spined; 
.4 to .6 in. long) have distinct color-rings on their antennae. 
The former breeds in alder; the latter, more western, in 
willow. 

S. cretata is a fairly common apple-borer, especially 
in the Middle West. It is brown, with two large, white 
spots on each elytron and white stripes on the sides of the 
pronotum; length, .5 to .8 in. S. fayi is rarely .5 in. long; 
darker and more slender than cretata; the elytral spots 
narrow, and near the suture, and an additional small spot 
at the base. Both make gall-like swellings in stems of 
Cratcsgus. 

S. tridentata, the Elm -borer, is grayish-black; there 
is an orange stripe on each side of the pronotum; each 
elytron has a narrow orange stripe near the margin and 
three bands, of which the last two are quite oblique and 
usually meet the corresponding ones on the opposite side; 
the front of head is very flat; .4 to .6 in. long. 5. imitans 
resembles it but the elytra are rounded at their apices, 
instead of being somewhat truncate; the elytral markings 
are narrower, yellower, and the hind band is not distinctly 
oblique. 



360 



KEY TO THE LONG=HORNS. 



Phytoeciini. (See page 353.) 

1. Each eye not divided but the outline deeply indented; 
thorax cylindrical 2. 

Each eye completely divided so that there appear to 
be four eyes ; thorax dilated or tuberculate on the sides ... 9. 

2. Antennae without hairy pile 3. 

Antennas with thick, long hairs; black, feebly shining; 

top of head, a stripe on each side of the pronotum, and often 

the margins of the elytra, yellowish; .3 in. long 

A mphionycha flammata. 

3. Nearly uniform gray above; tarsal claws feebly 
toothed or cleft. Breed in stems of herbs 

Mecas, usually inornata. 

Not uniform gray above ; tarsal claws broadly toothed ; 

.3 to .7 in. long. Oberea 4. 

4. Pronotum with small, rounded, black elevations or 
callosities 5. 

Pronotum without callosities 8. 

5. Pronotum with four callosities; usually pale, dull 
yellow; elytra, antennse, and tarsi often nearly black. 
Breeds in living twigs of cotton- wood 0. schaumii. 

Pronotum with two callosities, and often a third spot, 
black. There are several named color- varieties of each 
of the following species 6. 

6. Tips of elytra rounded; body, below, and femora 
entirely red; head and thorax usually red, rarely more or 
less black ; two rounded, black spots on middle of pronotum ; 
elytra black. Probably breeds in blackberry stems. 

0. ocellata. 
Tips of elytra rather square-cut 7. 

7. Shining black except the pronotum, which is yellow 
with two, or three, black spots. Breeds in the canes of 
raspberry and blackberry O. bimaculata. 

Typically, the body, beneath, is largely yellow but 
it is sometimes wholly black; pronotum yellow with three 
black spots; each elytron with a wide, dull yellow stripe 
bordered with blackish. Breeds in cottonwood and 
blackberry 0. tripunctata. 

8. Thorax pale reddish-yellow; antennae, elytra, tibia:, 
and tarsi, nearly black; pronotum without black spots; 

36i 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



elytra rather densely clothed with gray pubescence. On 
sumac and sassafras O. ruficollis. 

Pale, dull yellow with a dark brown elytral stripe 

on each side 0. gracilis. 

9. Elytra black; head and pronotum red, the latter with a 
black spot. On alder. Tetrops monostigma (elytra with 
black hairs ; western) and T. canescens (elytra with grayish 
hairs; eastern). 

Elytra red with black spots; head and pronotum red. 
Tetraopes, of which the following are the more common 
species. T. canter iator: pronotum with four round, black 
spots; black areas on elytra form, when elytra are closed, 
a heart-shaped space back of the middle; apex of elytra 
also black; .3 to .5 in. long. T. tetraophthalmus: pronotum 
with four black spots near the middle and sometimes a 
blotch in front and behind; see Plate LXXXII. T. 
femoratus: a western species, resembles tetraophthalmus, 
but the apex and base of each joint of antennae are nar- 
rowly ringed with gray; .5 in., or more, long. They are 
usually found late in summer on milkweed, in the stems 
and roots of which they breed. They stridulate loudly. 
The extent of the black markings varies somewhat. 

Chrysomelidae 

The Chrysomelidae of the United States are never more 
than moderately long, as beetles go; their antennae are 
not very long, and their bodies are often chunky. Nearly a 
thousand species are known from North America, about a 
twentieth of the number known from the rest of the world. 
One way of looking at the food habits of beetles is that 
adopted by the celebrated Coleopterists, LeConte and 
Horn: "As the function of the Cerambycidae is to hold 
the vegetable world in check by destroying woody fiber, 
the Bruchidac effect a similar result by attacking the seeds 
and the Chrysomelidae by destroying the leaves." The 
potato-grower would have to be a philosopher in order to 
look at the Chrysomelid Leptinotarsa in that way. Not 
all Chrysomelidae are leaf-caters, however, as will be pointed 
ou1 in the course of the discussion. No attempt will be 
made to enable the reader to identify a large proportion 
362 



LEAF=EATING BEETLES. 



of the species he may find, as was done with the Ceramby- 
cidae. This is partly because of technical difficulties, 
including the large number of species, and partly because 
many of the species are small and not usually noticed. 
All of them are diurnal. 

The following hints may be useful. If the head is 
constricted or neck-like behind the eyes, and the prothorax 
is narrower than the combined elytra, the specimen belongs 
to one of the following tribes: Donaciini, Sagrini, or 
Criocerini. If the pronotum and elytra have broad, 
expanded margins, the head concealed from above, and 
the outline of the body ellipitical or nearly circular, see 
Cassidini (p. 376). If the beetle is wedge-shaped, broad, 
and square-cut behind, especially if the elytra are pitted 
or have a net-work surface, see Hispini (p. 375). If the 
hind femora are thickened, fitting the beetle for jumping, 
and the antennae are rather close together at the base, see 
Halticini (p. 372). As for the rest, the majority of those 
usually noticed are either Chrysomelini (antennae Usually 
further separated at the bases than the length of the first 
joint; front coxae transverse and widely separated; third 
tarsal joint rarely indented; see p. 368) or Galerucini 
(antennae rather close together at base, inserted on the 
front; front coxae conical and prominent; see p. 370). 

Donaciini 

In addition to the characters given above, this tribe may 
be recognized by the fact that the first ventral, abdomi- 
nal segment is about as long as all the others combined. 
They look very much like certain Cerambycidas. Their 
larvae live on the outside of the submerged roots of water- 
lilies, skunk-cabbage, pickerel- weed, sedges, and other 
aquatic or semi-aquatic plants. They pupate in cocoons, a 
number of which are often fastened in a row to the stems 
or roots of their food plants. The adults of Donacia are 
commonly seen on the leaves of water lilies and other 
aquatic plants in early summer, and fly from leaf to leaf 
when disturbed. The color is usually more or less metallic 
.greenish, bronze, or purple; they arc coated beneath with 
a satiny pile of fine hair. Donacia has numerous species 
363 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



all of which have the tips of the elytra simple, and the 
tarsi dilated, spongy beneath. With the exception of this 
genus, the Northeast has only Hcemonia nigricornis, 
which has narrow tarsi and a distinct spine at the outer 
angle of each elytron. Adults of Donacia rarely enter the 
water, except to lay eggs, but those of Hcemonia are more 
aquatic. 

Sagrini 

In addition to the characters given above, members of 
this tribe may be recognized by their first ventral, abdomi- 
nal segment being not much longer, if any, than the two 
following ; tarsal claws cleft or toothed and elytral punctures 
irregular (not in rows). Our only common species is 
Orsodacna atra. The sides of its pronotum are rounded 
and have neither tooth nor tubercle — in distinction from 
Zeugophora (outline of eyes indented) and Syneta (outline 
of eyes not indented). Its color is so variable that seven 
or more named varieties are recognized. It may be 
practically all black, or the pronotum and elytra may be 
reddish or yellowish, variously spotted or striped with 
black. It is about .25 in. long and is often abundant on 
willow and other very early blossoms. 

Criocerini 

Members of this tribe may be distinguished from the 
Sagrini by their simple claws and their elytral punctures 
being in rows. There are two genera: Lema, in which the 
pronotum is constricted at about the middle, and Crioceris, 
in which it is not. 

The most frequently noticed species is 
Lema trilineata. It is sometimes called the Old- 

fashioned Potato-beetle because it was at work eating 
potato leaves before the Potato-beetle came north and east. 
It usually lays its eggs along the midrib of a leaf, not in a 
cluster but at random. Its larvae have a curious v but 
not unique, habit of piling their excrement on their backs. 
Pupation takes place underground. The adult is shown 

364 



Plate LXXXIII 



i 





i Crioceria a 



Lema tri lineata 



:,** 



r 



sparaqi J 



I 



V 



LeptinoTarsa 
l o-li neata 




"Mi ■III' 



Diabrotica Di abrotica Phyllotreta 
12-puncfatQ vittata vittata 



# 

/ \ Larva of 

IhalBpus CassidQ 

rubra bivittata 




Coptoc ijcla 

bi color 



! 



ASPARAGUS=BEETLES. 



in Plate LXXXIII. In brunnicollis the elytra are wholly- 
dark blue; head and pronotum red. In collaris the elytra 
are wholly dark greenish-blue; head* black; pronotum, 
red. 

We have two species; both are from 
Cnocens Europe and largely confined, as yet, to the 

East; and both attack asparagus. C. asparagi (Plate 
LXXXIII) was introduced about 1862 near New York. 
The three yellow spots are sometimes joined. Adults 
hibernate under rubbish. The dark-brown eggs are 
usually laid in rows. Pupation occurs underground; 
there are several generations a year. Crioceris 12-punctata 
is a trifle larger; red with six black spots on each elytron. 
It .was introduced about 1881 near Baltimore. Adults 
emerging from hibernation eat the young shoots but the 
larvae prefer the ripening berries to "leaves." This species 
pupates underground. 



Clythrini 

Adults of this tribe, also of the Chlamydini and Crypto- 
cephalini, have "the basal ventral plates of the abdominal 
segments somewhat shorter in the middle than at the sides, 
the fourth one being often invisible in the middle, while 
the fifth is very large." Sharp further says: "This 
character appears to be connected with a very remarkable 
habit, viz., the formation of a case to envelop the egg. 
The tip of the abdomen is somewhat curved downwards, 
and, in the female, bears a hollow near the extremity; 
when an egg is extruded the female envelops it with a 
covering said to be excrementitious. When the larva 
hatches, it remains within this case, and subsequently 
enlarges it by additions from its own body." The Cly- 
thrini have short, serrate antennas, which are not received 
in marginal grooves on the lower side of the thorax; the 
prosternum does not extend between the front coxae; 
the pronotum has thin side-margins and fits closely against 
the elytra. The larvae of Coscinoptera dominicana are 
said to feed on vegetable debris in ants' nests. 

365 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Chlamvdini 



See the discussion under Clythrini, from which tribe 
these beetles differ by having the upper surface of the 
elytra and pronotum covered with wart-like tubercles and 
by having their short, serrate ("saw-toothed") antennae 
received in grooves on the under side of the thorax. "The 
legs are closely contractile and when disturbed the beetles 
draw them and the antennae in and feign death. They 
then resemble the excrement of certain caterpillars so 
closely as to render their detection difficult, unless the 
collector is in especial search for them, and it is said that 
birds will not pick them up for the same reason." The 
larvae are case-making leaf-feeders and pupate in their 
cases, which they first attach to twigs. We have two 
genera: Chlamys, whose antennae are serrate from the 
fourth or fifth joint; and Exema, whose antennal serrations 
begin at the sixth joint. 

Cryptocephalini 

See the discussion under Clythrini, from which tribe 
these beetles are distinguished by the antennae being usually 
long and slender, and by the prosternum extending be- 
tween the front coxae. We have six or eight genera and 
numerous species, most of which are "variegated with 
various combinations of spots or stripes which are some- 
times very inconstant, so that numerous varieties have 
been named." One of the variable and common species is 
Cryptocephalus venustus. As its generic name indicates, 
its head is hidden, the prothorax covering it above. It is 
nearly .25 in. long and, in the typical form, the head and 
pronotum is reddish-brown, the latter having a narrow 
edging and two oblique spots yellow; the elytra are yellow, 
each with two broad, oblique, black or brown stripes. It is 
found on potato and other garden, as well as wild, plants. 

Eumolpini 

The beetles of this tribe are usually of a uniform metallic 
color, although some arc dull yellow or spotted. Their 
366 



CHRYSOMELID/E: EUMOLPINI 



head is visible from above although the pronotum comes 
about to the eyes; the outline of the eyes is more or less 
indented; the antennae are usually thread-like and widely 
separated at their bases; the front coxae are globose and 
separated by the prosternum; the third tarsal joint is 
deeply bilobed; the claws, toothed or cleft. The following 
key will help to identify eight of the genera. For the 
most part our species are not over .25 in. long. 

1. Front ventral margin of thorax curved, forming 
lobes behind or below the eyes. (Only those beetles, 
belonging here, whose elytra are not pubescent or scaly 
are considered further) 2. 

Front ventral margin of thorax straight 3. 

2. Elytral punctures in distinct, regular rows; middle 
and hind tibiae indented on outer edge near apex. Typo- 
phorus. T. canellus is quite common on a variety of plants 
and sometimes injurious to strawberries, raspberries, etc. 
It is exceedingly variable in color and markings, reddish- 
yellow and black being the usual elements. About all 
that can be said here is that it is not .2 in. long and bright 
blue (T. viridicyaneus) , nor has it a saddle-shaped, black 
space on the elytra (T. sellatus). 

Elytral punctures irregular; tibiae not indented. See 

Plate LXXXI. Usually common on dog-bane 

Chrysochus auratus. 

3. Side-margins of pronotum not distinctly flattened 4. 

Side-margins of pronotum distinctly flattened 6. 

4. Not metallic above; head without a groove above 
the eyes 5. 

Metallic green or bronzed above; head with a groove 
above the eyes. Graphops. The larvae of G. nebulosus 
live in the roots of strawberries. 

5. Front femora with a small tooth; third joint of 
antennae not longer than the second. On oak and other 
trees Xanthoma. 

Femora not toothed; third joint of antennae longer 
than the second. On grape and Virginia creeper .... Fidia. 

6. Head with distinct grooves above the eyes; middle 
and hind tibiae indented near apex. On oak and other 
trees Metachroma. 

Head without grooves above the eyes 7. 

367 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



^ 7. Pronotum about one-half wider than long, the sides 

\ rather broadly curved, angles prominent; dull brownish- 

i or reddish-yellow; length usually not over .25 in. Adults 

: on various garden plants; larvae on roots of grape 

1 . Colas pis brunnea. 

j Sides of pronotum straight. Nodonota (third joint of 

antennas distinctly longer than the second, the last five 
joints not abruptly wider) and Chrysodina. 

< 

< Chrysomelini 

1 

] These oval, convex beetles are usually of moderate size 

and variegated in color. The antennas are of moderate 

1 length (see p. 363), the outer joints somewhat enlarged; the 

t eyes are not prominent and their outline is feebly indented ; 

the pronotum has well-defined side-margins; the elytra 
cover the abdomen. 

Phyllodecta is distinguished by the tarsal claws being 
toothed or bifid, and the tibiae neither dilated nor toothed. 
The genera mentioned in this paragraph have the third 
tarsal joint indented or bilobed. Species of Prasocuris 
are usually not over .25 in. long; upper surface brassy- 
green, or bronzed-black, with yellow stripes; pronotum 
without a thin margin at the base. Plagiodera (punctures 
of elytra in regular rows; tibiae not grooved on the outer 
side) and Gastroidea (punctures confused; tibiae grooved) 
have the sides of the pronotum thickened and unicolorous 
elytra. G. cyanea is uniform, brilliant, green or blue, and 
feeds on dock (Rumex) ; polygoni is like it but the pronotum , 
legs, base of antennae, and tip of abdomen are reddish, 
and it feeds on knot-grass; both are about .2 in. long. The 
pronotum of Lina is thickened at the sides and the elytra 
are usually spotted; length, .25 to .4 in. The pronotum 
is dark metallic green, with yellow sides, in scripta and 
interrupta. The elytra are usually reddish in life, fading 
to yellow, with rounded black spots, which are some- 
times merged into transverse bands (interrupta) or arc 
longitudinally elongate {scripta). Both feed on willow, 
and Populus, and both, sometimes, have the elytra wholly 
dark-colored. L. tremulce, is an introduced European 
species with a green pronotum and unspotted, dull yellow 
368 



THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE. 



elytra. The pronotum of L. obsoleta has reddish margins 
enclosing a rounded, black spot, or is reddish with 3 or 4 
black spots at the center; elytra purplish-black with the 
margins, tips, and often two short, indistinct lines on basal 
half, reddish-yellow. 

The third tarsal joint of the following genera of this 
tribe is not, or scarcely, indented; the pronotum has a thin 
margin at the base; the insects are usually more than .25 
in. long, robust, and convex. 

Labioderma clivicollis feeds on milkweed. It is dark 
blackish-blue; elytra orange-yellow with variable, broad, 
curved, black markings; mesosternum prominent, forming 
a blunt tubercle between the middle coxae; front femora of 
male strongly toothed. 

Leptinotarsa has simple femora and the mesosternum is 
not raised above the level of the prosternum. L. decem- 
iineata, the Colorado Potato Beetle (Plate LXXXIII), is 
probably the most known Coleopteron in America. The 
elytral punctures are confluent and in double rows. Until 
about 1855 it was confined to the Rocky Mountain region 
where it fed on the wild relatives of the potato. Then 
man introduced potatoes to it, and it did the rest, spreading 
over the entire East. Adults hibernate underground. 
Each female lays about 500 eggs and there are two genera- 
tions a year. In the South there is another species, 
j mi eta, which is somewhat similar but the third and fourth 
black bands on each elytron are usually united at the 
base and apex; the elytral punctures are regular and in 
single rows. 

In Zygogramma the tarsal claws are parallel and united 
at the bases; claw-joint toothed beneath. The adults of 
suturalis, which occur on ragweed in the spring and on 
golden-rod in the fall, are brown, feebly bronzed; elytra 
yellow with dark brown stripes, or vice versa. 

The elytra of our Chrysomela are without spots and the 
sides of the pronotum are thickened. Like Calligrapha, 
the last palpal joint is not shorter than the next to last. 

The elytra of Calligrapha have dark markings and the 

sides of the pronotum are not thickened. To mention a 

few of the many variable species, first taking those with 

yellow and brown stripes on the elytra: lunata (chiefly on 

24 369 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



2 roses; median brown stripe of each elytron more or less 

^ divided by yellow) and similis (chiefly on ragweed; that 

\ stripe merely notched on the outer side) have the pronotum 

i wholly brown; it is partly yellowish in prcecelsis (the median 

£ brown spot on pronotum reaching the base) and in elegans 

1 (this spot not reaching the base of the pronotum; chiefly 

'c on Bidens and Ambrosia). Of those with irregular spots 

on the elytra: the pronotum is wholly dark in philadelphica 
(suture pale but with, among other markings, a line each 

< side of it; chiefly on dogwood), in scalaris (sutural stripe 
f branched; a large crescentic shoulder-spot enclosing a 
1 small dot, and, back of it, 6 or 8 small dots, on each elytron ; 
1 chiefly on elm and linden), and in rhoda (sutural stripe 

branched; each shoulder-crescent usually enclosing two 
1 spots; chiefly on hazel); the pronotum is yellow with 

< reddish-brown spots in multipundata (chiefly on Cratcegus) , 
and olive-green or brown, with pale apical and side mar*' 
gins, in bigsbyana (on maple, willow, and alder). 

Galerucini 

The beetles of this tribe are usually more oblong and 
have softer elytra than those previously considered (see 
also p. 363). The head is exposed; the third antennal joint 
usually smaller than the fourth ; hind femora not unusually 
thick; hind tibiae usually without terminal spurs. The 
following are the genera most likely to be noticed. 

„ . ., One of the "usuallies, " above, was for 

Galerucella , . ,, ...... . , 

this genus; the third joint of the antenna; 

is longer than the fourth. The antennas are at least 
half as long as the body; pronotum has a median and two 
lateral impressions; front coxal cavities open behind; 
tibiae ridged on the outer side and without terminal spurs; 
first joint of hind tarsi not longer than the next two; tarsal 
claws bifid in both sexes. There are about a dozen species 
in New Jersey, for example, and different species, for 
the most part, live on different plants but the one which 
attracts attention is luteola, the Elm-leaf Beetle (Plate 
LXXXI). Yes. It is another foreigner. Most injurious 
species are immigrants; the principal reason for their 
becoming injurious is that their special enemies, which 
370 



THE ELM=LEAF BEETLE. 



held them in check at home, did not come with them. 
G. luteola came in at Baltimore about 1834. The adult 
hibernates beneath bark, in cracks in buildings, and in 
other shelter. It may go into hibernation quite yellow 
and come out very dark green. The orange-yellow eggs 
are laid in clusters on the lower side of a leaf and the 
larvae feed on the lower side also, gradually skeletonizing 
the leaf. When two or three weeks old, they enter the 
ground and pupate, emerging as adults in about a week. 
Usually it is the adults of the second annual brood which 
hibernate. Hints as to some of the other species may be 
gained from their food-plants. The following have stripes 
(often narrow and indistinct, especially in americana) 
on their elytra: americana is found on golden-rod; notulata, 
on rag- weed (Ambrosia); and notata, on Eupatorium. 
The following have no elongate, dark markings on the 
elytra: cavicollis is found on peach, plum, and cherry; 
rufosanguinea, on Azalea; nymphcece, on water-lilies; 
tuberculata and decora, on willow. 

Among others, Trirhabda may be distinguished from 
Galerucella by having the third antennal joint shorter 
than the fourth ; and the antennas of Monoxia do not reach 
the middle of the body, tarsal claws bifid only in males. 

Two species are familiar to gardeners. 
D. 12-punctata (Plate LXXXIII) is called 
the Southern Corn Root-worm because its larvae live in the 
roots of corn (and other grasses) and are sometimes quite 
injurious in the South. It is called the Twelve-spotted 
Cucumber Beetle because the adults eat cucumber leaves, 
but they feed also on melons of various kinds. The 
hibernating adults are among the first insects to appear 
in the spring and the last to take shelter in the fall. The 
Striped Cucumber Beetle, which feeds also on all the 
melon family, is D. vittata (Plate LXXXIII). The larvae 
live in the roots and in the base of the vine of cucumbers, 
melons, etc. Adults hibernate in the ground. D. atri- 
pennis (elytra black) and D. longicornis (elytra green or 
yellow, without black margins) have the outer edge of their 
tibiae ridged. The latter species is called the Western 
Corn Root- worm. 

371 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



• Head, scutellum, and under side of body 

■n trifurcata black; pronotum and elytra dull yellow, 

1 rarely reddish; each elytron, usually but 

i not always, with black basal and side margins, the latter 

i extending nearly to the apex, and with three black spots 

1 close to the suture, the hind one the smallest; antennae 

c and the legs yellow, the tibiae and often the femora, in 

part, black; length about .17 in. Common on peas, beans, 

and other Legumes. 



Halticini 

"A large group of small or medium-sized leaf -eating 
forms, distinguished from the preceding tribe mainly 
by the fact that the hind thighs are greatly enlarged and 
thickened for leaping. As a consequence they are known 
as 'flea-beetles' or 'jumping beetles,' this term being 
especially applied to the small black species of Haltica and 
Epitrix, which are very injurious to vegetation in the 
mature or adult stage." 

(Edionychis (last joint of hind tarsi globosely swollen). 
Haltica (a feeble transverse impression on basal half of 
pronotum; each hind tibia with a short, terminal spur), 
Disonycha (first joint of hind tarsus short as compared 
with the tibiae, and rather broad; beetles distinctly more 
than .17 in. long), and Phyllotreta have the frontal coxae 
open behind. 

The following two are the garden species. 
D. triangularis: black (with a faint bluish 
tinge on elytra) except for the pronotum, which is yellow 
with a pair of round, black spots and a small, linear one; 
length, about .25 in.; on a variety of plants, sometimes 
injurious to beets and spinach. D. xanthomelcBna: re- 
sembles the preceding but, among other things, is usually 
smaller, has the pronotum entirely yellow, the elytra with 
a greenish tinge, and the abdomen yellow; it feeds upon a 
number of wild plants but is known as the Spinach Flca- 
beetlc. 

372 



FLEA=BEETLES. 



The hind tibiae are not grooved on the 
outer edge, but slightly excavated near the 
tip and with a spur at the middle beneath. P. vittata 
(Plate LXXXIII) is common all summer on cabbage and 
other Cruciferas. The fifth joint of the antennas is longer 
than either the fourth or the sixth; the male has the fifth 
antennal joint thickened. 

. The two common, garden species are 

distinguished from the others by having 
no longitudinal fold along the sides of the elytra; by the 
antennas and legs being black; and by a deep groove 
which extends completely across the pronotum in front 
of the base. H. chalybea is the Grape Flea-beetle. It is 
usually not less than .17 in. long; metallic blue, rarely 
greenish; pronotum distinctly narrowed in front. H. 
ignita is usually not more than .17 in. long; color varies 
from a coppery-golden lustre, through greenish, to dark 
blue; pronotum only slightly narrowed in front. In addi- 
tion to feeding on a variety of wild plants it attacks straw- 
berries and roses. 

The following have the front coxal cavities closed 
behind; the last joint of the hind tarsi is not inflated, 
usually slender, although sometimes thickened in a side 
view. The antennas of Blepharida are 12- jointed, instead 
of 11; tarsal claws bifid. Chcetocnema has the hind tibias 
sinuate near the apex and with a distinct tooth on the outer 
margin. Epitrix (elytra with rows of stiff hairs) and Crepi- 
dodera (elytra without hairs; antennas shorter than the 
body) have a distinct transverse impression in front of the 
base of the pronotum. The following lack such an im- 
pression: Dibolia (hind tibial spur broad, emarginate, or 
bifid at apex), Mantura (pronotum with a short, deep 
longitudinal impression on each side near the base), and 
Systena (pronotum without any impression). 

C. confinis is the species likely to be 
Chaetocnema . - "J. - - 

noticed first. It feeds on sweet-potato, 

morning-glory, and other Convolvulaceas. It is less than 
.07 in. long; black, slightly bronzed; antennas and legs, 

373 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



except hind femora, reddish-yellow; pronotum obliquely 
cut off at the front angles and with an angulation in front 
of the middle. C. pulicaria is locally common and some- 
times injurious to corn and millet. It is about the same 
size; black, with faint greenish or bluish-bronzed lustre; 
the base of antennas and tibiae and tarsi yellowish; side of 
pronotum regularly curved and the front angles not cut 
off; head without punctures, but a row along the basal 
margin of the pronotum. 

. . . Only rufipes need be mentioned here. 

Crepidodera T . "; . , , , 

It is about .1 in. long; head, pronotum, and 

legs dull reddish-yellow; elytra dark blue; there are no 

punctures on the pronotum. On locust (Robinia), and 

sometimes injurious to grape, peach s apple, and other 

fruit trees. 

«. . . Again we have two garden species. E. 

Epitrix . . ° . , , . . 

cucumeris is not over .08 in. long; shining 

black, with reddish-yellow antennae and legs, except the 

hind femora. The pronotum is not densely punctate and 

the impression in front of the base is well marked. It is 

the Cucumber Flea-beetle but is not at all choice in its 

food, eating also the leaves of potato and other plants. 

In E. parvula the pronotum is rather closely punctate 

and the impression is scarcely visible. It is about the 

same size and dull reddish-yellow. The adults feed on 

the leaves of potato, tomato, and egg-plant, but do their 

greatest damage by eating holes in tobacco leaves. The 

larvae feed on the roots of common weeds, such as the 

nightshade and Jamestown weed. 

And, finally, we note this pair. S. 
Systena hudsonias: length, .17 in.; shining black 

except for the yellow third to fifth anten- 
nal joints. Common on many plants. S. taniata: length, 
about the same; color variable, usually reddish-or 
brownish-yellow, shining; each elytron with a paler, 
median stripe; narrow side-margins of pronotum and under 
side of body usually black. Adults occur on various plants, 
including cultivated ones. 

374 



LEAF=M1NING BEETLES. 



Hispini 

See p. 363. Most of the larvae live in leaves, feeding on 
the tissue between the two surfaces. See in this connec- 
tion the Micro-lepidoptera and Brachys. The first three 
segments, back of the head, of a Hispine larva are wider 
than the rest of the body. 

Microrhopala (antennae either thread-like or the last 4 
joints united into an oblong mass; elytra not, or only 
feebly, ridged) and Octotoma (the last 2 antennal joints 
enlarged; elytra with short, oblique folds) have 8 or 9 
antennal joints. The others have 11, and some of them 
may be separated as follows. 

1. Elytra ridged 2, 

Elytra not ridged; body elongate. Stents par S. 

metallica is a uniform, shining black, slightly bronzed; 
length .2 in. The pronotum of collaris is red; length 
slightly over .25 in. 

2. Middle tibiae strongly curved Charts ten a. 

Middle tibiae straight. Chalepus, also called Odontata. 

The following species are about .25 in. long, except as 
noted 3, 

3. Each elytron with ten rows of punctures ; ridged 4, 

Each elytron with eight rows of punctures; color varies 

from nearly uniform rose-red to nearly black, with a few 
indistinct reddish or yellowish spots; legs pale; length 
about .17 in. On locust Chalepus nervosa. 

4. Each elytron with only three ridges .- 5, 

Each elytron with three ridges, and a fourth (at base 

and apex) between the second and third. See Plate 
LXXXIII. On locust (Robina), basswood, and other 
trees Chalepus rubra. 

5. Elytra wholly black; pronotum wholly red 

Chalepus bicolor. 

Elytra black, with red shoulders; pronotum red, with a 
dark center Chalepus scapularis. 

Elytra and pronotum scarlet, fading to yellowish, 
with a black, sutural line which becomes gradually broader 
as it reaches the apex. The larva makes a blotch mine on 
locust Chalepus dorsalis. 

375 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Cassidini 



1 

On account of their form, these are often called Tortoise 

Beetles. Many of them are beautifully colored in life, 
i but the golden hues rapidly fade after death. The oval, 

flattened, prickly larvae feed upon the surface of leaves. 
"The larvae are almost as disagreeable as the adult beetles 
are attractive, but are nevertheless very interesting crea- 
( tures. Each of them is provided with a tail-like fork at 

the end of the body which is almost as long as the body, 
j ... Upon this fork are heaped the excrement and cast 

j skins of the larva, and when covered by this 'umbrella' 

it is with great difficulty that the larva is distinguished 
1 from a bit of mud or a bird-dropping. The manner in 

which this fork increases with the size of the larva is rather 
interesting. At each molt, the faeci-fork of the last stage 
is held upon the new faeci-fork, and in this way those of 
the different stages are telescoped, the one inside the other, 
and the stage of growth of the larva may be readily deter- 
mined by the number of cast skins held on the fork. 
From the likeness of this burden to a pack, the larvae are 
, often known as 'peddlers.' In order to more firmly bind 

the excrement and cast skins to the fork, the larvae fasten 
them together by a fine network of silken threads, which 
are attached to the spines at the sides of the body. 
When fully grown the larva fastens itself to a leaf, its skin 
splits open along the back, and from it comes the pupa, 
which is held to the leaf by its caudal fork, which is securely 
incased in the faeci-fork of the larval skin" (Sanderson). 
The adult hibernates. Unless otherwise stated, the 
following feed chiefly on sweet-potatoes and other Con- 
volvulaceae. 

_. , . This has also been called argus. The 

Chelymorpha . . . ° . 

cassidea front of the pronotum is incurved, partially 

exposing the head; upper surface red or 

yellow, with four or six black dots on pronotum, and six 

on each elytron in addition to a sutural one near the base; 

under surface black; length, about .4 in. The eggs arc 

laid in bunches, each egg being supported by a long stalk 

or pedicle. When full-grown, the larva is about .5 in. long 

376 



TORTOISE BEETLES. 



with the faeci-fork half as long again, slightly convex, 
dirty yellowish, with numerous dark-brown tubercles and 
prominent lateral spines. The yellowish to black ground- 
color of the pupa is almost concealed by a bluish bloom or 
waxy excretion resembling mold. On milkweeds, Con- 
volvulus, and, sometimes, raspberries. 

In the following, the pronotum is rounded in front, 
covering the head; its side-margins are flattened (not 
thickened as in Physonota). The antennas of Cassida 
do not reach beyond the base of the pronotum; those of 
Coptocyda extend beyond it. The names given are those 
in general use, as yet. Students interested in possible 
changes are referred to Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 
xviii., page 113. 

C. nigripes is dull red or yellow after 
death; each elytron with three obscure 
black dots near the middle; base of antennae, part of tibiae, 
and tarsi, reddish, rest of legs and antennae black. The 
eggs are laid in rows of three or more, so that several of the 
bright, straw-yellow larvae, having two crescentic, black 
marks just back of the head and prominent, black-tipped 
spines, will be found together. The mass of excrement 
is usually much branched. The pronotum of C. bivittata 
is yellowish, with a large, triangular, brownish-red space 
at the base; elytra dull yellow, with the suture and two 
stripes on each black or dark brown; under surface and legs 
black. Eggs are usually laid singly. The cream-colored, 
with a longitudinal band along the back, larva (Plate 
LXXXIII) does not carry excrement but merely cast skins 
and holds them at an angle from the body, instead of close 
over the back. 

C. purpurata is usually not common in 
the North. It is less than .25 in. long, with 
unspotted, brownish-red elytra. Coptocyda bicolor (Plate 
LXXXIII) is common on bindweed. It is one of several 
"Gold-bugs." Harris said: "When living it has the 
power of changing its hues, at one time appearing only of a 
dull yellow color, and at other times shining with the 
splendor of polished brass or gold, tinged sometimes also 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



2 with variable tints of pearl. The wing covers, the parts 
^ which exhibit a change of color, are lined beneath with an 

orange colored paint, which seems to be filled with little 
i vessels; and these are probably the source of the changeable 

brilliancy of the insect." Freshly emerged adults are dull 
1 orange and have three black dots on each elytron but, 

as the golden color is assumed, these spots disappear. 

After death, the elytra become dull reddish-yellow. Thanks 

* to Mr. Leng, who sifted several hibernating adults from the 
fallen leaves in his garden just as the publishers were 
calling for "copy, " I am able to give a figure colored from 
life — the only one which has been published, as far as I 

* know. The under surface and last four joints of the 
antennas are black; the flat margins of the pronotum and 
elytra are very thin and translucent. The egg has three 

' spiny prongs; the larva's "pack" is trilobed in outline; the 

pupa is hidden by the larval pack and has three dark 
stripes on the pronotum, with similar markings over the 
abdomen. The following two have dark markings on the 
elytra. In C. clavata the disk of the elytra is quite rough 
from the numerous tubercles or elevations; base of prono- 
tum and the elytra, except for the apices and the middle 
of the side margins, brown; under surface pale yellow; 
length, .3 in. The disk of the elytra of C. signifera is 
smooth; dull yellow; base of pronotum usually with a 
large, black spot, enclosing two pale ones; disk of elytra 
and shoulders black with irregular, yellow spots; length, 
not over .25 in. "The larva is a pale straw-yellow color 
during the first four stages when it carries excrement on 
the faeci-fork in a peculiar branched shape much like that 
of the black-legged tortoise-beetle larva, but after the 
last moult the color changes to a pea green, and all the ex- 
crement is removed from the foeci-fork, which makes the 
larva very difficult to recognize. on a green leaf. In as 
much as the larva does not feed and remains entirely 
motionless during this last stage, this change of color is 
very evidently of protective value. The pupa is also a 
bright green, marked only by a ring around each of the 
first pair of abdominal spiracles" (Sanderson). The 
discal space on the elytra of C. plicata is shiny black, 
without spots. 

37« 



PEA AND BEAN WEEVILS. 



Bruchi'd^e 



There are, relatively, not many of these beetles and, for 
the most part, they are less than .25 in. long. They 
differ from most of the Chrysomelidae by having short, 
saw-toothed antennae, and the tip of the abdomen is 
exposed. The larvae live in seeds, especially of Legumes, 
and are often called "weevils" — a term which is confusing 
because of its application to the Rhynchophora. We 
have, all of us, eaten hundreds of the larvae with our peas 
and beans, but — what's the difference? The eggs are 
usually laid upon the pod when the peas, for example, are 
quite small, and the young larvae bore inside. 

Spermophagus has two slender, jointed spurs on each 
hind tibia. The only Northeastern species, robinice, 
breeds in the seeds of the locusts (Robinia and Gleditschia) . 
The adult is about .3 in. long; dull reddish-brown, clothed 
with grayish-yellow pubescence; elytra with small, black 
spots arranged in five irregular, transverse rows. 

This is the large and common genus. 
Bruchus m , -.-.*. . , . . _ 

The hind tibiae are without jointed spurs 

and the prominent, front coxae touch each other. Only 

two species (Plate LXXXIV) will be mentioned, but 

many others may be obtained either in ordinary collecting 

or, better because it gives food habits, by breeding from 

seeds of wild plants. ' B. pisorum, the Pea Weevil, has 

a notch on the middle of each side of the pronotum and a 

tooth on the outer side of each hind femur. It is black, 

densely clothed with reddish-brown and whitish hairs; 

pronotum with a triangular, whitish space in front of 

scutellum; elytra with yellowish, grayish, and whitish 

hairs. There is but one generation a year and this species 

does not breed in dry peas. The adult hibernates. The 

newly-hatched larva has legs but it loses these when it 

becomes a fat, sedentary grub. Pupation occurs within 

the seed. B. obtectus, the Bean Weevil, has no notch on the 

sides of the pronotum and each hind femur has two fine 

teeth in addition to a larger one near the tip. It is black, 

clothed with grayish-yellow pubescence; abdomen dull 

reddish-brown; antennae black, the apical and four basal 

379 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



joints reddish; legs reddish-brown, underside of hind 
femora black. In the field the eggs are laid upon, or are 
inserted in, the bean-pod, but eggs are also placed loosely 
among shelled beans. The larvae and pupae are much like 
those of pisorum but, unlike that species, more than one 
(28 have been recorded) may be inside a single seed. The 
life-cycle takes from three to twelve, or more, weeks, 
depending on conditions. Breeding is continuous through- 
out the year, if it is warm enough. 
( 

^ HETEROMERA 

1 The members of this series have five tarsal joints on 

each of the front and middle legs and only four on each of 
the hind legs. 

1. Front coxal cavities closed behind 2. 

Front coxal cavities open behind 4. 

2. Tarsal claws simple 3. 

Tarsal claws comb-like Cistelid^e (p. 384). 

3. Next to last joint of tarsi not spongy beneath 

Tenebrionid/E (p. 381). 

Next to last joint of tarsi spongy beneath; front coxae 

prominent; last joint of antennae at least as long as the 

three preceding joints combined Lagriim: (p. 384). 

4. Head not strongly and suddenly constricted behind 
the eyes 5« 

Head strongly and suddenly constricted behind the 
eyes 7« 

5. Middle coxae not very prominent 6. 

Middle coxae very prominent; pronotum narrower at 

base than elytra, its sides rounded and without a sharp 
edge; next to last tarsal joint broad, slightly bilobed; 

body-covering rather flimsy in texture 

CEdemerid^e (p. 385). 

6. Pronotum margined at sides, broad at base, its disk 
(middle portion) with impressions near base; form usually 
elongate, loosely jointed; maxillary palpi usually long and 
pendulous, with the joints enlarged 

Melandryid^e (p. 385). 

Pronotum not margined, narrower behind, disk not 

impressed at base; form usually long and narrow; head 

sometimes prolonged into a beak Pythid^e (p. 385). 

380 



THE DARKLING BEETLES. 



7. Pronotum with a sharp edge at sides, its base as wide 
as elytra 8. 

Sides of pronotum more or less rounded and without 
a sharp edge 10. 

8. Antennae thread-like 9. 

Antennas with long, flat processes folding like a fan 

(male) , or somewhat saw- toothed (female) 

Pelecotoma of the Rhipiphorhxe: (p. 393). 

9. Hind coxas with plates; head with vertex lobed or 
ridged behind, so that, when extended, it rests on the 
front edge of the pronotum; abdomen usually ending in a 
pointed process Mordellid^e (p. 385). 

Hind coxas without plates; length less than 
.25 in Tribe Scraptiini of the Melandryim; (p. 385). 

10. Pronotum narrower at base than elytra 11. 

Pronotum as wide at base as elytra; the abdomen not 

ending in a spinous process; elytra usually shorter than 
abdomen and narrowed behind; antennas comb-like in 

males, frequently saw- toothed in females 

Rhipiphorid^e (p. 393). 

11. Hind coxas not prominent; tarsal claws simple; 
antennas thread-like and simple; head with an abrupt, 
narrow neck; length less than .5 in., usually less than 
.2 in Anthicid/e (p. 386). 

Hind coxas large, prominent 12. 

12. Tarsal claws simple; head horizontal; antennas 
usually branched in male, saw-toothed in female; next to 
last tarsal joints very broad . . . . Pyrochroid^e (p. 386). 

Tarsal claws cleft or toothed; front vertical; at least 
.25 in. long Meloid^e (p. 387). 

Tenebrionid^e 

These are the Darkling Beetles. There are many 
species in the Southwest, where they occur like Carabidas, 
but they are by no means lacking in the East: New Jersey, 
for example, having more than sixty species. The eastern 
species are not usually found under stones, as are those 
in arid regions, but in dead wood, fungi, and dry vegetable 
products. The western Pinacate (Eleodes), "the bug 
that stands on his head," is a member of this family. 

381 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Te rio The larvae of T. obscurus (Plate LXXXIV) 

^ and molitor are the large Meal-worms, which 

have the distinction of being, probably, the only insects 
1 injurious to man's goods which are purposely bred on a 

large scale for commercial purposes. They destroy large 
* quantities of flour, meal, cereals, and the like but are 

bred and sold for soft-billed birds to eat. The larvae 
are hard, cylindrical, and strongly resemble wire-worms 
(Elateridae) . That of obscurus is about an inch long, when 
full-grown; yellow but shading off into yellowish-brown at 
each end and where the segments join. That of molitor 
is somewhat lighter. The pupae are whitish and about 
.6 in. long; most of the abdominal segments have fringed 
side-expansions and the last one ends in two spines. The 
adults of both species are black or dark reddish-brown and 
about .6 in. long; molitor is shiny and obscurus is not. 
They are frequently attracted to lights. There seems 
to be, normally, but one generation a year, but in heated 
buildings this is not very definite. Related species occur 
under bark. 

Nyctobates pennsylvanica is a black beetle, nearly an 
inch long, which is often common under the loose bark of 
dead trees. The genus differs from Tenebrio by the tarsal 
pubescence being fine and silky. The antennae do not 
reach to the back of the pronotum, which is not narrowed 
at the base. 

We have two species of this genus which 
occur in meal, grain, and other vegetable 
products. To give them a common name different from 
that applied to Tenebrio, they have been called Flour 
Beetles, but neither name is very distinctive. Tribolium 
ferrugineum is reddish-brown; its head is not expanded 
beyond the eyes at the sides; its antennal club is distinctly 
three- jointed; and its length is less than .2 in. Its "cousin," 
confusum (Plate LXXXIV), is darker; its head is expanded 
on each side in front of the eye; antennal joints gradually 
broader at tip. It has been recorded as breeding in pepper 
as well as in a variety of milder, starchy foods and it 
also eats the eggs and larvae of other meal-feeding insects. 
382 



Plate LXXXIV 




Bruchus obteclua 




Bruchusplsorum 





Tenebrio obscurus 



Tribol 



lum con usum 




Boletolherus 
bijurcus 





Nocerdes 
melonura 



MordellaS-punciQtQ 



*s 3 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



a 1 he larvae and pupae are much like Tenebrio in miniature, 

t Under favorable circumstances, a generation may be 

i completed in five or six weeks and there may be several 

i generations a year. 
1 

£ . We have one species, bifurcus. It occurs, 

Boletotherus . *\ ' J 

often in numbers, in woody, bracket fungi, 

such as grow on the sides of trees and stumps. The adults 

are black or brownish-black. What attracts attention are 

the horned males (Plate LXXXIV). A related genus, 

Boletophagus, is found with it, but more often under bark. 

J In it each eye is completely divided and the antennas are 

1 1 -jointed. There are two species, each not over .3 in. 
long and black: in corticola the pronotum has numerous 

1 tubercles, its margin is scalloped and, in front of the hind 

angles, deeply notched; in depressus the pronotum is 
merely coarsely punctured and its sides are evenly rounded. 

Diaperis maculata is also common in hard fungi and 
under bark. It is about .25 in. long, oval and convex. 
The head and most of the efytra are reddish, otherwise 
black. 

The species of Cistelid^e are like those of the Tene- 
brionidae in general structure, but see the key (p. 380). 
They have longer, more slender antennae and generally 
smooth, pubescent surface; they are usually brown in 
color with no, or only confused, maculation and often 
taper to a point posteriorly. They are found on leaves, 
flowers, and under bark, the larvae, so far as known, living 
in rotten wood and somewhat resembling wire- worms in 
shape. None are of economic importance. 

Of the Lagriid^e (sec p. 380) there are probably less than 
a dozen recognized species in the United States and only 
two genera. These species arc black or bronzed, with 
rather thin, flexible elytra, and are found on flowers, 
leaves, or under bark of trees. For our purposes, we may 
say that our species of Arthromacra are about .5 in., and 
of Statira usually less than .3 in. long. 

384 



M0RDELL1D/E AND RELATIVES. 



Melandryhle (see p. 380) is another small family but it 
contains about ten times as many species as the preceding. 
They feed on fungi and dry vegetable matter, such as 
dead wood. Penthe obliqiiata, about .5 in. long, is velvety 
black with yellow on the scutellum; frequent under bark 
of dead trees. 

About two dozen species of Pythid^e (see p. 380) have 
been described from the United States. They occur under 
bark, especially of pine. 

Of the (Edemerid^e, Nacerdes melanura (Plate LXXXIV) 
should be mentioned. It is a cosmopolitan beetle which 
is rather common in cities about cellars, old boxes, and 
lumber yards. It varies from .3 to .5 in. in length; dull 
yellow above, elytra tipped with blackish purple; each 
front tibia with one spur; next to the last tarsal joints 
broadly dilated. Other species are found on flowers, 
leaves, and sometimes in crevices of logs, trees, or stumps. 

MORDELLID.E 

See p. 381. "This family includes a large number of 
small, wedge-shaped beetles having the body arched, the 
head bent downward and the abdomen usually prolonged 
into a style or pointed process. The hind legs are, in 
most species, very long and stout, fitted for leaping; the 
antennae long and slender and the thorax is as wide at 
base as the elytra. The body is densely covered with fine 
silky hairs, usually black, but often very prettily spotted or 
banded with yellow or silver hues. The adults occur on 
flowers or on dead trees and are very active, flying and 
running with great rapidity and in the net or beating 
umbrella jumping and tumbling about in grotesque manner 
in their efforts to escape. The larvae live in old wood 
or in the pith of plants, and those of some species are said 
to be carnivorous in habit, feeding upon the young of 
Lepidoptera and Diptera which they find in the plant 
stems" (Blatchley). The genus which has the most 
species in our region is Mordellistena. They are usually 
not over .25 in. long; their hind tibiae have a distinct ridge 
25 385 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



^ near the apex and usually one or more oblique ones; their 

eyes are coarsely granulated. The two following genera 

1 agree with it in having the last abdominal segment pro- 

longed into a conical "style" and their tarsal claws comb- 

* like, but their hind tibiae have but a small ridge near the 

apex and their eyes are only finely granulated: in Tomoxia 
the style is short, obtuse, and the scutellum is usually 

i indented behind; in Mordella (Plate LXXXIV) the anal 

style is long, slender, and the scutellum is triangular. 
Two other genera Pentaria and Anaspis (fourth joint of 
the front and middle tarsi smaller than the third) are not 
especially rare but they have few and small species; their 
abdomen is not prolonged at the tips and the tarsal claws 

1 are not cleft. 

Anthicid^e 

Probably three hundred or more species are known 
from North America; more than a hundred new species 
were described in a single paper. They are, for the most 
part, small creatures with drooping heads; the key (p. 380) 
gives a number of technical points which distinguish them 
from related families. They are to be found on flowers, 
in rotten wood, and in burrows in sandy places near 
water. Some of them resemble ants and others have a 
prominent horn on the front part of the thorax. Of the 
latter sort : Notoxus has the hind tarsi not longer than the 
tibiae; they are much longer than the tibiae in Mecynotarsus. 
Our species of these genera are usually not over .25 in. 
long. • 

Pyrochroid^e 

See p. 381. Only a dozen or so species are known from 
the United States and they are not usually very common. 
The individuals are usually of moderate size with elytra 
rather soft in texture, usually widened behind the middle, 
and relatively long. The head is almost horizontal and 
constricted behind the eyes into a rather slender neck, 
both head and thorax being much narrower than the 
elytra. Most of our species have a reddish pronotum and 
386 



BLISTER=BEETLES. 



black or blue elytra. The antennae vary from simple 
in some species, through saw-toothed, to comb-like or 
branched in the males of others. The larvae have a broad 
head, stout legs, and two spines on the tip of the abdomen. 
Dendroides may be distinguished from other genera by 
having very large eyes which nearly touch each other. 

Meloid.e 

Concerning this curious family, I take the liberty of 
quoting at some length from Sharp's excellent account of 
insects in the Cambridge Natural History. 

"This distinct family consists of Heteromera with soft 
integument, and is remarkable for the fact that many of its 
members contain a substance that, when extracted and 
applied to the human skin, possesses the power of raising 
blisters. The life-history is nighty remarkable, the most 
complex forms of hypermetamorphosis being exhibited. 
The species now known amount to about 1500. . . . There 
are two very distinct subfamilies, Cantharides and 
Meloides; the former are winged Insects, and are frequently 
found on flowers or foliage. The Meloides are wingless, 
and consequently terrestrial; they have a very short 
metasternum, so that the middle coxae touch the hind; 
and they also have very peculiar wing-cases, one of the 
two overlapping the other at the base; in a few Meloids 
the wing-cases are merely rudiments. 

"The post-embryonic development of these Insects is 
amongst the most remarkable of modern entomological 
discoveries. The first steps were made by Newport in 
1 85 1, and the subject has since been greatly advanced by 
Fabre, Riley, and others. As an example of these peculiar 
histories, we may cite Riley's account of Epicauta vittata 
[See Plate LXXXV], a blister-beetle living at the expense 
of North American locusts of the genus Caloptemus 
[Melanoplus], The locust lays its eggs underground in 
masses surrounded by an irregular capsule, and the Epicauta 
deposits its eggs in spots frequented by the locust, but not 
in special proximity to the eggs thereof. In a few days 
the eggs of the blister-beetle hatch, giving rise to little 
larvae [a] of the kind called triungulin, because each leg is 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



terminated by three tarsal spines or claws. In warm, 
sunny weather these triungulins become very active; they 
run about on the surface of the ground exploring all its 
cracks, penetrating various spots and burrowing, till an 
egg-pod of the locust is met with; into this the triungulin 
at once eats its way, and commences to devour an e< 
Should two or more triungulins enter the same egg-pcd, 
battles occur till one is left. After a few days passed 
in devouring a couple of eggs, the triungulin sheds its 
skin and appears as a different larva [b], with soft skin, 
short legs, small eyes, and different form and proportions; 
a second moult takes place after about a week, but is not 
accompanied by any very great change of form, though the 
larva is now curved, less active, and in form like a larva 
of Scarabaeidae ; when another moult occurs the fourth 
instar appears as a still more helpless form of larva, which 
increases rapidly in size, and when full grown leaves the 
remains of the egg-pod it has been living on, and forms a 
small cavity near by; here it lies on one side motionless, 
but gradually contracting, till the skin separates and is 
pushed down to the end of the body, disclosing a completely 
helpless creature [c] that has been variously called a semi- 
pupa, pseudo-pupa, or coarctate larva; in this state the 
winter is passed. In the spring the skin of the coarctate 
larva bursts, and there crawls out of it a sixth instar [d] 
which resembles the fourth, except in the somewhat 
reduced size and greater whiteness. It is worthy of 
remark that the skin it has deserted retains its original form 
almost intact. In this sixth instar the larva is rather 
active and burrows about, but does not take food, and in 
the course of a few days again moults and discloses the true 
pupa. As usual in Coleoptera this instar lasts but a short 
time, and in five or six days the perfect beetle appears. 
It is extremely difficult to frame any explanation of this 
complex development; there are, it will be noticed, no less 
than five stages interposed between the first larval instar 
and the pupal instar, and the creature assumes in the 
penultimate one a quasi-pupal state, to again quit it for a 
return to a previous state. It is possible to look on the 
triungulin and the pupal instars as special adaptations t< 
external conditions; but it is not possible to account for 
3 «S8 



Plate LXXXV 




Meloe . Epicoula t 

Qngwticollis vitorta marginota 




si m 



HiipermeUmorphosls o\ Epicauta vitlata 






Stylopidto 
Slrepsiptero 




Rhipiphorus 
flavipennis 



& 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



the intermediate instars in this way, and we must look 
on them as necessitated by the physiological processes 
going on internally. Nothing, however, is known as to 
these." 

Fabre and others have described the European species 
of Sitaris living in much the same way at the expense of 
bees of the genus Anthophora. 

Mel This is our only genus of the subfamily 

Meloinae, or Meloides as it is called in the 
quotation from Sharp. The species are known as Oil- 
beetles; when disturbed, they give off a disagreeable, 
oily fluid. The short elytra do not nearly cover the over- 
sized abdomen. "The female Meloe is very prolific. 
She lays at three or four different intervals, in loose irregular 
masses in the ground, and may produce from three to 
four thousand eggs. These are soft, whitish, cylindrical, 
and rounded at each end. They give birth to the triun- 
gulins, which a few days after hatching — the number 
depending on the temperature — run actively about and 
climb on to Composite, Ranunculaceous, and other flowers, 
from which they attach themselves to bees and flies that 
visit the flowers. Fastening alike to many hairy Diptera 
and to Hymenoptera which can be of little or no service 
to them, many are doomed to perish, and only the few 
fortunate ones are carried to the proper cells of some 
Anthophora" (Riley). It is probable that different species 
of Meloe are parasitic on different species or even genera 
of bees. Our species may be differentiated as follows: 

1. Pronotum not longer than wide . . 2. 

Pronotum longer than wide, sparsely and irregularly 

punctate; color deep bluish-black; elytra finely rugose; 
see Plate LXXXV angusticollis. 

2. Color dull black ; pronotum with an impression on basal 
half of median line. impressus. 

Color blue or bluish-black; pronotum not impressed. .3. 

3. Pronotum rather densely punctate; elytra not roughly 
sculptured niger. 

Pronotum coarsely and deeply, not densely, punctured; 
elytra coarsely sculptured; color more decidedly blue and 

more shining americanus. 

390 



KEY TO CERTAIN MELOID/E. 



Some of our other genera, and the more important 
species, may be separated as follows : 
i. Front not prolonged beyond the base of the antennas; 
labrum (upper lip) small, scarcely visible. Tribe Horiini, 
of which Tricrania sanguinipennis should be looked for in 
sandy places. It is about .3 in. long; black, with brick- 
red elytra. 

Front prolonged; labrum distinct 2. 

2. Mandibles prolonged beyond the labrum, acute at 
tip 3- 

Mandibles not prolonged, obtuse; elytra entire; 
antennas straight, not thickened toward the apex. Tribe 
Cantharini 4. 

3. Elytra rudimentary; no wings; tarsal claws not cleft. 
Tribe Sitarini, to which Hornia minutipennis belongs. It 
is reddish-brown; length about .7 in.; parasitic upon a 
ground-bee (Anthophora). 

Elytra entire ; tarsal claws cleft. Tribe Nemognathini : 
Nemognatha has the outer lobe of the maxillas (accessory 
jaws below or behind the mandibles) prolonged ; it is not so 
in Zonitis. 

4. Second joint of antennae at least one-half as long as 
the third. Macrobasis. M. unicolor: .3 to .5 in. long; 
black, rather densely clothed with grayish hairs, which 
give it an ashy color; second joint of male's antennas 
slightly longer than the next two and nearly twice as wide. 
The adults occur on various plants including potatoes 
and iron weed. 

Second joint of antennae much less than half the length 
of the third 5. 

5. Next to last joint of tarsi bilobed Tetraonyx. 

Next to last joint of tarsi cylindrical 6. 

6. Front femora with a silken, hairy spot on the under 
side; second joint of antennae very short; mandibles short. 
Larvae, as far as known, feed on eggs of grasshoppers. 
Epicauta ; . . 7. 

Front femora without a silken, hairy spot 13. 

7. Antennal joints of equal thickness throughout, cylin- 
drical, and closely united; eyes nearly as wide as long, 
feebly or not at all indented in front 8. 

Antennal joints on apical half more slender, loosely 

391 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



united, and more or less compressed; eyes always longer 

than wide, indented in front I0 * 

8. Head less densely punctured than pronotum, usually red 
behind the eyes, though often wholly black or with a small 
red spot in front; otherwise black, clothed with, short, 
rather dense, black or gray pubescence, which often forms 
a marginal stripe and rarely a sutural line on elytra; 
length about .4 in. Adults on various plants, especially 

Convolvulaceae Epicauta trichrus. 

Head and pronotum similarly punctured, the former 
always black; elytra clothed with dense gray or grayish- 
yellow pubescence ;9" 

9. Pronotum longer than wide, densely pubescent, with 
a'dark line each side of the middle Epicauta strigosa. 

Pronotum as wide as long, moderately shining, rather 
coarsely and densely punctured Epicauta fermginea. 

10. Elytra clay-yellow and black; see Plate LXXXV. 
See above for its biology. The adult shares with Lema 
trilineata the name of Old-fashioned Potato-beetle but 
feeds also on tomatoes and various weeds . . Epicauta vittata. 

Elytra without stripes on their middle II. 

11. Body , beneath, clothed with gray pubescence; elytra 
in part or wholly pubescent I2 ' 

Body, above and beneath, wholly black; outer spur 
of hind tibia broader than the inner; length, .3 to .5 in. 
During autumn on goldenrod especially; sometimes 
injures garden asters Epicauta Pennsylvania. 

12. Elytra wholly clothed with uniform, gray pubescence; 
length .4 to .75 in. On potatoes and other plants 

' Epicauta cinerea. 

Elytra black, with gray margins and suture; sec 

Plate LXXXV. May be only a variety of cinerea 

Epicauta marginata. 

« Antennae thread-like, the outer joints cylindrical. 
Pyrota. 

Antennae thicker toward the apex, the outer joints 
oval or rounded. Two genera, which will probably not be 
noticed: Pomphc-pcea, with a deeply indented labrum 
and Cantharis, with labrum only slightly indented. 



392 



SNOUT=BEETLES AND RELATIVES. 



Rhipiphorid^; 



See p. 381. "A small family of wedge-shaped beetles 
resembling the Mordellidae in general appearance. . . . 
The adults occur on flowers and are much less common 
than the Mordellids. The larvae that are known are 
parasitic, some in the nests of wasps and others on cock- 
roaches" (Blatchley). See Rhipiphorus flavipennis on 
Plate LXXXV. 

RHYNCHOPHORA 

This suborder, or series, has never been very popular. 
Furthermore, the taxonomy is difficult (possibly one of the 
main reasons for the unpopularity), and these two facts 
are sufficient excuse for giving short treatment here. 
Measurements of length are from the front margin of the 
eye or head (not the tip of the beak) to the hindmost part 
of the body. In giving the key to families, which is pre- 
sented here in a slightly modified form, Blatchley and 
Leng say: " In using this key the student must remember 
that while the beak in many Curculionidae is so long, 
slender, and curved downwards as to permit of immediately 
placing them in their family position, there are other 
species, especially in the Otiorhynchinas, whose broader 
beaks would suggest their belonging to the Scolytidae or 
Anthribidae. In such cases, if the antennae are elbowed, 
he must find the serrate [saw-toothed] tibiae that character- 
ize the Scolytidae, or if straight, the flexible palpi that 
characterize the Anthribidae; otherwise the specimen 
does not belong to those families." 

1, Beak rarely absent, usually longer than broad; tibiae 
never with a series of teeth externally 2. 

Beak absent or extremely short and broad; tibiae with a 
series of teeth externally or, if these are wanting, with a 
prominent curved spine at apex; antennae short, but little 
longer than the head, always elbowed and with a compact 
club; palpi rigid; body short, more or less cylindrical, 
rarely oval Scolytidae (p. 404). 

2. Antennae straight, without a distinct club, though with 
the outer joints often more or less thickened; beak present, 

393 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



2 at least in female, and pointing directly forward; form 

^ usually very slender and elongate.. . .Brenthid^e (p. 394). 

I Antennae straight or elbowed, always with a distinct 

i club 3. 

c 3. Beak always short and broad; labrum (upper Hp) 

1 present; antennal club rarely compact; palpi flexible; 

£ pronotum with a transverse, raised line at or near the 

base Anthribid^e (p. 395). 

i Beak variable in length, often long and curved down- 

< wards; labrum absent except in the subfamily Rhinom- 

acerinas ; antennal club usually compact ; palpi rigid 

1 CURCULIONID^E (p. 395). 

1 

Brenthid^e 

1 

t The only northern species seems to be Eupsalis minuta 

■\ (Plate LXXXVI). It varies in length from about .25 

to nearly .75 in. The color varies from reddish-brown 

; to black; elytra with narrow, longitudinal, yellowish 

spots, which are often united to form two or three cross- 
bars. The length of the elytra is more than twice their 
combined width, and the pronotum is longer than broad. 

( The mandibles of the male are curved, flattened, pointed, 

toothed on the inner edge; those of the female are small 
and pincer-shaped, at the end of a slender beak. The 

1 female uses this beak to bore deep holes in the wood be- 

neath the bark of dead trees and she frequently takes the 
better part of a day at each hole, afterwards laying one 
egg in it. It is said that a male stands guard during the 
operation "occasionally assisting the female in extracting 
her beak; this he does by stationing himself at a right 
angle with her body, and by pressing his heavy prosternum 
against the tip of her abdomen ; her stout forelegs serving 
as a fulcrum and her long body as a lever. When the 
beak is extracted, the female uses her antennas for freeing 
the pincers or jaws of bits of wood or dust, the antennas 
being furnished with stiff hairs and forming an excellent 
brush. Should a strange male approach, a heavy contest 
at once ensues, and continues until one or the other is 
thrown from the tree. The successful party then takes his 
station as guard" (Howard). The laryae make extensivg 

394 



SNOUT-BEETLES AND RELATIVES. 



galleries in the solid wood of oak, also of chestnut, maple, 
and other deciduous trees. 



Anthribid^e 

Some recent authorities use the name Polystomidae. 
These beetles are usually found on dead wood or on those 
fungi which grow on trees. Little is known of their life 
histories. Eurymycter fasciatus is about .3 in. long and 
has a conspicuous patch of white pubescence on the beak 
as well as a broad, white band across the elytra. Brachy- 
tarsus sticticus is not over .15 in. long, and breeds in the 
smut of corn and wheat. Euparius marmoreus, sooty 
brown mottled with gray, is very common on tough 
fungus on fallen logs, its color matching well with its 
surroundings. 

CURCULIONID.E 

This is a very large family, more than 20,000 species 
having been described to date. The maggot-like larvae 
have no more than bristly elevations for legs; the front 
part of the body is usually the thickest and, when at rest, 
the larvae are usually curled like a C. Pupation usually 
occurs where the larvse live but some species pupate in the 
ground. Thirteen subfamilies are recognized as follows: 

1. Antennae straight, the beak not grooved to receive 
them 2. 

Antennae more or less completely elbowed, the beak 
grooved to receive them when at rest; antennal club 
compact 9. 

2. Antennal club composed of completely separated 
joints 3. 

Club composed of compactly united joints 6. 

3. Thorax without side margin 4. 

Thorax acutely margined and excavated beneath; 

three abdominal segments show beyond tip of abdomen. 
Pterocolinae, of which only Pterocolus ovatus is known from 
the eastern United States. It is blue, less than .17 in. 
long. 

395 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



4. Labrum present; palpi well developed, flexible; form 
elongate-oval. Feed on the staminate flowers of conifers. 

Rhinomacerinae. 
Labrum absent; palpi short, rigid 5. 

5. Mandibles flat, toothed on inner and outer sides; 
tibiae with short terminal spurs at tip; claws free, bifid 
or acutely toothed; form usually elongate-oval, somewhat 
depressed. Rhynchitinae. Rhynchites bicolor (elytra, pro- 
notum and head, back of eyes, red, otherwise black; length 
.25 in.) breeds in the "hips" of roses. 

Mandibles stout, pincer-shaped ; tibiae armed at tip 
with two strong hooks; claws united at base; form short- 
oval, robust Attelabinae (p. 398). 

6. Tip of abdomen covered by elytra; trochanters large, 
femora attached to their apex; form pear-shaped.; not over 
.2 in. long. Apioninas. There are many species of Apion, 
one of which is abundant in late summer on Wild Indigo. 
Podapion gallicola makes rather spherical galls on pine 
twigs, and is rare. 

Tip of abdomen exposed ; trochanters small 7. 

7. First joint of antennae longer than the second 8. 

First joint of antennae no longer than the second; 

beak short, broad; hind coxae very widely separated; legs 
elongate, clasping; length less than .13 in. Tachygoninae, 
the only genus being Tachygonus. 

8. Hind femora very broad, their outer margin strongly 
curved, wrinkled; beak very slender, cylindrical; length 
about .14 in. Allocorhyninas, Alloc orhynus slossoni from 
Florida being the only known eastern species. 

Hind femora normal; beak short and broad; length .5 
in. or more. Ithycerinae, the large Ithycerus noveboracensis 
being the only known eastern species. 

9. Antennal club usually ringed, not shining; tarsi usually 
dilated, third joint bilobed, brush-like beneath, though 
narrow and setose in some more or less aquatic species; 
abdomen of male with an extra anal segment 10. 

Antennal club with its basal joint usually enlarged or 
shining or both, feebly or not at all ringed ; tarsi frequently 
narrow, not brush-like beneath 12. 

10. Prosternum simple, or grooved to receive the beak, 
not forming a triangular plate in front of the coxae II. 

396 



Plate LXXXVI 




Conotrachelus 
nenuphor 




Calnndro 

larva 




Calandro 
oryzft 



Balanmus 

proboscoiQeus 





EupSQllS 

minuta 



Soolytus ruqulosus 

397 




Artelabus 

rhois 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



3 Prosternum forming a triangular plate in front of the 

^ coxae; beak received in the breast in repose; tarsi narrow, 

I not dilated. Thecesterninae. Thecesternus humeralis of the 

i Mississippi Valley is the most eastern, known species. 

z ii. B e ak never long and slender ; mandibles with a decidu- 

1 ous cusp, leaving a scar Otiorhynchinae (p. 399). 

£ Beak usually elongate, slender or, if short and stout, 

received in the breast in repose .... Curculioninae (p. 400). 

s 12. Tip of abdomen covered by elytra. Cossoninae. 

< The shining, black species of Cossonus, about .25 in. long, 
£ are sometimes found in numbers under bark. 

\ Tip of abdomen not covered by elytra 

1 Calandrinas (p, 403). 

1 Attelabinae 

1 This is a small family of small beetles. The larvas feed 

on the inside of "houses" prepared for them by their 

: mothers. Pupation is said to take place underground. I 

quote concerning Attelabus rhois (Plate LXXXVI) from 

< the Fifth Report of the U. S. Entomological Commission, 
a most excellent account of insects injurious to forest and 

' shade trees by A. S. Packard. "The singular thimble- 

like rolls of this weevil may be found in June and July 
on the alder, and also occur on the hazel, according to 

1 LeConte [I have found them in large numbers on hazel]. 

When about to lay her eggs, the female begins to eat a slit 
near the base of the leaf on each side of the midrib, and at 
right angles to it, so that the leaf may be folded together. 
Before beginning to roll up the leaf she gnaws the stem 
nearly off, so that after the roll is made, and has dried 
for perhaps a day, it is easily detached by the wind and 
falls to the ground. When folding the leaf, she tightly 
rolls it up, neatly tucking in the ends, until a compact, 
cylindrical solid mass of vegetation is formed. Before 
the leaf is entirely rolled she deposits a single egg, rarely 
two, in the middle next to the midrib, where it lies loosely 
in a little cavity. While all this is going on her consort 
stands near by and she occasionally runs to him to receive 
his caresses, to again resume her work." As we have but a 
single genus, Attelabus, and the habits are so interesting, 
398 



NEST-MAKING SNOUT=BEETLES. 



a modification of Blatchley and Leng's key to our species 

is given. 

i. Surface shiny; color, above, either mainly bright red 

or black 2. 

Surface pubescent; dull red (rarely blackish in the 
melanic northern form) ; length about .2 in rhois. 

2. Elytra bright red (except see analis) 3. 

Black, faintly bluish, with a reddish spot on each 

shoulder; length usually not .17 in.; front femora with a 
small, acute tooth. Nests in April and May, on oak. . . . 

bipustulatus . 

3. Front femora slender, not toothed in male; elytra, 
pronotum, base of head, presternum, and abdomen bright 
red (variety similis is darker); rest of body, including 
appendages, blue-black; length rarely less than .2 in. It 
rolls the leaves of oak, possibly also of sumac, hickory, 
and walnut analis. 

Front femora stout, two-toothed in males; color like 
analis except that all of the under surface of the body is 
usually dull red; length usually less than .2 in. Sumac is 
probably its only food-plant although adults occur on oak 
and other trees nigripes. 

Otiorhynchina? 

Some authors give these insects the rank of a family, 
Psallidiidse. The deciduous cusps of the mandibles, 
mentioned in the key to subfamilies, are teeth which are 
probably useful to the beetle in getting out of the pupal 
case. They are soon lost but leave a " scar, " often difficult 
to make out, on the front of each mandible. Of the 
numerous species, the following deserve special mention. 

Epiccerus imbricatus is a little less than .5 in. long; 
greenish-brown; when fresh, there is a median, longitudinal 
stripe of white scales on the pronotum, two irregular, white 
cross-bands on the elytra; the under surface and legs are 
nearly white. The adult feeds on a variety of plants, 
sometimes defoliating strawberries. 

Species of Otiorhynchus have two short, fixed spurs on 
each hind tibia; the tarsi are dilated, spongy-pubescent 
beneath, the third joint deeply bilobed; the eyes are 

399 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



2 rounded or slightly oval; the beak is as long as the head, 

^ more or less dilated, and notched at the tip. 0. sulcatus 

t and ovatus have the hind femora distinctly toothed. 0. 

i sulcatus is brownish-black; about .3 in. long; the femoral 

tooth is small and acute; the prothorax is rather cylindrical; 
1 elytra with small, remote patches of short, yellowish hair; 

the tip of the beak has a forked ridge. The larva eats off 

the roots of strawberry and, in greenhouses, other plants. 
•* It is usually not so troublesome in this way as ovatus, 

( which is shiny black with reddish-brown legs and antennas; 

length a trifle less than .25 in. ; the femoral tooth large; tip 

of beak not ridged; prothorax rather globose; short, yellow- 
1 ish hairs on the prothorax and also on the elytra. Neither 

species have wings and both occur also in Europe. The 
1 adults have a troublesome habit, shared by some other 

* weevils, of nibbling at tender shoots, causing serious 

damage at times to ornamental shrubs. 

; Curculioninae 

' This subfamily contains the great majority of the 

species, only a few of which can be mentioned here. 

Hyper a, [Phytonomous] punctata is the Clover-leaf Beetle. 
The larvae hibernate in the stems and among the old 
leaves of clover. 

Many species of Listronotus and Hyperodes feed on 
aquatic plants. 

The genus Balaninus contains the Nut and Acorn Wee- 
vils. The species have a bulky body and a long, slender 
beak, which is longer than the body in the females of some 
species. It is used for drilling holes in nuts or acorns in 
order that eggs may be placed in the kernel. The mouth 
parts at the end of the beak work vertically, instead of 
horizontally. Davis has noted that squirrels are fond of 
eating the larva?, slightly opening many acorns, only to 
discard them if no larvae are present. B. proboscidcus 
(Plate LXXXVI) is .3 in., or more, in length (the beak 
is not included in these measurements) ; dark brown, densely 
but irregularly clothed with yellowish, scale-like hairs; 
the second antennal joint longer than the third ; the beak of 
the female often nearly twice as long as the body. The 
400 



NUT AND ACORN WEEVILS. 



female lays its eggs in chestnuts by drilling a hole through 
the burr. When the nuts fall, the larvae leave to hibernate 
underground, pupating the next July. The Lesser Chest- 
nut Weevil, B. algonquinus, is rarely .33 in. long; black, 
with brownish scales; pronotum with a paler line near 
each side; elytra with numerous, pale, yellow spots, which 
sometimes form bands; second antennal joint shorter than 
the third; beak of female nearly twice as long as the body. 
It usually lays its eggs in the chestnuts after the burrs are 
opened and the larvae remain there all winter, unless eaten. 
B. caryce is the Hickory-nut and Pecan Weevil. The 
adult is about .3 in. long; brownish, with sparse, yellowish 
hairs. B. obtusus is the Hazel-nut Weevil. The infested 
nuts fall early. Most of our other species feed on acorns. 
B. rectus has a beak which, in the female, is nearly twice 
the length of the body but in the other acorn-eating species 
the beak is relatively shorter. B. rectus has "the habit, 
not known in the other species, of sealing the egg-hole 
with excrement, thus forming a whitish spot." 

Tachypterus [Anthonomus] quadrigihbus is the Apple 
Curculio. It is dark red; about .17 in. long; pronotum 
with three lines of white pubescence; each elytron with 
two prominent tubercles toward the back. The larvae 
feed for about three weeks in the flesh of green apples and 
pupate there. Even more damage is done by the adults 
which feed on tender shoots or puncture the ripening fruit 
in order to feed, causing it to become "dimpled and 
gnarled." Adults hibernate. 

Anthonomus signatus is the Strawberry Weevil. It is 
not over .13 in. long. The injury is done by the females, 
which lay their eggs in the strawberry buds and then cut 
the stems so that the buds fall to the ground. A nthonomus 
grandis, the Cotton-boll Weevil, has cost Texas alone more 
than $150,000,000. It is a Mexican insect that spread 
northward throughout practically the whole of the cotton 
belt, due to the short-sightedness of legislatures in neither 
appropriating sufficient money nor passing stringent enough 
laws to control it at the start. 

Ampeloglypter sesostris is pale reddish-brown, about 
.12 in. long. It lays its eggs in grape canes, giving rise 
to galls about twice the diameter of the cane and an inch 
26 401 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



or so long, with a deep scar on one side. There are usually 
a number of these galls in a row. A . ater is much like it, 
but black. Its female also lays her eggs in grapevines but, 
instead of putting them in a longitudinal line, she deposits 
them in a circle around the cane, girdling the vine so that 
it breaks off. 

Trichobaris trinotata is about .14 in. long; black, with 
white, scale-like hairs, except on the scutellum and two 
spots on the pronotum. Its larva is the Potato-stalk 
Borer but it also lives in nettle. 

Craponius incequalis, the Grape Curculio, is not over 
.13 in. long; dark brown, with scattered patches of whitish 
hairs. The hibernated adults feed on grape leaves until 
the berries are about a fourth grown when the female lays 
her eggs in them, the larvae feeding on the seeds, and 
dropping to the ground to pupate under stones, and the 
like, or just below the surface. 

Ceutorhyncus rapes larvae live in the seed stalks of 
cabbage but more often in wild Crucifers. 

Conotrachelus nenuphar (Plate LXXXVI) is the Plum 
Curculio but it breeds also in peach, cherry, and apple, 
causing an annual loss in the United States of more than 
$8,000,000. It is about .25 in. long; dark brown, varied 
with black; pubescence brownish-yellow, forming a curved, 
forked line on each side of the pronotum ; an elytral band of 
yellow and white hairs back of the middle. "The adults 
hibernate, and issue from their winter quarters about 
the time the trees are in bloom, feeding on the tender 
foliage, buds, and blossoms. Later they attack the newly 
set fruit, cutting small circular holes through the skin 
in feeding, while the females, in the operation of egg-laying, 
make the small, crescent-shaped punctures so commonly 
found on plums and other stone fruits. The egg, deposited 
under the skin of the fruit, soon hatches into a very small 
whitish grub, which makes its way into the flesh of the 
fruit. Here it feeds greedily and grows rapidly, becoming, 
in the course of a fortnight, the fat, dirty white 'worm' 
so well known to fruit growers. When the larva obtains 
full growth, which requires some twelve to eighteen days, 
it bores its way out of the fruit and enters the soil, where it 
forms an earthen cell in which to pupate." 
402 



BILL=BUGS AND GRAIN=WEEVILS. 



Strawberry plants are often dwarfed or killed by the 
larvae of Tyloderma fragrance, which mine out the interior 
of the crown. 

Calandrinse 

This rather small group, also called Rhynchophoridae, 
of usually large (relative to other Curculionidas) beetles 
are the Bill-Bugs and Grain-Weevils. The larvae of the 
larger species bore into the stems of plants; those of the 
smaller ones feed on seeds and grain. Rhynchophorus 
cruentatus is usually more than .75 in. long, shiny black 
or partly red, and lives in the cabbage palmetto of the 
Southern States. It is the largest of our species. The 
antennal club is wedge-shaped in Rhodobcenus (third tarsal 
joint broad, spongy beneath, the brush narrowly divided) 
and Sphenophorus (this joint smooth, at least in the 
middle) ; the species of each are .2 in., or more, long. The 
antennal club of Calandra is oval, and the species are 
smaller. Rhodobcenus ij-punctatus is black beneath; 
above, red with five black spots on the pronotum and a 
number of more or less confluent ones on the elytra. It 
breeds in the stems of a variety of weeds. An allied species 
attacks sugar cane in the West Indies. 

. There are a large number of species, and 

their differentiation is difficult. "The 
corn bill-bugs (or 'elephant bugs'), as the species of 
Sphenophorus are commonly called, pass the winter in the 
imago [adult] stage among dead leaves and rubbish, and 
lay eggs early in the following summer, beginning probably 
in May. The larvae hatch in June, feed on the bulbous 
roots of grasses and grass-like plants, including corn, 
pass into the pupal stage in July, and begin to emerge as 
imagoes late in July, continuing into August and possibly 
for some time thereafter. The normal food plants are 
wild grasses, especially those with bulbous roots" (Blatch- 
ley and Leng). 



403 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Two cosmopolitan species may be men- 
\ tioned. C. granaria, probably the first 

i beetle to attract man's notice, is about .13 in. long; chest- 

z nut-brown to black, moderately shining; the pronotum 

1 with coarse, oval punctures ; the elytra with small punctures 

£ in the longitudinal grooves. It is wingless and is found 

about granaries or wherever grain goes. The larvae live 
s inside the kernels, a single grain of wheat being food 

( enough for one. This does not sound very destructive, 

c but the females are prolific and there are from three to 

\ probably more than six generations a year. Authorities 

] have estimated that its food costs us about twenty million 

dollars a year. C. oryzce, (Plate LXXXVI) is called the 
t Rice Weevil and is probably a native of India but now 

t infests all sorts of stored grain in this country. It is less 

1 than .13 in. long; reddish-brown to black, not shining; 

each elytron with two reddish spots. It is more apt to be 

found in crackers and packages of cereals than is granaria. 

, Scolytid^e 

i The U. S. Department of Agriculture has stated that if 

the timber destroyed by Scolytidae in the United States 
during the past fifty years were living to-day, its stum page 

, value would be more than $1,000,000,000. For the most 

part, these beetles live between the bark and the wood, 
making galleries which are often quite characteristic of the 
particular species that fashioned them and which cause 
the insects to be called Engraver Beetles. The insects 
are small and their taxonomy is difficult. The eyes are 
usually oblong (see Bostrychidae). The following sub- 
families have been recognized. 

1. Anterior tarsi with the first joint longer than the next 
three combined. Platypodinae, of which our only genus is 
Platypus. They frequently come to light in the Southern 
States. 

Anterior tarsi with first joint shorter than the next ( 
three combined 2. 

2. Anterior tibiae with a prominent process on the outer | 
apical angle Scolytinae. 

Anterior tibiae without such a process Ipinae. | 

404 



ENGRAVER BEETLES. 



Scolytus rugulosus (Plate LXXXVI), the Fruit-tree 
Bark-beetle, is typical of the Scolytinae. The numerous 
small "worm-holes," which make the outside of the bark 
look as if it had received a load of shot, are formed by the 
adults in boring out. Each female then burrows in at a 
new place and eats a vertical tunnel partly in the bark and 
partly in the sap-wood. Along the sides of this tunnel 
she makes small pockets and puts an egg in each. The 
young larvae tunnel at right angles to the "broad burrow" 
and each pupates at the end of its own burrow. When the 
adults emerge from these pupae, they bore straight out 
and so give the tree the " shot " appearance. If the insects 
are very numerous, their galleries girdle the tree and it 
dies, although it happens that this particular species 
usually works in trees that are dying from some other 
cause. S. 4-spinosus terribly damages the hickory trees 
near New York and its "bird-shot" emergence holes are a 
common sight. 

The subfamily Ipinae contains most of our species. 
Their food-habits are various but they usually live in 
trees, some in the solid wood instead of just beneath the 
bark. It should be said that many, especially those living 
in diseased wood, seem to feed more on the fungus ("am- 
brosia") which grows in their galleries than they do on the 
wood. Probably emerging females carry, but not inten- 
tionally, the spores of these fungi when they leave their 
childhood homes to start new establishments. 



Strepsiptera 

These curious creatures are put in a separate order, as 
here, by some good authorities, while others class them as a 
family, Stylopidas, of heteromerous beetles. They are all 
parasitic upon other insects. The females are wingless 
and Plate LXXXV shows one sticking out of the abdomen 
of a wasp. The same plate shows a typical winged male, 
greatly enlarged. 

405 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Hymenoptera 



To the layman these are the Saw-flies, Ants, Bees, and 
Wasps; the last-mentioned name referring principally to 
the Vespoidea and Sphecoidea, and only in a hazy way to 
the large number of other Hymenoptera which are neither 
ants nor bees. The State Geological and Natural History 
Survey of Connecticut has recently published a large 
Guide to the Hymenoptera of that State by H. L. Viereck 
and others. The more special students of taxonomy are 
referred to this and from it I have drawn freely for the 
few remarks on classification which space permits us. 

The notes on wing-venation refer to the front wings. 
The following names (see the text- figure) are the ones 




used here: A, stigma; B, costal vein; C, subcostal vein; 
D, marginal vein; E, transverse cubital veins; F, basal 
vein ; G and H, first and second recurrent veins ; 7, subdis- 
coidal vein; /, discoidal vein; K, cubital vein; a, marginal 
cell; b, median cell; c, d, e, and/, first, second, third, and 
fourth submarginal or cubital cells; g, submedian cell; 
h, i, j, first, second, and third discoidal cells. 

Hymenoptera are divided into a number of super- 
families, which may be roughly characterized as follows, 
the order not being natural but for convenience. 



406 



ANTS, BEES, AND WASPS. 



(a) TEXTHREDIXOIDEA — Xo marked constriction 
between the thorax and abdomen, the abdomen being 
broadly joined to the thorax; trochanters (the part between 
the basal joint and the long femur) two-jointed. Saw- 
flies; see p. 408. 

In the groups b to j there is a marked constriction 
between the thorax and abdomen, the two being joined 
by a relatively thin stem (petiole or pedicel), which may 
be either very short or long. 

(b) CHALCIDOIDE A— Usually less than an eighth of 
an inch in length and metallic in appearance ; trochanters 
two-jointed; antennae elbowed, with one or more ring-like 
segments between the shaft and lash; wings, if any, with 
but few veins; wingless forms with indistinct or no ocelli; 
female's ovipositor issuing from the ventral surface of the 
abdomen some distance before the tip. See p. 414. 

(0 SERPHOIDEA— The Pelecinidae have one-jointed 
trochanters; abdomen, and also antennae, long and slender; 
black; front wings with no closed submarginal cells. The 
others have two-jointed trochanters; body not metallic, 
usually black with sometimes brown or red ; antennae 
straight or, if elbowed, without the ring-like segments; 
the wingless forms with distinct ocelli; ovipositor issuing 
from the tip of the abdomen. See p. 415. 

(d) CYXIPOIDEA. — Trochanters two-jointed; antennae 
with not more than 16 joints; front wings, if present, 

bout stigma (a thickening of the costal vein at about 
two-thirds of the way along the front margin of the front 
wing) but usually with one or more closed cells; antennae 
straight; body "flea-like." See p. 414. 

(e) ICHXEUMOXOIDEA— Trochanters two-jointed 
ept in rare forms) ; antennae with more than 16 joints; 

front wings, if present, with a stigma and one or more 
-:i cells; antennae straight. See p. 411. 

In groups / to j the trochanters are always one-jointed. 

(/) CHRYSIDOIDE A.— Only three abdominal segments 
visible ; bright green, bluish, or golden ; antennae short and 
elbowed; front wings with no closed submarginal cells. 
See p. 424. 

(g) FORMICOIDEA. — First apparent abdominal seg- 
ment (sometimes also the second) forming a lens-shaped 

407 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS, 



scale or knot, strongly differentiated from the rest of the 
abdomen. (In what follows I will leave off the word 
"apparent"; really the first abdominal segment of all 
but the Tenthredinoidea is so closely fused to the thorax 
that it does not appear as part of the abdomen and may, 
for practical purposes, be forgotten.) The Formicoidea 
are the True Ants and the workers are always wingless. 
Seep. 415. 

In groups h toj the petiole is not scale-like or nodiform; 
body often hairy. 

(h) APOIDEA. — First segment of hind tarsus (basi- 
or metatarsus) expanded, flattened, and usually very 
hairy; trochanters one-jointed; many of the hairs branched; 
adults always winged. Bees; see p. 439. 

In groups i and j (as well as in other Hymenoptera 
which are not bees), the basitarsus is not as described for 
bees and the body-hairs are not branched. 

(i) VESPOIDEA .— Pronotum extending back so that 
its hind angles or tubercles touch or reach above the 
tegulae (scale-like bodies, one in front of the base of each 
wing) ; wingless forms are densely hairy; some of the winged 
forms fold the front wings longitudinally when at rest. 
Seep. 425. 

(J) SPHECOIDEA — Hind angles of pronotum remote 
from tegulae and on a lower level (this is true also of the 
bees); never wingless; front wings never folded. See 
p. 430. 

TENTHREDINOIDEA 

The ovipositor of the female Saw-fly consists of an 
external, flattened plate on each side ("saw-guides") 
and two flattened, pointed, yellowish plates ("saws") 
between them. The larvae either feed on the leaves of 
plants or within their stems, including tree-trunks; some 
of them make galls. Saw-fly larvae have only one ocellus 
on each side of the head, whereas caterpillars have several; 
also their abdominal legs, if present, do not have the circles 
of hooklets possessed by Lepidoptera. The larva' of[ 
Siricidas and Cephidoe are practically legless; when saw- 
fly larvae have abdominal legs, there is always a pair on| 
40$ 



Plate LXXXVII 




Tremex columba 
409 



Pteronldea 
nbeVi 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



the fifth segment; larvae of some of the Tenthredinidae 
have as many as eleven pairs of legs, including those on 
the thorax. 

Our few species of Xyelid^e may be known by their 
antennas: the third of the more than three segments 
usually being longer than all the following segments put 
together. The larvae feed externally on various trees. 

The hind margin of the pronotum of the Pamphiliid^e 
is scarcely indented. A common species is Neurotoma 
fasciata (Plate LXXXVII) whose larvae web the leaves 
of wild cherry. 

In the following families the pronotum is frequently so 
indented that the middle portion seems absent. 

The anterior tibiae of the Tenthredinidae have two 
apical spurs, while those of the following families have 
but one. This is a very large family, including most of 
the saw-flies. The following notes on larval food-habits 
are merely suggestive: Diprion on conifers; Dolerus are 
grass-feeders; Endelomyia cethiops is a common rose-leaf 
pest; Calichroa cerasi is the cherry and pear "slug"; 
Cimbex americana (Plate LXXXVII) is the big, white 
larva, common on willow, also found on elm, poplar, 
and linden; Cladius pectinicornis on roses in spring, also 
on clematis; Diphadnus appendiculatus is the Gooseberry 
Saw-fly; Euura and Pontania make galls on willow; 
Pteronidea ribesi (Plate LXXXVII) is the common Cur- 
rant-worm, also on gooseberry; ■ Monophadnoides rubi 
is the Raspberry Saw-fly ; Erythraspides pygmcea on grape. 

The antennae of the Oryssid^ are situated just above 
the mandibles under a transverse ridge which conceals 
their bases. The larva of Oryssus sayi bores in maple. 

The Cephid/E are slender saw-flies of rather soft texture. 
The larvae of Janus integer tunnel the pith of currants; of 
A dims trimaculatus bore in the stems of blackberry; and of 
Cephus pygmczus in wheat. 

410 



SAW=FLIES. PARASITIC WASPS. 



The Xiphydriid^e are moderate-sized creatures with 
quite a long neck; the ovipositor is cylindrical; the last 
dorsal plate of the abdomen (see Siricidas) does not end in a 
triangular or lance-shaped process. 

The Siricid^e are the Horn-tails. The last dorsal 
plate of the abdomen ends in a triangular or lance-shaped 
process. These insects are wood-borers and sometimes 
emerge in our houses from fire-wood or even furniture. 

The adult Pigeon Tremex is well repre- 
coTumbl sented in Plate LXXXVII. It is also 

called Horn-tail. The cylindrical larva, 
with three. pairs of legs near its head and a "horn" near 
the other end, bores in the trunks of diseased maple, elm, 
and other trees. It pupates in the larval burrow after 
making a cocoon of silk and chips. On emerging, the 
adult leaves a hole about the diameter of a lead pencil. 

ICHNEUMONOIDEA 

This is one of the most important groups of insects, from 
an economic standpoint, but the classification of its species 
is no task for any but the specialist. Many millions of 
these ichneumon "wasps" are working every year, with 
the assistance of other parasitic insects, in keeping down 
insect pests and insects which might be pests. To be 
sure, others, as "secondary parasites," prey upon the foes 
of our foes, and it is one of the problems of professional 
economic entomologists to know one from the other; 
but in this group so much depends on the general looks of a 
species, its "habitus," that experience and named collec- 
tions are necessary to easy identification. 

The easiest family to recognize, in a general way, is the 
Evaniid^;; the abdomen appears to be joined to the top, 
instead of to the end, of the thorax. Evania urbana and 
appendigaster (Plate LXXXVIII) have blunt abdomens 
and breed in the eggs of cockroaches. 

Plate XXXVIII shows the cocoons of one of the 
Braconid^e on a Sphingid caterpillar. The larvae live 
411 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



within the caterpillar but come out and pupate just before 
their host dies. Bunches of such cocoons are often found 
fastened on plants; these belong to species which leave 
their host before pupating. Other species live in plant- 
lice, pupating within their host's dead body and cutting 
a neat, circular hole through the abdominal wall when 
emerging. Usually a member of the superfamily Ichneu- 
monoidea which has no more than two apparent, dorsal, 
abdominal segments is a Brachonid, especially if the cut- 
ting edge of the mandibles be turned inwardly. 

The family Ichneumonid^e includes the largest and 
most frequently noticed species. The first abdominal 
segment is broadened or bulbous, not cylindrical. Fre- 
quently a promising Saturnid cocoon contains one of these, 
Ophion macrurum (Plate LXXXVIII), instead of its 
rightful owner. The Ophion larva, which was feeding 
inside the caterpillar, allowed its host to live until the 
cocoon was made, then killed the maker, spun a dense, 
brownish cocoon of its own as an additional protection, 
and pupated. 

__ . A more commonly used name is Thalessa. 

Megarhyssa , , , , , , T , 

Most of the female Ichneumonoidea carry 

their ovipositors protruding from the tip of their bod)'', 
but the ovipositors in this genus are long, even when 
compared with the large size of insects. They are parasi- 
tic upon wood-boring larva:, such as Tremex, and are, in 
turn, parasitized by Ibalia. Delicate as the ovipositor 
seems to be, the female is able, with it, to pierce solid 
wood in order to deposit an egg in the burrow of the Tremex 
within the tree's trunk (Plate LXXXVIII). I do not 
know how the females decide where to bore. The egg is 
not necessarily laid near the Tremex larva but the burrow 
must be reached and this is rarely, if ever, half an inch 
wide. Because of the popular interest in the subject, 
I assure you that the creature does not sting and give a 
modification of Mr. Vicrcck's key to some of our species. 

i. Wings without dark patches 2. 

Wings with dark patches; more than .75 in. long 4. 

2. More than .75 in. long; exserted portion of ovipositor 

usually at least twice the length of the body 3. 

412 



Plate LXXXVIII 




Spilochalcis morift ' Pel «jj;ft rotor 



413 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Less than .75 in. long; thorax and abdomen entirely 
black nitida. 

3. Female mostly blackish, with fuscous (smoky) wings; 
male mostly dark brown, with a dark, median stripe or 
area on the hind end of the thorax atrata. 

Both sexes mostly pale brown; wings not fuscous; 
abdomen with yellow, lateral stripes, at least in the female ; 
male without the dark marking on the end of the thorax. 

nortoni. 

4. Exserted portion of the ovipositor not much longer 
than the body; front wings not dark brown except in and 
near the marginal cell greenei. 

Exserted portion of the ovipositor two times, or 
more, as long as the body; front wings dark brown along 
the basal vein and elsewhere lunator. 

CYNIPOIDEA 

There are several families in this group, the largest and 
most interesting being the Cynipidae. They are largely gall- 
makers; see p. 457 and Amphibolips, Plate LXXXVIII. 
Some Cynipoidea,,such as Ibalia, the largest of our Cyni- 
poids and parasitic on Megarhyssa, are parasitic; others, 
although breeding in galls, do not have any part in making 
them but merely feed on the plant tissue which grew be- 
cause of the activities of another insect. Some of the 
Cynipid gall-makers have an interesting alternation of 
generations: adults of generation A produce a certain 
kind of gall from which hatches generation B; adults of 
B differ from those of A and make a different kind of gall 
but their offspring are A, starting the cycle over again. 
This matter has not been worked out for the American 
species. 

CHALCIDOIDEA 

A few, such as Isosoma, the "joint- worms" of grain, 
are plant feeders. As a rule, they are parasitic, a large 
number of them being secondary parasites, that is parasitic 
upon parasitic insects. The fact that, in many instances, 
an individual gets its entire nourishment from a single 
414 



THE SMALLEST INSECTS. 



insect egg or a single scale-insect indicates the small size 
of many species. Others feed on larger prey as, for in- 
stance, Pteromalus puparum on the cabbage-worm. Only 
last week a small boy brought in numbers of the yellow 
Spilochalcis marice (Plate LXXXVIII) which had come out 
of cecropia cocoons he had gathered. 

SERPHOIDEA 

This superfamily is made up of the Proctotrypid^e 
and Pelecinid^e of the older system of classification and 
is now divided into a number of different families. ^ Almost, 
or quite, all are parasitic. Although they are nearly all 
small, some being, in fact, the smallest of our insects and 
practically invisible to the naked eye, Pelecinus polyturator 
(Plate LXXXVIII) is quite large. It is the only species 
of Pelecinidas within the geographic limits of this book, 
and is parasitic upon the larvae of May beetles, Phyllophaga. 
The elongate abdomen of the female enables her to reach 
the underground larvas; the more normally shaped male is 
quite rare. The small Proctotrupidae breed in the eggs 
of various insects, some even swimming with their wings 
under water to reach the eggs of aquatic forms. 

FORMICOIDEA 

There is only one family, Formicid^e, of Ants. In 
addition to males and sexual females, nearly every species 
has modified females, which rarely reproduce. These 
are the workers. There may be more than one sort of 
worker, in which case they are usually much alike except 
in size but some may be differentiated as "soldiers." It 
is the workers which we ordinarily see and, as they never 
have wings, many people think that all ants are wingless. 
However, the sexual forms, which are usually produced 
but once a year, are fully winged and indulge in a nuptial 
flight. After it, the males die but the females lose their 
wings and settle down to the stay-at-home task of produc- 
ing offspring. The rearing of all except the first of these 
offspring is attended to by the old-maid daughters unless 

415 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



the species has learned the trick of keeping servants 
("slaves"). The pupae of some species are enclosed in 
cocoons (the "ant's eggs" of commerce); those of others 
are naked. 

Ants may be kept alive as pets. To do this, be sure that 
you secure a queen; many workers to take care of things 
are not required and, in fact, an unattended queen will 
often rear attendants, especially if she be young and 
fertile. Things go more smoothly if the workers have 
eggs, larvae, and pupae to start with. The simplest 
formicarium is a goblet set in* a pan of water; in this case 
considerable earth is necessary and one can not well see 
what is going on. Janet used a plaster box much like the 
one described on p. 16 except that he had several com- 
municating chambers; three covers are desirable: a glass 
one having a hole over each chamber (not strictly neces- 
sary), pieces of glass to cover each of these holes, and an 
opaque cover to all but one chamber (the feeding one). 
The Fielde nest is made from two pieces of glass, one for 
top and one for bottom ; the walls are made from strips of 
glass (laid flat) or of heavy toweling, the feeding door 
being a plug of cotton; there should be an opaque cover 
for top and bottom of all but the feeding chamber; moisture 
is supplied by wetting a. slice of sponge in the feeding 
chamber. A little soil (or rotten wood) may be put in the 
Janet nest and should be in the Fielde nest. Feed sugar, 
bits of meat, fruit, or something of the sort. 

The habits of ants are both interesting and diversified. 
Of the many books devoted wholly, or in large part, to 
them, by far the best is Prof. W. M. Wheeler's, published 
by the Columbia University Press under the title of Ants: 
Their Structure, Development, and Behavior. The following 
key to the principal genera of our region refers only to 
workers and, since it does not include all of the genera, no 
surprise need be felt if all of your specimens do not fit. I 
hope they will not fit in the wrong place. Following it 
are a few notes to serve as starters. The key and notes 
are largely extracts from Wheeler's chapter in the Hymen- 
optera of Connecticut. 



416 



KEY TO GENERA OF ANTS. 



i. Cloacal orifice ventral, slit-shaped 7» 

Cloacal orifice terminal, circular, surrounded by a 
fringe of hairs; abdominal pedicel consisting of only a 
single segment; no constiiction between the first and 
second gastric segments (The gaster is the swollen portion 
of the abdomen); pupae usually enclosed in a cocoon. 
Camponotinae 2. 

2. Antennae 9-jointed Brachymyrmex. 

More than 9 antennal joints 3. 

3. Workers strongly polymorphic, i. e., some large- 
headed, some small-headed, and some intermediate .... 

Camponotus. 

Workers not polymorphic though often of variable 

size 4. 

4. Clypeal depression (The clypeus is the lower part of 
the face; the labrum, or lip, is attached to it.) distinctly 
separated from antennal depression Prenolepis. 

Clypeal depression confluent with antennal depres- 
sion 5. 

5. Second to fifth joints of funiculus (the antenna 
beyond the first joint; the "lash") not longer than succeed- 
ing joints; ocelli usually absent Lasius. 

These joints longer than the succeeding; ocelli distinct; 
fourth joint of maxillary palpi a little longer than fifth. ... 6. 

6. Mandibles with broad, dentate, apical border. Formica. 
Mandibles narrow, falcate, and pointed. .Polyergus. 

7. Sting developed, sometimes very small but still 
exsertile; pedicel consisting of one or two segments (when 
of only one, a distinct constriction between first and 
second gastric segments) 9. 

Sting vestigial; pedicel with one segment; no con- 
striction between first and second gastric segments; often 
with a peculiar, rancid-butter odor; pupae naked. Doli- 
choderinas 8. 

8. Chitinous integument hard and brittle, often strongly 
sculptured; thorax and petiole often spinose or angular. 

Dolichoderus. 

Integument thin and flexible, smooth or very finely 

sculptured; thorax and petiole unarmed; scale of petiole 

vestigial or absent Tapinoma. 



*7 



417 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



9. Pupae naked; abdominal pedicel consisting of two 
segments 10. 

Pupae enclosed in cocoons; pedicel with one segment; 
gaster with a distinct constriction between its first and 
second segments; frontal ridges separated or, if close 
together, dilated to form oblique or horizontal plates 
partly covering insertions of antennae. Ponerinae, of 
which Ponera coarctata is our common species. It nests 
under stones and in rotten logs in open woods and along 
hedges. 

10. Frontal ridges very close together, almost vertical, 
not at all covering antennal insertions; eyes always 
very small or absent; tropical or subtropical. Dorylinae. 

Frontal ridges of a different conformation and cover- 
ing antennal insertions; eyes rarely vestigial or absent. 
Myrmicinas. In the following, workers are developed and 
clypeus usually extends back between frontal ridges . ... II. 

11. Postpetiole joined to upper surface of gaster, which is 
flattened above, more convex below, and pointed at tip. 

Cremastogaster. 

Postpetiole joined to front end of gaster, which 

is of the usual shape; antennal club consisting of several 

joints, or antennae not 1 i-jointed 12. 

12. Antennae 10-jointed, with a 2-jointed club . . Solenopsis. 
Antennal club, when developed, with more than 

two joints 13. 

13. Posterior margin of clypeus elevated in the form of a 
welt, bordering antennal depression in front; antennae 
of workers with 11 (sub-genus Xiphomyrmex) or 12 joints, 
of male 10-jointed Tetramorium. 

Posterior border of clypeus not thus elevated 14. 

14. Antennae 1 i-jointed 15. 

Antennae 12-jointed 16. 

15. Thorax and petiole without any traces of teeth or 
spines; pronotum never angular; petiole distinctly pedun- 
culate Monomorium. 

Epinotum (posterior part of thorax, above) armed 
with spines or teeth. Leptothorax (see 19); Symmyrmica, 
which fits here, may also be found. 

16. Workers strongly dimorphic, usually without inter- 

418 



Plate LXXXIX 



Monomon 
pharaonis 





Cremastogaster 

'ineolatQ 



Tetramonum 
coespitum 





schaujussi Poly erqus 

'ucidus 



Lasius niger 
var. americonus 




Camponoius pennsylvanicus 
419 




WorK Anat 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



mediates; antennal club 3-jointed, longer than remainder 

of funiculus Pheidole. 

Workers monomorphic or polymorphic, i. e., with 
intermediates; antennal club indistinct or shorter than 
remainder of funiculus 17. 

17. Last three antennal joints much shorter than re- 
mainder of funiculus and not forming a distinct club; 
back of thorax with an impressed suture 18. 

Last three antennal joints forming a distinct club 
nearly as long as remainder of funiculus 19. 

18. Spurs of hind tibiae comb-like Myrmica. 

Spurs of hind tibiae simple; eyes well developed; 

no keels on clypeus; workers monomorphic. .Aphamogaster. 

19. Clypeus with a pair of ridges which usually project 
forward in the form of teeth Monomorium. 

Clypeus of a different conformation, rarely 2 -toothed ; 
postpetiole constricted behind Leptothorax (see 15). 

Monomorium pharaonis (Plate LXXXIX) is the little 
red or yellow ant which is often abundant in our houses. 
A native of the Old World, it is now widely distributed. 
M. minimum is very small and jet-black. It makes small 
crater nests in sandy places. The workers move in files, 
visiting plants in search of honey-dew and the secretion of 
the extrafloral nectaries. 

Solenopsis molesta. The minute, yellow workers are 
common in open, grassy places where they may have nests 
of their own under stones or they may tunnel the walls 
of nests belonging to larger ants, stealing their food. 

Pheidole pilifera is a true harvesting ant, storing the cham- 
bers of its nests with seeds, especially of grass. The huge- 
headed soldiers undoubtedly function as seed-crushers. 

Cremastogaster lineolata (Plate LXXXIX), in several 
varieties, is very common under stones, boards, etc. It 
often makes paper-like partitions in its nest or over aphids 
and coccids on plants — "cow sheds." The workers, which 
have a disagreeable odor, move about in loose files and 
often carry the triangular gaster over the thorax with the 
tip turned forward. 

Aplicenogasler (several species) is usually found in shady 
woods, in rotten wood, and under stones. 
420 



ANTS. 

Myrmica punctiventris has coarse, scattered punctures 
on the first gastric segment; scabrinodis and its varieties 
have the antennal scape toothed or lobed at base; brevin- 
odis, and its varieties, have the scape merely curved. The 
latter is host to species of Leptothorax and nests in bog- 
hummocks. 

Leptothorax emersoni obtains its food by licking the 
surfaces and mouth parts of the Myrmica workers, and 
brings up its brood in little cells which communicate, by 
means of slender galleries, with the larger chambers and 
runways of Myrmica. L. curcispinosus nests in hollow 
twigs, empty galls, etc.; it is yellow, with two dark spots 
on the first gastric segment. 

Tetramorium ccEspitum (Plate LXXXIX), from Europe, 
occurs on lawns and in greenhouses. 

Dolichoderus marice has a bright red head and thorax. 
It forms large colonies, nesting in sandy places about the 
roots of grasses and bushes. The workers ascend trees in 
files and attend aphids and coccids. The colonies of D. 
plagiatus are small; the head and thorax are coarsely 
punctate and the gaster has large, yellowish-red spots. 

Tapinoma sessile nests under things, usually in sunny 
places. The larvae and pupae are salmon-colored. 

Brachymyrmex heeri depilis is very small. It nests 
under stones in shady woods and attends coccids on the 
roots of plants. 

Prenolepis imparls makes small crater nests in oak 
woods, especially on clayey soil. The workers visit trees 
for the purpose of attending aphids, obtaining the secre- 
tion of extrafloral nectaries, etc. After imbibing these 
liquids, the gaster often becomes so distended that it is 
four or five times its normal size and the insects walk 
with difficulty. In this replete condition imparis workers 
may be said to represent a temporary stage of the more 
extraordinary enlargement of the gaster seen in the honey 
ants (Myrmecocystus) of the Southwestern States and 
Mexico. The males and females of imparis often pass the 
winter in the parental nest and celebrate their nuptial 
flight early in the spring. 

Lasins niger americanus (Plate LXXXIX) has 6-jointed 
maxillary palpi, the last three joints being elongated and 
421 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



of nearly equal length ; scapes and legs without erect hairs. 
"This ant, which passes in much of our entomological 
literature as L. alienus, is not only the commonest of our 
numerous species of Lasius, but the most abundant of 
our ants, and hence, of all our insects. It occurs over the 
whole of North America, except the extreme southern and 
southwestern portions, from timberline on the highest 
mountains to the sands of seashore. Even in circum- 
scribed localities it shows, in its nesting sites, great adapt- 
ability to different physical conditions, from the damp 
rotten wood of dense forests to the sandy soil of dry, sunny 
roads. Usually the workers living in the latter stations 
are much paler in color than the woodland forms. The 
nests are indifferently under bark, logs, or stones, in rotten 
wood or in soil. When in the open soil, they are sur- 
mounted by small single or clustered craters. Like all 
of our other species of Lasius, L. niger var. americanus 
is much given to cultivating root aphids in the chambers 
and galleries of its nests; but, with the exception of the 
variety neoniger [scapes and legs beset with erect hairs], 
it is the only one of our forms that is not exclusively sub- 
terranean in its habits." 

A few of the species of Formica may be separated as 
follows: 

i. Clypeus with a notch in middle of anterior border. 
F. sanguinea; var. subintegra is light red, with brown 
gaster, and var. rubicunda, among others, is deep red, with 
black gaster. 

Clypeus without such notch 2. 

2. Posterior border of head broadly excised 

F. exsectoides. 
Posterior border of head not excised 3. 

3. Body rather stout; head of larger workers usually 
but little longer than broad; second to third funicular 
joints much more elongated than sixth to eighth; color red, 
with brown or black gaster 4. 

Body more slender and graceful; head of larger 
workers distinctly longer than broad; second to third 
funicular joints but little more elongated than sixth to 

eighth; color rarely as in preceding 5. 

422 



SLAVES AND SLAVE-MAKERS. 



4. Petiole broad, with sharp upper border; body and 
lower surface of head without erect hairs 

F. truncicola Integra. 

Petiole narrow, thick, and blunt above 

F. difficilis consocians. 

5. Middle funicular joints more than one and a half 
times as long as broad; scape very slender and nearly 
straight; petiole with convex anterior and posterior sur- 
faces, and blunt upper margin; body smooth and rather 
shining F. pallide-fulva. 

Middle funicular joints usually less than one and a 
half times as long as broad; scape distinctly curved at 
base; posterior surface of petiole flat; body more densely 
pubescent F. fusca. 

F. sanguined usually nests under stones in grassy places 
along the edges of woods. It obtains slaves, or auxiliary 
workers, by kidnapping the larvag and pupag of fusca 
subsericea. 

F. exsectoides occurs chiefly in the Alleghanies. It 
nests in and under mounds which it constructs of earth 
and vegetable debris. Not only are these mounds often 
three or four feet in diameter and a foot or two high, but a 
single colony often extends over several mounds. The 
females get a start by establishing their colonies in de- 
pauperate colonies of fusca subsericea. It feeds partly, 
at least, on dead insects. 

F. truncicola integra is our largest and most conspicuous 
form of truncicola. The nests are in piles of large stones or 
in old logs and stumps; they are stuffed with bits of grass 
and leaves. Like most other species of Formica, integra 
is much given to attending aphids. It is most abundant 
in hilly regions, where it prefers clearings in the forests. 

The females of F. difficilis consocians, which are yellow 
and hardly larger than the largest workers, are temporary 
parasites in the nests of schaufussi var. incerta. Soon after 
fertilization the queen seeks adoption in some depauperate 
and probably queenless colony of incerta and there permits 
her hosts to bring up her young. Later the incerta workers 
die off, leaving the consocians as a pure and independent 
colony, which grows rapidly in size and shows no evidence 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



of its parasitic origin. The nests resemble those of Integra 
but are smaller. 

The subspecies, schaufussi (Plate LXXXIX), of F. 
pallide-fulva, is yellowish or reddish-brown, gaster but little 
darker; it has erect hairs on the lower surface of the head 
and on the petiolar border. It is one of the commonest 
species of Formica and nests in rather small colonies under 
stones or in small, obscure mound-nests in sunny, grassy 
fields. Its food consists largely of dead insects and the 
excrement of aphids. See Polyergus lucidus. 

Formica fusca var. subsericea is extremely common. 
Its habits are much like those of schaufussi and, like it, 
subsericea is very timid. As the preceding notes show, it 
is a very convenient creature for its relatives. 

Polyergus lucidus (Plate LXXXIX) is called the "shin- 
ing slave-maker" or "shining amazon." Its slaves are 
bred from pupas of Formica schaufussi, which are taken 
from their maternal nests by the warlike lucidus workers. 
The latter are quite unable to feed themselves, excavate 
their nests, or care for their own brood, but have to depend 
for these important activities on the schaufussi workers. 
Hence the ants of this species are quite unable to live an 
independent life and may be regarded as permanently 
parasitic on fragments of schaufussi colonies which they 
bring together with great skill. 

The commonest Camponotus is herculeanus pennsylvani- 
cus (Plate LXXXIX). It is the big, black Carpenter 
Ant, which usually nests in shady woods in old logs and 
stumps, whence it may migrate into old farm-houses and 
suburban residences. In such an event, it becomes 
a pest, both by riddling the wood- work with its large 
galleries and by hunting for sweets. 

CHRYSIDOIDEA 

The scientific name refers to the golden color of certain 
(European) species and "Ruby Wasps" to the color of 
others, but most American species are metallic green or 
blue. " Cuckoo- wasps " is a name which describes their 
habits, since they lay their eggs in the nests of other 
Hymenoptera and their larvae deprive the rightful owner 
of food, if they do not actually eat the owner first. The 
424 



Plate XC 




El rs 

5-cmcta 



Mutilla 

occidenialis 



\ 



*A, h 




Chrysis % . 

coeruleans turneries raternus 




\\ ''< Monobia 

quDflriflens 
(Jaijnerus bi rem maculQius 




Vespa communis 
''V. crabro' Vmaculata 



IYWUL WAi>W> AWU HUUWU!>. 



hind part of the abdomen is modified to form a retractile 
tube. The colors are extremely beautiful and well repay 
the use of a lens. We have but one family, Chrysidid^e. 
The following key to certain genera is practically that of 
the Hymenoptera of Connecticut. 

i. Tongue not longer than thorax 2. 

Tongue longer than thorax, bee-like Parnopes. 

2. Third abdominal segment with grooves or pits near 
the margin ; head at least as broad as postscutellum .... 

Chrysis (Plate XC). 
Third abdominal segment without such grooves 3. 

3. Tarsal claw with 2 to 6 teeth besides apical one 4. 

Not so 5. 

4. Apical abdominal segment produced as if pinched; 
apical margin of third abdominal segment indented, the 
indentations more or less filled with a membrane . Notozus. 

Apical segment not "pinched"; margin of third 
segment notched, rounded Omalus. 

5. One small, perpendicular tooth in middle of tarsal 
claw Hedychridium. 

Tarsal claws cleft Hedychrum. 



VESPOIDEA 

The typical "Wasps," Hornets, and their relatives, 
belong here. 

1. Winged 2. 

Wingless, or with wings much reduced in size 10. 

2. Hind wings without distinct venation, with no closed 
cells. Parasitic 3. 

Hind wings with well-developed venation and closed 
cells 4. 

3. Head oblong, rather flat above; antennae inserted at 
the clypeus, at least 12 joints; small, usually black or 
bronzed; females often wingless; abdomen more or less 
elongate Bethylid/E. 

Head transverse or somewhat squared; antennae 
10- jointed; front tarsi of female usually pincer- shaped . . . . 

Dryinid^e. 

425 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



4. Wings folded longitudinally when at rest (They are 
indistinctly so in the Masarid^ of our West, which have 
the end joints of the antennae thickened and more or less 
fused) ; first discoidal cell much longer than the submedian; 
antennas distinctly elbowed 5. 

Wings not folded when at rest 6. 

5. Middle tibiae with one spur at apex; tarsal claws 
with one or more teeth Eumenid/E (p. 428). 

Middle tibiae with two spurs at apex; tarsal claws 
simple Vespid^e (p. 430). 

6. Legs long, the hind femora reaching to or beyond 
the apex of the abdomen; tibiae and tarsi nearly always 
spiny or serrate ; middle tibiae with two spurs 

PSAMMOCHARID.E (p. 428). 

Legs of usual length 7. 

7. A strong constriction or transverse furrow between 
the first two segments of the abdomen, beneath 8. 

No such furrow; clypeus nearly, or quite, as long 
as wide; margin of eyes indented. Sapygid;e. Sapyga 
is the only Northeastern genus; in centrata the yellow line 
on inner orbits extends beyond the top of the eyes, and in 
americana it does not. They are parasitic on bees and 
wasps. 

8. Middle coxae usually widely separated by a bilobed or 
triangular prolongation of the mesosternum ; tibiae usually 
flattened, with bristles exteriorly Scoliid.<e (p. 427). 

Middle coxae touching 9. 

9. Hind wings with an anal lobe, separated by a deep, 
narrow notch. With three submarginal cells and no 
upturned spine at apex of abdomen: male Myrmosid.«e; 
the only species in the Northeast is Myrmosa unicolor. 
With two submarginal cells and an upturned spine at 
apex of abdomen: Methocid^e, of which Methoca stygia 
is the only northeastern species. 

Hind wings without an anal lobe, at most obtusely 
indented; body hairy, the hairs often brightly colored. 

Male Mutillid^e (p. 427). 

10. Back of thorax without visible sutures 

Female Mutillid^e (p. 427). 
Back of thorax with one suture. Female Myr- 
MOSID^e (sec 9). 

426 



VELVET " ANTS.' 



Back of thorax with two sutures n. 

ii. Head long, usually distinctly longer than broad, 
flattened above, the front horizontal; legs stout. Some 
female Bethylule (see 3). 

Head transverse, squared or rounded 12. 

12. Antennae 10-jointed; front tarsi usually pincer- 
shaped. Some Dryinid^e (see 3). 

Antennae 12- jointed; front tarsi normal. Metho- 
cid^e (see 9). 

Antennae 13-jointed; wings present as small pads. 
A few male Mutillhxe: (see below). 

SCOLIID/E 

These hairy wasps burrow in the ground in search of 
the larvae of May-beetles (Phyllophaga, etc.), on which 
their larvae feed. The confusion of names need not con- 
cern us here. The following are some of the genera, named 
according to the Hymenoptera of Connecticut. 

1. Inner margins of eyes indented; with yellow mark- 
ings. 2. 

Inner margins of eyes not indented 4. 

2. Tarsal claws cleft; middle tibiae with two spurs. 
Eliinae. Elis (Plate XC) is our only genus. 

Tarsal claws simple; middle tibiae with one spur. 
Scoliinae 3. 

3. Front wings with two recurrent veins. . . Campsomeris. 
Front wings with one recurrent vein Scolia. 

4. Middle tibiae with two spurs. Anthoboscinas 

Sierolomorpha. 

Middle tibiae with one spur. Tiphiinae 5. 

5. First transverse cubital present but incomplete. Para- 
tiphia, our only Eastern species being algonqidna. 

First transverse cubital wanting. Tiphia; a number 
of species. 

Mutillim: 

These are the Velvet Ants, pretty but the females 
certainly can sting. As far as the amateur is concerned, 
the jNIcthocidae and Myrmosidae might as well be grouped 

4^7 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



with them; they formerly were. The common name is 
well given. The wingless females of these wasps, scurrying 
about in open, especially sandy, places, look like ants 
covered with black, yellow, or red velvet. In the South- 
west some of the species have long, white hair. The 
winged males can not sting; those of some species are often 
found about flowers, others are nocturnal. The two sexes 
of a given species usually have dissimilar markings. 
Most of these insects are unkind guests in the nests of 
other wasps and of bees. The old genus Mutilla (Plate 
XC) is now divided into a number of subgenera, one 
of which is Dasy mutilla. 

PSAMMOCHARID.E 

These are the Pompilidas of older classifications. They 
are rather slender, long-legged, solitary wasps; usually 
black or blue, often with orange bands. The wings are 
usually black and kept jerking while the insect is running 
about. They prey chiefly upon spiders, the big Pepsis 
of the Southwest not stopping short of the "tarantula." 
Most of our species burrow in the ground to form their 
nests but others make cells out of mud, placing them 
under stones, etc., while the larvae of some live in the 
nests of other diggers. Ceropales has the last-named 
habit; the genus may be recognized b}r the claws of the 
hind tarsi being bent at a right angle. Plate XCII shows 
Psammochares atrox. 

EuMENIDvE 

The Potter Wasps seem to me to exceed their immediate 
relatives, at least the solitary ones, in interesting habits. 
The nest of Eumenes fraternus (Plate XC) justifies the com- 
mon name given to the group but all of the species seem to 
use clay more or less, even when their nests are burrows 
in the pith of plant-stems. This is an extensive family 
and, from an economic standpoint, of great importance 
to our farmers and fruit-growers, very few of whom know 
anything at all of the great benefit they are deriving every 
year from these brightly marked wasps. Their prey is 
428 



HORNETS AND YELLOW-JACKETS. 



destructive Lepidopterous and Coleopterous larvae, of 
which they must destroy many thousands every year. 
As with most solitary wasps, the prey is first paralyzed by 
stinging and then packed in the nest as food for the larva 
which will hatch from the egg laid before the nest is sealed. 
Certain genera may be separated as follows: 

i. Abdomen petiolate 2. 

Abdomen sessile, or nearly so 3. 

2. Head large, quadrate, much expanded behind the 
eyes, making the cheeks broad; clypeus broader than long, 
concealing the mandibles, when they are closed . . . Zethus. 

Head not expanded behind the eyes, which almost 
entirely cover the cheeks; clypeus longer than broad; 
mandibles, when closed, extending beneath the head 
like a beak Eumenes. 

3. First abdominal segment funnel-shaped Nortonia. 

Not so 4. 

4. Maxillary palpi with 6 joints Odynerus (Plate XC). 

Maxillary palpi with less than 6 joints 

Monobia (Plate XC). 



Vespid^e 



This is the family which isjisually concerned when people 
speak of Wasps',' hornets, 'or Yellow- jackets. They are 
all social creatures (among themselves) that make nests 
of "paper" formed from chewed wood. In the South there 
is Polybia, whose abdomen is short and ovate beyond the 
first, petiolate, segment; several mothers unite in producing 
the young of a colony. We may, for practical purposes, 
group our northern species in two genera: Vespa, first 
abdominal segment very broad and sharply truncate 
in front; and Polistes, this segment long and gradually 
narrowed in front to a more or less distinct petiole. In 
these, each colony is a single family in which unmarriageable 
daughters help to build the house, keep it clean, and feed 
the younger children. The food consists of chewed-up 
animal matter, such as caterpillars, but some species use 
honey and pollen also. The larvae are fed from day to 
day, or oftener, no food being stored for them. 

429 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



This genus (Plate XCI) makes a broad, 
Pohstes fl at nest w ithout a protecting cover. P. 

pallipes has an almost uniformly brown abdomen; annu- 
laris, a conspicuous, yellow margin on the first abdominal 
segment ; and variatus, many yellow bands or spots. 

This genus makes a paper cover for the 
Vespa nests which are otherwise much like those 

of Polistes, except that there are a number of "floors." 
The large, gray hornet's nest, hanging on trees or from the 
eaves of houses, is that of V. maculata (Plates XC and XCI). 
At the start, this nest has a long, tubular entrance. An 
often equally large nest, but brown or yellow and usually 
placed in some protected spot such as in a hollow tree or 
under a porch-floor, is made by the European V. crabro 
(Plate XC), which was introduced, several years ago, 
near New York. The remainder of our species, the yellow- 
jackets, usually make smaller nests and place them either 
near or under the ground. In the latter case they usually 
start in a deserted field mouse's burrow. We have the 
following "Yellow- jackets" in the Northeast. 
i. Eyes touching base of mandibles or separated from 

them only by a line 3. 

Eyes remote from the base of the mandibles 2. 

2. Black and white arctica. 

Black and yellow .' diabolica. 

3. Black and white consobrina. 

Black and yellow, .communis (including what has 

been called, in America, germanica and vulgaris). Plate 
XC. 

SPHECOIDEA 

Dr. Bequaert kindly drew up the following key. It 
does not include the Nitelid^e; they are small species 
and if a specimen of this family runs to couplet 2, it may 
be recognized by the marginal cell having no appendix 
or the venation of the hind wings being almost absent; 
if it runs to couplet 10, note that it has but one apical 
spur on each middle tibia and the second submarginal cell 
js petiolatc. The Peckhams have written both accurately 

430 



Plate AU 




Ne*t 

of 

Vespa 

maculate 

(much re&vt&ti 




Mud-daubers nest 
431 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



and entertainingly of The Instincts and Habits of the Solitary 
Wasps, as the Sphecoidea are called. 
i. Inner margins of the eyes notched, eyes being kidney- 
shaped; one (rarely 2) distinct submarginal cells; marginal 
oell without an appendix; each middle tibia with a single 

apical spur Trypoxylonid^e (p. 436). 

Inner margins of eyes not notched; when these are 
slightly indented, note 3 submarginal cells 2. 

2. One submarginal cell; marginal cell with an appendix; 
one, or no, apical spur on middle tibiae 3. 

Two or 3 submarginal cells 4. 

3. First submarginal cell separated from the first dis- 
coidal; scutellum and post-scutellum without spines or 
scales; eyes divergent above Crabronid^e (p. 434). 

First submarginal and first cubital cells confluent; 
sides of scutellum with marginal lamellae; postscutellum 
with a spine or forked process; eyes not divergent above. 

OXYBELID^E (p. 434). 

4. Abdomen more or less constricted between the first 
and second segments; three submarginal cells; marginal 
cell without an appendix. Philanthid^e (p. 435). The 
rare Mellinid^e may be distinguished from them by having 
two apical spurs on each middle tibia, no recurrent nervure 
going to the second submarginal cell, and eyes never in- 
dented on the inner margins. 

Abdomen not constricted between the first and 
second segments, but the first often shaped like a slender 
petiole 5. 

5. Main part of the abdomen joined to the thorax by a 
more or less distinct, slender petiole, which may be short 
or long, cylindrical or flattened above 6. 

Main part of the abdomen directly joined to the 
thorax (although there is a deep constriction between 
them) ; 3 (rarely 2) submarginal cells 8. 

6. Middle tibiae with one apical spur; 2 or 3 submarginal 
cells; hind wings usually with two indentations in the 
basal half of the hind margin ; small, black species 

Psenid^e (p. 434). 
Middle tibiae with two apical spurs 7« 

7. Mesosternum produced into a forked process posteri- 
orly; pronotum conically produced in front; 2 submarginal 

432 



KEY TO SOLITARY WASPS. 



cells; marginal cell with an appendix; small, black species. 
Ampulicid.e. Rare. Our only genus is Rhinopsis; it may 
prey on roaches. 

Mesostemum not produced posteriorly; pronotum 
not conically produced; 3 (rarely 2) submarginal cells; 
marginal cell without an appendix; shining black or 
marked with reddish-brown Sphecid.e (p. 438). 

8. Labrum large, free, triangularly or semicircularly 
elongated beyond the clypeus; marginal cell rarely with an 
appendix; both recurrent nervures running to the second 
submarginal cell 9. 

Labrum small, not or scarcely extending beyond 
the clypeus 10. 

9. Middle tibiae with a single apical spur; labrum much 
longer than wide ; ocelli more or less aborted 

Bembecid.e (p. 437). 
Middle tibiae with two apical spurs; labrum wider 
than long. Stizid.e. The only eastern species is Sphecius 
speciosus (Plate XCII). It is our largest Sphecoid and, 
because of the food with which it stocks its underground 
burrows, it is called the Cicada-killer. 

10. Second submarginal cell petiolate or triangular; 
marginal cell without appendix; middle tibiae with two 
apical spurs; antennae arising well above the clypeus ....11. 

Second submarginal cell broadly sessile, not tri- 
angular or petiolate 12. 

11. Metathorax with the upper hind angles acute or 
produced as short spines; 3, rarely 2, submarginal cells. 
NvssoNiDiE. Nest in sand ; Nysson our only genus. 

Metathorax with the hind angles rounded or obtuse. 
Alysoxid.e. Alyson our only genus. 

12. Marginal cell usually with an appendix; antennae 
arising close to the clypeus ; middle tibiae with 1 or 2 apical 
spurs; hind ocelli frequently aborted. . Larrid.e (p. 436). 

Marginal cell without appendix; antennae arising 
far above the clypeus; middle tibiae with 2 spurs; ocelli 
normal. Gorytid.e. Gorytes, variously divided, is our 
only genus. Its species nest in sand and provision with 
Homoptera, especially Cercopidae. 



»8 433 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



PSENID^E 



1. Three complete submarginal cells. Pseninae. Our 
principal genus is Psen. They nest either in sand or in 
twigs and provision their nests with Homoptera. 

Two complete submarginal cells. Pempliredoninae. . 2. 

2. Eyes large, their inner margins converging above. 
Plenoculus. Nests in sand. 

Eyes small, inner margins not converging above; 
head well developed behind the eyes 3. 

3. Only 1 recurrent vein in front wings 4. 

Two recurrent veins 5. 

4. Abdomen with a distinct petiole. Stigmus. Our 
species, americanus, provisions its nests, in branches or 
stumps, with aphids. 

Abdomen without a petiole. Spilomena; our principal 
species is pusilla. 

5. Abdomen with a petiole; head and thorax rather 
hairy. Pemphredon. As far as known, the species 
prefer to make their nests in decaying wood, provision- 
ing with aphids. 

Abdomen without a petiole; head and thorax not 
hairy. Passalcecus. They nest in rotten wood, galleries 
of wood-boring insects, and hollow plant-stems, provision- 
ing with aphids and other small insects. 

OXYBELID^E 

In Notoglossa emarginata the process on the back of the 
thorax is broad and slightly forked at the tip. Our 
other species belong to Oxybelus, the process being acute 
at the tip. European observations indicate that they nest 
in sand, provisioning with small flies, which they crush 
with their mandibles but carry home on their sting. 

Crabronid^e 

These wasps are usually much less than half an inch 
long and black, often marked with yellow. The head is 
large and rather square-cut. Anacrabro has the abdomen 
deoressed, flat beneath; the second discoidal cell is much 

434 



Plate XCII 




Psammochares atrox 




Sceliphron 
• cementariurn 




Chalybjon 
caeruleum 




Chlo rion 

ichneumonea 



5pex 

urn aria 




embex spinol oe 



\*7 







Cerceris 

clypeota : 

Sphecius speciosus 



Crabro 



SOLITARY WASPS. 



longer than the first and pointed at the tip. Our only 
species, ocellatus, nests in sand banks and provisions with 
bugs of the genus Lygus. Our other genus is Crabro 
(Plate XCII) , which is much split up in the recent classifica- 
tions, but some of the distinctions are rather technical. 
Different groups of species have different habits; nesting 
in wood, stems, and soil; provisioning with mites, spiders, 
flies, bugs, aphids, and moths. 

Philanthid^e 

In the Hymenoptera of Connecticut they have widely 
separated Cerceris from Philanthus because the latter has 
a suture on the sides of the thorax, below the front wings, 
which the former lacks. For our purpose the four genera 
accepted years ago seem sufficient. 

i. Third submarginal cell very large, somewhat quadrate, 
scarcely narrowed towards the marginal cell and extending 
beyond it ; first abdominal segment narrowed. Eucerceris. 
For the most part, western. 

Third submarginal cell much narrowed towards 
the marginal, leaving a broad deep sinus between them, 
the former not extending beyond the latter 2. 

2. Basal segment of abdomen narrower than the second, 
all the segments more or less constricted; second sub- 
marginal cell petiolate ; marginal cell rather obtuse at apex 
and rarely extending beyond the third submarginal cell. 

Cerceris (Plate XCII). 
Basal segment of abdomen nearly or quite as broad 
at apex as the base of second segment, segments rarely 
constricted; second submarginal cell not petiolate; mar- 
ginal cell usually narrowed, pointed at apex, and extending 
beyond the third submarginal cell 3. 

3. Inner margins of eyes indented; antennas arising 
from the middle of the face not far above the clypeus, 
not near each other; apex of marginal cell touching jthc 
front margin Philantlms. 

Margins of eyes not indented; antennas arising from 
above the middle of the face, near each other or the clypeus ; 

apex of marginal cell not touching the front margin 

Aphilanthops. 

435 



FIELD BOO ? INSECTS. 



The Peckhams, in their ac it of Solitary Wasps, have 
called the members of this • ;.mily Grave Diggers. The 
name was probably not interred to be distinctive; its 
appropriateness depends upon the viewpoint for, as is the 
case with other families, the grave of the victims is the 
nursery of the wasps.* Cerceris stocks up with beetles, 
especially weevils; while Philanthus uses bees, especially 
Halictus; and Aphilanthops, queen-ants. 

Trypoxylonid^e 

Our only genus is Trypoxylon. The abdomen is narrow 
and longer than the head and thorax. The species are 
either all black, or marked with red. They were formerly 
accused of being parasitic because they had been reared 
from nests made by other wasps. Then the charge was 
changed to laziness, but I contend that they do well to use 
perfectly good mud-daubers' nests, and the like, which 
are no longer used by the original owners. Small species 
use the hollows of cut straws and wood-boring beetles' 
burrows. Chinks in masonry are also used. If the chinks 
are too large, they may be made smaller by plastering them 
with mud, and the partitions between the cells, each 
containing an egg and sufficient food for one larva, are 
made of mud. The nests are usually provisioned with 
spiders. The male of Trypoxylon rubrocinctum is excep- 
tional among Hymenoptera in the interest he takes in 
household affairs. He stands guard at the nest while the 
female is out hunting food. 

Larrid^e 

These wasps usually nest in the ground. While fairly 
numerous, they are not very showy. The Larrinae usually 
take Orthoptera for larval food ; and the Astatinae, Homop- 
tera. 

i. Metasternum with a large process which is deeply 
indented ventrally; middle tibiae with one apical spur; 

marginal cell with an appendage. Larrinae 2. 

Metasternum without a large, deeply indented pro- 
cess; middle tibiae with two apical spurs; marginal celJ 

436 



SOLITAr ASPS. 



truncate; back of abdoi flattened. Astatinae. For 

the most part, they are Ul fnan .5 in. long. Astata uni- 
color (abdomen black) and 8 * bicolor (abdomen red) are 
common species. MlB - 

2. Hind ocelli perfect ; inner margins of eyes nearly parallel ; 
pronotum trilobed. Lyroda triloba (wings dark all over) 
and subita (wings dark at tips). Larval food, Nemobius. 

Hind ocelli imperfect, flattened; inner margins of 
eyes converging above; pronctum simple 3. 

3. Front of head strongly raised so that there is a trans- 
verse ridge below front ocellus; mandibles toothed (in 
Larra there are no teeth); hind ocelli narrow; tip of abdo- 
men with silver pile. Notogonidea argentata; larval food, 
immature crickets. 

Front not strongly raised 4. 

4. Hind ("side") ocelli oval or elongate-oval in outline; 
front not raised along inner margins of eyes ; tip of abdomen 
without pile. Tachysphex. There are a number of species 
of these sand-loving wasps. 

Hind ocelli larger dorsally so that they appear 
hooked 5. 

5. Front slightly raised along inner margins of eyes; 
pygidium without pile. Larropsis distincta. 

Front not raised along inner margins of eyes; pygidium 
clothed with pile. Tachytes of which we have numerous 
species, all probably nesting in sand and stocking their 
nests with grasshoppers. 



Bembecid^e 

All of this family nest in the ground. Bicyrtes seems 
to prefer Hemiptera as larval food and, after stocking the 
nest, seals it up. The other species, mentioned here, use 
flies and, unlike most solitary wasps, feed their larvae from 
day to day. Sometimes a large number of individuals 
nest close to each other. 

1. Mandibles simple. Microbembex, monodonta being 
the specific name usually given to all from the Northeast; 
black with greenish-white markings. 

Mandibles having a tooth within 2. 

437 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



2. Propodeum (apparently the hind part of the thorax) 
indented behind. Bicyrtes { = Bembidula) quadrifasciata 
(length about .75 in.; metanotum black; abdominal 
spots much wider at the sides), and ventralis (about .5 in.; 
metanotum with yellow spots; abdominal spots but 
little, if any, wider at the sides). 

Propodeum not indented behind, straight or con- 
vex 3. 

3. Front ocellus round or kidney-shaped. Stictia Caro- 
lina is an inch long and marked with black and yellow. 

Front ocellus narrow. Bembex, of which spinolce 
(Plate XCII) is our common species. 

Sphecid^e 

These are the Thread-waisted Wasps. There have 
been a number of unfortunate, but necessary, changes of 
scientific names. Most confusing of these is the use of 
Sphex for what had been called Ammophila. I fear the end 
is not yet. 

Chlorion is distinguished from the rest of the family 
by the second and third submarginal cells each receiving 
a recurrent vein; in the others, the second receives both. 
The females make burrows in the ground for nurseries. 
The following subgenera (or genera) occur in the Northeast 
and elsewhere. 

1. Second submarginal cell wider than long.. 2. 

This cell longer than wide .3. 

2. Tarsal claws with one inner tooth. Chlorion, in a 
restricted sense. Provisions its nests with crickets. 
Our common bronze- or purplish-blue species is cyaneum. 

Claws with 3 to 6 teeth. Priononyx; abdomen of 
bifoveolatum is reddish or yellowish, that of atratum is 
dark brown or black. The latter, at least, provisions with | 
grasshoppers. 

3. Petiole of abdomen more than twice the length of the I 
hind coxae; marginal cell not extending beyond the third) 
submarginal cell Isodontia. 

Petiole of abdomen as long, or only a little longer! 
than, hind coxae; marginal cell extending beyond the thirdf 

438 



BEES. 

submarginal cell. Ammobia (formerly called Sphex); 
Pennsylvanicum has black abdomen and legs; for ichneu- 
moneum, see Plate XCII. The nests are stocked with 
grasshoppers. 

In Sphex (in a limited sense) the petiole is composed 
of the entire first and part of the second abdominal seg- 
ment. Species of this genus stock their underground 
nest with paralyzed caterpillars. S. abbreviata (abdomen 
black) and procera (abdomen partly red) usually have 
complete, transverse striae on the back between the wings. 
Plate XCII shows urnaria. Psammophila is considered 
by some to be a subgenus of Sphex, and, like it, has a U- 
shaped dorsal area at the hind end of the thorax, but the 
petiole is not especially long and is one-jointed, the second 
abdominal segment being bell-shaped. 

Chalybion and Sceliphron have a U-shaped area on top 
of the thorax at the hind end. See Plates XCI and XCII ; 
both species provision their clay nests with spiders. The 
markings of S. cementarius, the Mud-dauber, vary con- 
siderably; its flat nests are to be found on the rafters of 
nearly every garret. 



APOIDEA 

Although wasps visit flowers, they usually do so in 
their individual interest : to secure food for themselves and 
not to provide for their offspring. Bees, on the other hand, 
not only eat pollen and nectar themselves but, except for 
the "cuckoos" which lay their eggs in other bees' nests, 
store their nests with honey (modified nectar) and pollen. 
Although they thus take, in the aggregate, large quantities 
of pollen, they are of great benefit to the plants because 
they, incidentally and unconsciously, transfer this sub- 
stance from one flower to another, thus fertilizing the 
ovum, which develops into a seed. Male bees have 13- 
jointed antennas and 7 visible, abdominal segments; 
females, one less of each. Only the Bombidae and Apidas 
have developed a "worker caste." In other families, the 
mother does the work of provisioning the nest, carrying 

439 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



^ home pollen on her hind legs, on the hairs of her abdomen 

(e. g. Megachile), and in other ways, and regurgitating, 
as honey, the nectar she swallowed. 

In general, the Panurgid^e, Prosopid^e, Stelidid^e, 
Megachilid/E, and a few Nomadid^e have but 2 sub- 
marginal cells, and the remainder have 3, but this rule is 
not without exceptions. As a rule, the females and most 
males of Halictid.e to Anthophorid^e (p. 444), inclusive, 
have a flat, triangular area on the last dorsal, abdominal 
segment, the other families lacking it. In the Honey-bee 
(p. 453) the marginal cell is very long and the posterior 
tibiae have no apical spurs. These and the following notes 

apply principally to Atlantic Coast species. 
1 

' Halictid^e 

For the most part small bees; the first discoidal cell 
is not as long or scarcely longer than the marginal cell which 
is not square-cut at the tip ; basal vein rounded posteriorly, 
first recurrent vein not meeting the first transverse cubital; 
second recurrent not sinuate; first submarginal cell con- 
spicuously longer than the third and often as long as the 
second and third combined; stigma well developed, lanceo- 
late; hind basitarsi narrower than tibiae. The labrum is 
not free from the mandibles and not as large as the clypeus, 
which is hardly protuberant ; tongue, acute, flat ; no pubes- 
cent depressions in the face. See also Andrenidae. 

There are two main divisions which may be classed as 
genera: Sphecodes (abdomen smooth, shining, naked, the 
chitin usually red and black, fifth segment of female's 
without a furrow) and Halictus (abdomen usually not shiny, 
segments 1 to 4 or 5 usually fringed at apex with pale 
pubescence, fifth of female's with a median longitudinal 
furrow). Augochlora (body entirely metallic blue or 
green; first recurrent vein usually ending at or near the 
apex of the second submarginal cell) and Agapostetnon 
(males have only the head and thorax metallic colored; 
first recurrent vein received by the second submarginal 
cell near the middle; Plate XCIV) may be classed as sub- 
genera of Halictus, although other systems are used by 
good authorities. 

440 



BEES. 

Sphecodes, the Wasp-bees (so-called from their re- 
semblance to small wasps, Plate XCIII), have had cham- 
pions who opposed the charge that they lay their eggs in 
nests prepared by others, their young devouring the food 
and doubtless the young of their hosts, but there is strong 
evidence that they are supported by their relatives, Halictus, 
and possibly by other bees. The other Halictidas usually 
nest in the ground, frequently making branched tunnels, 
many individuals selecting the same restricted area for 
their burrows. Some species of Halictus, in the limited 
sense, are very small and are called Sweat-bees because 
they seem fond of alighting on perspiring humanity. 
Some of the species are among the first bees to appear in 
the spring. The pupas are enclosed in transparent, skin- 
like cocoons. 

Andre nid^e 

These are usually black (with pale pubescence), medium- 
sized bees. They are closely related to the Halictidae 
but the basal vein is almost, or quite, straight, and the 
face, at least of females, has pubescent depressions. In 
Melitta (apical joint of antennae obliquely truncate; ocelli 
placed in a curve) and Andrena (that joint not obliquely 
truncate; ocelli placed in a triangle) the first submarginal 
cell is conspicuously longer than the third but in the 
southern Nomia it is about the same length. Our only 
species of Melitta is americana. 

Andrena (Plate XCIII), our principal genus, is extremely 
well supplied with species. They all seem to nest in the 
ground but the sites chosen for their burrows vary greatly. 
Some species make simple tunnels, others branched, but 
none seem to do much more than smooth the sides and 
stock each tunnel or branch with a pill of pollen and an I 
egg, filling the opening, of course, with loose dirt. At 
least some of the species have two generations a year, and 
it is not unlikely that, in some cases, what we now call 
distinct species are merely the alternate generations of 



441 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



PANURGID.E 



The marginal cell is sharply truncate at the tip and 
the lower corner has an appendicular vein except in Halic- 
toides. This genus is often put in a separate family, 
Dufouridae. It differs from the other genera in also 
having the labrum free from the mandibles and as large 
as the clypeus. With the exception of Protandrena,there 
are only two submarginal veins. The stigma is large. 
The chitin often has yellow markings; the clypeus is 
hardly protuberant; and the tongue is acute and flat. 
Macropis (often put in a separate family, Macropidae) 
has the hind basitarsi as broad as the tibias. In Perdita 
(Plate XCIII) the marginal cell is not longer than the 
stigma ; they are small bees with the head and thorax usually 
metallic dark green or blue, and the abdomen usually 
with light, chitinous markings. In Calliopsis (hairy 
bees, with hairy bands on the abdomen) and Panurginus 
(abdomen shiny black, unhanded) the marginal cell is 
relatively longer; the head and thorax are not metallic. 

NOMADIIXE 

These bees are usually less than half an inch long; 
some are almost hairless, with yellow or red, chitinous 
markings. They are rather wasp-like in appearance and 
all are "cuckoos," lacking pollen-collecting apparatus 
and living in the nests of other bees. There are usually 
three submarginal cells; the first recurrent vein does not 
meet the first transverse cubital; the first discoidal cell is 
much longer than the marginal, which is rarely longer 
than the first two submarginal cells united and not trun- 
cate; first portion of subdiscoidal vein shorter than the 
third portion of the discoidal ; clypeus protuberant ; labrum 
large, free, convex; tongue elongate, slender; eyes extend- 
ing to, or nearly to, the base of the mandibles. In Nomada 
(Plate XCIV) the apex of the marginal cell touches the 
front wing-margin and the abdomen has chitinous bands 
or spots. In Epeolus (maxillary palpi 2-jointed) and 
Triepeolus (maxillary palpi 3-jointed; Plate XCIII) the 
apex of the marginal cell is obtuse and docs not touch the 
442 



Plate XCIII 




Xenoglossa 
pruinosa 




E JTjftnr^ Ceratina 



bombitormis 



OsmiQ 
liqnQria 





Meqachlle Dianthidium 
brevis notatum 






Coelioxys 
dubitata 



Perdita 
8-maculata 
Sphecodes arvensis Triepeolus 

donatio 



Prosopis 
ziz'ioe 




Collrteb 
cmnpactus 



Andrena 
vicina 

443 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



wing-margin; abdomen black with pale bands of scale- 
like hair. Neopasites has two submarginal cells; marginal 
cell very obtuse; maxillary palpi 6- jointed. 

Anthophorid^ 

These are moderately large, hairy, pollen-collecting 
bees. The clypeus is protuberant and, in males, usually 
yellow. The males often have long antennae. The tongue 
is elongate and slender ; the labrum large, free, and convex ; 
eyes extending to, or nearly to, the base of the mandibles; 
marginal cell rarely longer than the first two submarginal 
cells united; first recurrent vein not meeting the first 
transverse cubital; first portion of the subdiscoidal vein 
distinctly longer than the third portion of the discoidal; 
stigma not well developed. There are usually 3 submargi- 
nal cells. 

In Anthophora (Anthophoridse in a limited sense) the 
marginal cell is not bent away from the front wing-mar- 
gins; first discoidal cell longer than the marginal cell; 
third submarginal cell not narrower above than beneath. 
In our other bees of this group the first discoidal cell is 
not as long as, or scarcely longer than, the marginal cell, 
which is bent away from, the front. 

In Melitoma (pads between the tarsal claws; tongue 
reaching the base of the abdomen; first and third sub- 
marginal cells of about equal length) and Emphor (no such 
pads; first submarginal cells longer than the third, which 
is narrowed towards the marginal) the vertex is not 
crested; the males' antennas are only slightly, or not at 
all, longer than the female's and the clypeus is not pale. 
Of Melitoma we have only taurea (abdomen cross -banded 
with white), and of Emphor only bombiformis (Plate XCIII) 
or, in the North, its variety fuscojubatus (thorax evenly 
covered with pale hairs ; abdomen black except, sometimes, 
for scattered, pale pubescence on the first segment). 
These genera have been put in a separate family, Emphori- 
dae. 

Most of the Eastern Anthophorids have been separated 
off as Euceridae. They differ from the Emphoridac in 
having the vertex raised. The male's clypeus is more or 

444 



BEES. 

less yellowish and his antennae are noticeably longer than 
the female's. In Tetralonia (maxillary palpi 6-jointed), 
Xenoglossa (max. palpi 5- jointed; tarsal claws cleft), and 
Cemolobus (max. palpi 5- jointed; claws toothed but not 
cleft) the lower anterior portion of the orbits have a large, 
somewhat triangular, space; the clypeus is remote from 
the eyes. T. atriventris, X. pruinosa (the name referring 
to the frosted bands on the abdomen; Plate XCIII), 
and C. ipommcB are the Northeastern species. In Metis s odes 
the orbital-malar space is small; clypeus nearly touching 
the eyes; maxillary palpi usually 4-jointed. There are 
numerous species. 

The habits of all Anthophoridas are much alike: burrows 
are made in the ground and stocked with a paste of pollen 
and honey for larval food. 

Prosopid^: 

These small bees, black with yellow chitinous markings, 
have two submarginal cells, the second of which is squarish, 
slightly if any longer than high, and conspicuously shorter 
than the first ; the first recurrent vein often meets the first 
transverse cubital; the marginal cell is elongate and not 
square-cut at the tip ; tongue flat and bilobed ; face pitted. 
Prosopis (Plate XCIII) is our only genus. Perhaps we 
should use the names Hylceus and Hylasidas. The Masked 
Bees have been accused of being lazy because they are 
even less hairy than such confirmed cuckoos as Norriada. 
However, their lack of hair may be correlated with the 
fact that, unlike other industrious bees, they do not 
carry pollen on the outside of their bodies. They first 
eat it and then, having reached their nest, regurgitate it, 
mixing it with honey, to prepare food for the babies they 
never live to see. They nest in raspberry stalks and the 
like. 

COLLETID.E 

The first recurrent nervure is received by the second 
of the three submarginal cells; first discoidal cell is not 
as long or scarcely longer than the marginal; stigma well 

445 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



developed; second recurrent nervure strongly bent out- 
ward in its lower half; tongue flat and bilobed; face pitted. 
The name of our only genus, Colletes (Plate XCIII), 
means Plasterer. The species are black, with light hairs 
but no yellow, chitinous markings. They nest in holes, 
made in the ground or in loose masonry, and often a 
number of females nest close to each other. They plaster 
the sides of these holes, and the cells which they make in 
them, with a secretion that dries rapidly to form "a mem- 
brane more delicate than the thinnest goldbeater's skin, 
and more lustrous than the most beautiful satin." 

Megachilid^e 

In a broad sense, this includes bees having two sub- 
marginal cells; tip of marginal pointed; second recurrent 
vein not bent or directed outwardly before joining the 
first portion of the subdiscoidal vein; face not pitted; 
tongue long, rather thread-like. The under side of the 
female abdomen has pollen-collecting hairs, except in the 
cuckoo genera. The second submarginal cell is much 
longer than high and almost equal, in length, to the first. 

Stelis includes black bees with whitish margins on the 
dorsal, abdominal segments, and with cuckoo habits. The 
tarsal claws are cleft, having an inner tooth near the apex ; 
male abdomen not toothed or lobed at the apex. Ccelioxys 
(Plate XCIII) is also a lazy genus. The abdomen is 
narrowed behind, and, in the males, armed with teeth 
or spines; scutellum usually toothed on the sides; tarsal 
claws simple or with a basal tooth; eyes with fine hairs. 
Both genera have been put in families of their own. 

The industrious members of our MegachilidaEJ have the 
tarsal claws as described for Ccelioxys. In Dianthidium 
(pads between tarsal claws; Plate XCIII) and Anthidium 
(no such pads) the chitin of the abdomen bears pale mark- 
ings and in the others it does not. The former makes 
nests of resin on rocks, etc.; the latter uses the down off 
of woolly-leaved plants for nests in burrows. Ileriades 
(stigma lanceolate, well developed; head considerably 
extended behind the eyes) and Andronicus (stigma short, 
not well developed) are black bees with tarsal pads. Osmia 
446 



BEES. 

(Plate XCIII) includes metallic green, bluish, or purplish 
bees with tarsal pads. They are called Mason-bees 
because they construct small, earthen cells under stones, 
in burrows excavated in twigs and decaying wood, in 
deserted snail-shells, in plant-galls, and elsewhere. The 
last to be mentioned but richest in species is Megachile 
(Plate XCIII), moderately large bees without pads between 
the tarsal claws; stigma short, not well developed; tip of 
marginal cell obtuse and separated from the front wing- 
margins. The species of Megachile are called Leaf-cutters 
because the females snip more or less circular pieces out of 
leaves, especially of roses, and of petals. These pieces 
are fitted together and glued so skillfully that they form 
tight, tliimble-shaped cells, snugly filling some suitable, 
ready-made space or burrows which the females make in 
wood or earth. Putnam estimated that the thirty cells, 
arranged in nine rows, under a board in his piazza roof 
contained at least a thousand pieces. Reed recorded 
nests made by one of our common species, brevis, in curled 
plum leaves. 



Ceratinid^e and Xylocopiile 

The Carpenter-bees make nests in wood or in stems of 
plants. There are three submarginal cells; the first dis- 
coidal cell is not as long as or scarcely longer than the 
marginal cell; apex of sixth dorsal, abdominal segment of 
females with a spine. Ceratina (Plate XCIII) in- 
cludes small, dark blue-green bees with the first sub- 
marginal cell longer than the second and about as long 
as the third; stigma well developed, lanceolate. They 
dig out the pith of elder, raspberry, etc., so that they may 
have tunnels in which to nest. The large Carpenter-bees 
which make galleries in rather solid wood, such as porch- 
posts, are Xylocopa (virginica, Plate XCIV, is the only 
Northern species). The stigma is short and not well 
developed; first submarginal cell shorter than the second, 
third almost as long as the first and second combined. 
They are given to biting through the base of a flower 
instead of getting at the nectar in a more legitimate way. 

447 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



BOMBID.E 



The burly Bumble-bees are so conspicuous, abundant, 
and appealing, that I am giving them considerable space. 
The first discoidal cell is not as long or scarcely longer 
than the marginal, which is pointed at the tip and extends 
far beyond the apex of the third submarginal cell; the 
stigma is not well developed; second submarginal cell is 
rather longer than either the first or third, and strongly 
produced at the lower basal corner. Psithyrus is a lazy 
genus that lives with its relatives. There are no workers, 
the " queen " living in a Bombus nest and letting the Bombus 
workers bring up its young. Bombus is a social bee; that 
is, a family nest is made and the older daughters do not 
mate but give their attention to caring for the nest and 
feeding their younger brothers and sisters. The best book 
on their biology is by Sladen, The Humble-bee, its life- 
history and how to domesticate it. As might be guessed by 
the common name he uses, it is about English species, 
but then we know very little about our own. 

The fertilized female ("queen") passes the winter in 
some snug retreat and early in spring starts her nest, it 
may be in a deserted field-mouse's burrow. After arrang- 
ing dried grass and the like to form the nest, she collects 
pollen and makes a pile of it, moistened with honey, on the 
floor of the nest. She also makes a honey-pot of wax 
near the doorway and fills it with rather liquid honey. 
Eggs are laid on the pollen-mass, covered over with wax, 
and more or less incubated by the queen, especially during 
inclement weather. At such times she feeds out of the 
honey pot. When the larvae hatch, they feed on the pollen 
mass under the waxen coverlet, which the mother pierces 
from time to time in order to give them special meals of 
honey and pollen, chewed up together. When the larvae 
have attained full size (it takes ten days or two weeks), 
each spins a thin, papery, but tough, oval cocoon and 
pupates, the queen brooding on the cocoons and sipping 
from her honey-pot. In a week or two the first workers 
emerge and take up the household duties. Workers 
arc females but smaller than queens; males and queens 
arc not born until late in the season. 
448 



KEY TO THE BUMBLE-BEES. 



The following key is to the species of the Atlantic Coast 
of the United States. The more western and extremely 
variable rufocinctus is omitted. P. stands for Psithyrus; 
B. for Bombus; and B.B. for Bombias, a subgenus of 
Bombus. "Occiput" is the top of the head. "Pleura" 
refers to the side of the thorax especially in front, below 
the front wings. "Scutellum" is the triangular hind 
part of the top of the thorax. "Interalar band" is on the 
top of the thorax, between the wings. The "malar 
space" is between the eyes and the jaws. The "supra- 
orbital line" is an imaginary line from the top of one com- 
pound eye to the top of the other. The notes on color 
refer to the color of the hairs, not to the chitin; and the 
upper side of the abdomen is all that is considered when 
giving its color. 
i. Divisions of tarsal claws very unequal; 12 antennal 

joints; 6 visible, abdominal segments (Females) 2. 

Divisions of tarsal claws subequal; 13 antennal joints; 
7 visible, abdominal segments (Males) 15. 

Females 

(The female of P. tricolor is unknown unless fernaldce 
be it.) 

2. Outer face of hind tibiae convex and hairy. Psithyrus. 3. 
Outer face of hind tibiae concave and bare, except at 

margins. Bombus 5. 

3. Occiput black with little or no yellow; lower portion 
of pleura with dark hairs , P. ashtoni. 

Occiput with much yellow 4. 

4. Thorax without interalar, black hairs but disk bare; 
pleura light; little or no yellow on fourth abdominal seg- 
ment; face largely dark P. laboriosus. 

Thorax with interalar, black hairs; pleura mostly 
light; no reddish on fifth abdominal segment but yellow, 
at least on the sides, on the fourth P. insularis. 

Thorax with or without interalar, black hairs; lower 
pleura yellow or dark; fourth abdominal segment almost 
entirely covered with yellow; often with reddish on sides 
of fifth; apical, abdominal segment very pointed and 
strongly recurved P. fernaldce. 

29 449 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



5. No distinct interalar, black band 6. 

Black interalar band 9. 

6. First to fourth abdominal segments largely yellow. 

B. fervidus dor salts. 
Third and fourth segments largely black 7. 

7. Ocelli large, the lateral ones farther from each other 
than from the margins of the eyes and below the supra- 
orbital line ; occiput and face largely black ; first abdominal 
segment yellow, the others black except for (usually) 
brownish at the middle of the base of the second 

B. B. separatus. 
Ocelli small 8. 

8. First abdominal segment yellow, second and following 
segments without yellow; occiput largely yellow; face 
wide and largely black B. impatiens (Plate XCIV). 

First abdominal segment yellow, some yellow at basal 
middle of the second, otherwise the abdomen black; 

occiput largely yellow; face long, triangular, black 

B. bimaculatus. 

First abdominal segment largely yellow; the yellow 
which largely covers the second segment is notched in the 
middle behind and, in the workers, usually mixed with 
red; third to fifth black; frequently considerable interalar 
black; occiput largely black; face wide and black; pleura 
yellow B. affinis. 

First and second segments largely yellow and re- 
mainder of abdomen largely black; disk of thorax not nude 
and without black; pleura usually black; occiput largely 
yellow; face largely black B. per plexus. 

First and usually the second abdominal segments 
yellow, the remainder usually largely black; pleura yellow; 
disk nude and with scattered, black hairs; occiput largely 
yellow in queens and usually so in workers; face long and 
largely black B. vagans. 

9. Second and third abdominal segments red, second and 
fourth largely yellow, the remainder black 

B. ternarius (Plate XCIV). 
Third and following segments black, the first two 

largely yellow 10. 

Third segment yellow II. 

10. Ocelli large, separated from each other, and below 

450 



Plate XCIV 

o m b u s 




pennsylvanicus 




Xylocopa virqinicQ 




1 



Nomada luteola AgapoMemon radiate 



KEY TO THE BUMBLE-BEES. 



the supra-orbital line; yellow on second segment neithei 

notched nor mixed with red ; face and occiput black 

B. B. fraternus. 

Otherwise, see B. affinis (8). 
ii. First to fourth segments yellow, the remainder 
largely black 12. 

Fourth segment black, also pleura and often the 
scutellum 13. 

12. Pleura black; face and occiput largely light 

B. borealis. 

Pleura largely yellow; face (largely) and occiput 

black B. fervidus. 

13. Ocelli large, separated, and below the supraorbital 
line; first abdominal segment largely black, second largely 
yellow, third yellow, the remainder black; occiput either 
black or yellow; face black B.B. auricomus. 

Otherwise 14. 

14. Second and third abdominal segments yellow, the 
remainder black except that there is often considerable 
yellow on the fifth and sixth; face (largely) and occiput 
black B. terricola 4 

First (largely), second, and third abdominal segments 

yellow, otherwise black; face and occiput black 

B. pennsylvanicus (Plate XCIV). 

Males 

15. Ocelli large, the lateral ones not much, if any, more 
than their diameter from the margins of the eyes, and 
below the supraorbital line; eyes bulging 16. 

Ocelli otherwise 18. 

16. First (usually), second, and third abdominal seg- 
ments yellow, the remainder largely black; sometimes 
interalar black; third antennal segment as long as the 
fourth and fifth combined B. B. auricomus. 

Otherwise colored and third antennal segment at 
most not much longer than the fifth 17. 

17. First abdominal segment yellow, the remainder black 
except for brownish on basal middle of the second and, 
sometimes, yellow at sides of third; face largely yellow. 

B. B. separatus. 

451 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



First and second abdominal segments yellow, the 
remainder largely black; face largely black. .B. B.fraternus. 

18. Second and third abdominal segments red; first 
(largely) and fourth yellow; fifth and sixth black; interalar 
black; pleura, face, and occiput, yellow B. ternarius. 

Third segment not red 19. 

19. Sixth and seventh abdominal segments largely red, 
the others variable; face largely black; occiput yellow. . 

P. tricolor. 
Sixth segment not largely red 20. 

20. First and fourth abdominal segments black; second 
and third yellow; the remainder variable; interalar black; 
pleura black; face largely yellow B. terricola. 

First abdominal segment largely yellow 21. 

21. First to fourth, inclusive, abdominal segments largely 
yellow 22. 

Not so 23 (and also B. perplexus, 22). 

22. First abdominal segment usually with some black, 
fifth usually black ; interalar, pleura usually, and scutellum 
sometimes, black; occiput black; .6 to 1 in. long 

B. pennsyhanicus (Plate XCIV). 

No black on first or fifth abdominal segments; inter- 
alar sometimes, and scutellum, yellow; interalar usually, 
and occiput black; .4 to .7 in. long B. fervidus. 

No black on the first but usually on the fifth abdomi- 
nal segments; interalar and usually the pleura black; 
occiput and sometimes the pleura yellow. . . .B. borealis. 

No black on the first abdominal segment, but the 
fourth and fifth usually black although the whole abdo- 
men may be yellow; interalar, occiput, and usually the 
face and pleura, yellow ; face triangular, not long (as in 
fervidus and borealis) B. perplexus. 

23. Second abdominal segment with little or no black. . 24. 
This segment with considerable black .25. 

24. Occiput, interalar, and pleura, largely yellow; face 
largely black; first abdominal segment, usually the second, 
and sometimes the third, yellow; abdomen otherwise 
black P. laboriosus. 

Occiput (usually largely) and face black; interalar 
often with much black; pleura, and most of the first 
abdominal segment, yellow; yellow of the second segment 

452 



THE HONEY=BEE. 



usually mixed with red and notched behind; remainder 
of the abdomen without yellow B. affinis. 

Occiput, pleura, and face (largely) yellow; very little, 
if any, interalar black; first two abdominal segments 

yellow, the remainder usually black B. vagans. 

25. Face, occiput (usually), and pleura black; first 
(usually) and fourth abdominal segments yellow, the 
remainder largely black P. ashtoni. 

Face (largely), occiput, and pleura, yellow; first and 
part of the second abdominal segments yellow, the re- 
mainder black B. bimaculatus. 

Face (usually), occiput (largely), pleura, and first 
abdominal segment yellow; remainder of abdomen black. 

B. impatiens. 

Apid^e 

Although the American tropics have several genera of 
Stingless Honey-bees, our only species of this family is the 
introduced and cultivated Honey-bee or Hive-bee, Apis 
mellifera (see p. 440). The color of the abdomen is variable. 
It is probably the most written-about insect. Maeter- 
linck's Life of the Bee is a classic. Beekeeping by Phillips 
and How to Keep Bees by Mrs. Comstock are both excel- 
lent. The individuals usually seen are workers, almost 
sexless females. As in other bees, and many other insects 
as well, the legs are not concerned solely with walking. 
Plate XCIII shows the device (a) on the front legs for 
cleaning antennas, and a part of the pollen-gathering appara- 
tus on the hind legs. The basitarsus (b) has pollen combs 
on the inner side which scrape the pollen from the abdomen 
and the second pair of legs. This pollen is a sticky mass 
because of honey added from the bee's mouth. It is 
removed from these pollen combs by a row of stiff hairs 
at the end of the tibia and then is pushed upward into the 
corbicula (c), or pollen basket, by means of the projection, 
which is just below the tibial combs, shown at the base 
of the basitarsus. The long hairs on each side of the 
corbicula prevent the load from slipping sideways. The 
notch between the tibia and tarsus has been called the 
wax-shears, but it has nothing to do with the manipulation 
of wax. 

453 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



The swarming of the honey-bee brings about an increase 
in the number of colonies but it is the queen of the old 
colony, and not one of her daughters, which goes out to 
form the new colony. The stimulus to the act of swarm- 
ing is not understood; since a swarm sometimes starts 
without a queen, she can not be the instigator. In fact, if 
she is detained by a trap or in some other way, the bees 
may destroy her and swarm with a virgin queen. 

The swarming bees usually cluster on a branch or some 
other support before going to a cavity, such as a hollow 
tree, in which to start the new colony. The old-fashioned 
idea that ringing bells or beating tin pans will hasten this 
clustering is a mistaken one. If there be a delay in finding 
a suitable cavity, unprotected comb will be made on the 
branch where the bees have clustered. 

Shortly after the swarm has departed, a young queen 
which has been left behind in her sealed-up cradle eats her 
way out, takes her mating flight several days later, and 
settles down to her work at the old stand with the help of 
such of her unmarriageable sisters as have remained. 



454 



QALLS. 



Notes on some of the 

Galls made on Plants by insects 

and their relatives 

Plant Galls are interesting to the zoologist because most 
of them are made by animals; to the botanist because of 
the unsolved problems of abnormal plant growth they 
present; and to all of us, not only because ornamental and 
useful plants are frequently damaged thereby, but also be- 
cause much of our food is dependent upon them. Potatoes 
are fungus root-galls, and the bacterial root-galls of 
legumes are Nature's principal agents in making atmos- 
pheric nitrogen available for plant use. Of the galls 
caused by insects, the only ones of commercial benefit 
are the oak galls, which have been used in dyeing, tanning, 
and the manufacture of ink. 

As is the case with so many things in natural history, 
we must go back to Pliny for the first ideas concerning 
plant galls. This philosopher knew that a fly was pro- 
duced in them, but he did not associate this fly with the 
cause of the gall growth. He thought that galls sprang 
up in a night and that the fly larvae merely devoured this 
growth. However, the interest of the early observers 
was not always entirely biological. Important prophecies 
were deduced as to the events of the coming year by 
observing whether galls contained spiders, worms, or flies. 

The constant occurrence of certain larvae within certain 
galls at length aroused the suspicion that galls were 
formed by the larvae. To account for the presence of the 
egg and larvae, it was supposed that the female insect laid 
the egg in the ground and thence it was drawn up with the 
sap and carried to the outer parts of the plant, where it 
lodged and gall formation ensued. This theory soon 
met with opposition. Redi, a poet and physician of the 
seventeenth century, not having seen the eggs laid, as- 
sumed that the plant had a "vegetable soul" which pro- 
duced galls with their eggs, larvae, etc., while at the same 
time, it gave birth to flowers, fruits, and seeds. 

455 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Sprengel, 1793, is credited with having been the first to 
point out cross-fertilization in plants, but this is a mistake. 
Thirty years before, Filippo Arena, an Italian, wrote 
rather fully on the subject and, noting the cross-polli- 
nation by insects, stated that galls were developed by the 
plants for the express purpose of having insects ready at 
hand for the sake of pollination. 

Malpighi, late in the seventeenth century, was the first 
to record the fact that the production of galls followed the 
puncture of vegetable tissues by insects, and he came to 
the conclusion that the insects inject a substance into 
the plant tissue which produces a swelling similar to that 
which the sting of a bee causes in animal tissue. Mal- 
pighi seems to have been correct. At least, we have, as 
yet, no better explanation of the origin of galls. 

The number of different galls caused by animal parasites 
runs into thousands. Almost no form of plant life is 
exempt. Although certain of the higher plants, such as 
the oak, willow, rose, and goldenrod, are preeminently 
the gall-bearing plants, still alga;, fungi, ferns, and gym- 
nosperms come in for their share. 

Many of the galls of woody plants have been omitted 
here, but those of herbaceous plants, including grasses, 
have been, necessarily, almost ignored. The most con- 
sistent work with these, chiefly Itonididas, has been done 
by Dr. E. P. Felt, State Entomologist of New York, to 
whose papers the student must be referred. The one 
in the Ottawa Naturalist, Vol. XXV., will be very helpful. 



The notes and illustrations given here are arranged 
according to the plants on which the galls occur and with 
but little reference to the relationships of the makers. 
The illustrations are, for the most part, about half-size. 
The following list of genera will help to make the relation- 
ships clear. 



Mites : Acarus, Eriophyes, Phyllocoptes. 
HOMOPTERA; Aphidid^e: Chermes, Colopha, Hamamclis- 
tes, Ilormaphis, Pachypsylla, Pemphigus, Phylloxera. 

450 



GALLS. 

LEPEDOPTERA; Tortricid^e: Eucosma. 
Gelechiid^e: Gnorimoschema. 

DlPTERA; Mycetophilidje : Sciara. 

Itoxidid^;, formerly called Cecidomyiidae : 
Asteromyia, Caryomyia, Cecidomyia, Cincticornia, 
Contarinia, Dasyneura, Hormomyia, Itonida, Lasi- 
optera, Oligotrophies, Retinodiplosis, Rhabdophaga, 
Rhopalomyia, Schizomyia, Thecodiplosis. 

Trypetid^e : Eurosta, CEdaspis. 

Agromyzid^e: Agromyza. 

HYMENOPTERA; Saw-flies: Euura, Pontania. 

Cyxipid/E: Acraspis, Amphibolips, Andricus, 
Aulax, Biorhiza, Callirhytis, Cynips, Diastrophus, 
Disholcaspis, Dryophanta, Gonaspis, Holcaspis, Neuro- 
terus, Rhodites, Solenozopheria. 



If the galls are inhabited, a clue to the makers may be 
gained by a study of the inhabitants. Mites have four 
pairs of legs, at least when full grown; no wings; and are 
very small. Aphids have three pairs of legs and they 
sometimes have wings. Galls made by both of these 
groups are usually open. Saw-flies have thoracic, and 
usually distinct abdominal, legs; their galls usually have a 
large hollow on the inside. Gall-making Lepidopterous 
larvae have thoracic but no abdominal legs. It is not so 
easy to distinguish Hymenopterous and Dipterous larvae; 
and it should always be remembered that galls may be 
inhabited by creatures which did not make them — para- 
sites of the maker and also inquilines, "guests" which 
avail themselves of the abundant food but do not directly 
injure the maker of the gall. Some galls are complicated 
communities. We speak of creatures "making" the galls; 
the plants really do this, acting on some (not understood) 
stimulus furnished by the animals. It is exceedingly 
curious that insects which are so similar that they may be 
distinguished only with difficulty cause such different and 
distinctive galls. In addition to the unknown chemics 
of the process, the gall-causing instinct is one of the most 
mysterious things in entomology. 

457 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



The orange-colored larva of Cecidomyia 
Conifers pini-rigid(B lives in a basal enlargement of 

shortened, deformed needles of pitch pine; and C. balsami- 
cola, of balsam. Thecodiplosis ananassi makes a brown, 
pineapple-like gall on cypress. Itonida anthici makes a 
whitish, flower-shaped, fungus-like growth on cypress. 
Retinodiplosis resinicola larvae are orange "grubs" living 
in clear or whitish masses of pitch on the under side of 
pitch-pine branches; R. inopis, in resinous masses on 
scrub-pine leaves. 



Pemphigus populicaulis makes globular 
Poplar and Ug t the base of leaves (p ^ t xcy 

Cottonwood °. , _ .. v ' 

Fig. i); P. popuh-transversus, oval, some- 
what elongated galls on the petioles; P. populi-vence, yel- 
low galls on midrib of leaf; P. vagabundus folds and 
crinkles the foliage. Agromyza aeniventris causes irregu- 
lar, somewhat globular enlargements of young twigs. 



More than fifty different galls have been 
WiUow described. See Plate XCV. 



Twigs 

Phytophaga (also put in Rhabdophaga) rigidce (Fig. 4); 
Rhabdophaga batatas (Fig. 3) and strobiloides (Fig. 5). R. 
strobiliscus is like strobiloides but all the leaves are pointed at 
the tip. R. rhodoides and others make more open growths, 
resembling small, double flowers. R. brassicoides: bunches 
of oval, single-celled, sessile galls, each three-fourths to 
two and a fourth inches, "like the sprouts of a cabbage 
stump, " usually not near tips of branches. R. triticoides: 
many-celled and resemble a wheat-head. R. nodulus: 
like batatas but smaller, more solitary, and only single- 
celled. For Euura ovum see Fig. 6; E. nodus, a smooth 
twig enlargement, one-fourth to twice normal diameter; 
E. orbilalis, enlarged, bud-gall. 

458 



Plate XCV 




459 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Leaves 

Hormomyia verruca: about .1 inch in diameter, on veins; 
about evenly divided by the leaf, the upper side flattish 
or with a minute nipple, the lower side wart-like. For 
Pontania pomum see Fig. 7, on midrib. P. pisum: pea- 
like, yellowish, on under side of leaves. P. desmodioides: 
smooth, flattish, sessile, yellowish-green, about equally 
divided by the leaf. P. hyalina: fleshy, reddish, in parallel 
rows on either side of the midrib. P. borealis: solitary, 
smooth, reddish, pear-shaped, about one-third above the 
leaf. P. consors: gregarious, hairy, rather spherical, near 
leaf-base, about one-third above the leaf. P. gracilis: 
spherical, smooth, near petiole to one side of midrib, about 
equally divided by leaf. P. terminalis: green swelling on 
upper surface; the leaf eventually rolls. 

Plate XCV. The principal twig-gall is 
Hickory Phylloxera carycecaulis (Fig. 13). Numerous 

other species of Phylloxera make galls on the leaves. Of 
these the petiole bears caryoeren, kidney-shaped; sub- 
elliptica, elongate, nut-like; and spinosa, irregular, spiny 
galls. On the leaves, those of caryceyence are keel-like 
pleats along the leaf- veins; carycefallax crowded, conical, 
on upper surface; deplanata, reddish- or greenish-yellow, 
conical below; depressa, depressed, fringed; pilosula, 
hairy, light green, flattened above, below convex and with 
a nipple. The galls of Caryomyia holotricha (Fig. 8) are 
pubescent; carycecola (Fig. 9), smooth; sanguinolenta 
(Fig. 10), red; tubicola (Fig. 11); and persicoides (Fig. 12), 
brownish, downy. C. cynipsea makes a round, hard, 
midrib gall, about half an inch across. C. nucicola de- 
forms the husks. 

Dasyneura serrulatce causes deformations, 
Alder with whitish "bloom," of terminal buds 

(Plate XCV, Fig. 2). 



460 



Plate XCVI 




461 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



More than three hundred different galls 
have been listed. 

Leaves 

Plate XCVI shows Amphibolips confiuentus (Fig. i), 
spongy inside; A. inanis (Fig. 2), merely larval cell and 
radiating threads inside; A. ilicifolicB (Fig. 3); A. coelebs 
(Fig. 5); Callirhytis futilis (Fig. 4), somewhat flattened, 
projecting on both sides of the leaf, inside are kernels 
kept in position by white filaments; Q. papillatus (Fig. 7), 
somewhat nipple-shaped, projects on both sides, sur- 
rounded by a reddish areola; C. capsulus (Fig. 9); C. 
palustris (Fig. 11), hollow inside except for a loose kernel; 
Andricus singularis (Fig. 6), something like a small inanis; 
Andricus flocci, also called lana (Fig. 8), like a mass of 
wool with brown kernels; Andricus petiolicola (Fig. 10), 
many celled. 

On Plate XCVII: Andricus piger (Fig. 1), under side of 
midrib; Cynips prinoides (Fig. 2), shiny, single-celled, under 
side of leaf; Cynips pisum (Fig. 3), surface finely netted, 
two cavities; Acraspis erinacei (Fig. 4), spines red when 
young; Dryophanta polita (Fig. 5), sometimes grows singly; 
Neuroterus floccosus (Fig. 6), with white hairs, under side 
of leaf; N. umbilicatus (Fig. 7), small nipple in deep, 
central depression, under side of leaf; Cincticornia pilulec 
(Fig. 8), upper side of leaf; Cecidomyia poculum (Fig. 9), 
pale red to light lavender, under side of leaf; Cecidomyia 
niveipila (Fig. 12), fold lined with white pubescence. 
Cynips decidua makes galls about the size of wheat-grains 
on the under side of midrib, often 30 on a leaf. 



462 



Plate XCVII 




12 ^ 



463 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Twigs and other parts 

Plate XCVII, Fig. 10, shows the white, shot-like catkin 
gall of Andricus pulchra and, Fig. n, the acorn gall of 
Amphibolips prunus. 

Plate XCVIII shows Callirhytis cornigerus (Fig. i); 
C. punctatus (Fig. 2) resembles cornigerus but without 
"horns"; C. seminator (Fig. 3), white or pinkish, woolly; 
C. similis (Fig. 4), usually on scrub-oak; C. clavula (Fig. 
5), usually on white oak; Cynips strobilana (Fig. 6), hard 
and corky, with a single cell in each division ; Disholcaspis 
globulus (Fig. 7); D. duricaria (Fig. 9), with sharp point at 
apex; Biorhiza forticornis (Fig. 10), pale yellow with reddish 
tinge when fresh, kernel of each division held by radiating 
fibers; Neuroterus batatus (Fig. 8), pale bluish bloom, corky, 
many larval cells; N. noxiosus (Fig. 11), hard, woody, 
many larval cells. 



464 



Plate XCVIII 




465 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Plate XCIX, Fig. I, shows galls of Colopha 
m ulmicola. Pemphigus ulmifusus makes soli- 

tary, spindle-shaped galls on the upper surface of red elm 
leaves. 



Plate XCIX shows Pachypsylla cucur- 
ackberry ^ a ^-p-g^ ^ Qn un( j er s ^ e Q f i ea f^ concave 

in the middle, with a small nipple; P. vesiculum (Fig. 5), 
flat, blister-like, convex with a small nipple; P. mamma 
(Fig. 6), nearly cylindrical, apex rounded bluntly; P. 
gemma (Fig. 7), variable in shape and size, woody, numer- 
ous cells; P. venusta (Fig. 8), on petioles, several compart- 
ments. 



Plate XCIX: Hormaphis hamamelidis 
Witch-hazel ( Fig> 2 ^ greyish or re ddish, on upper side 

of leaf; Hamamelistes spinosus (Fig. 3), green or reddish 
bud-galls. 



Plate XCIX: Cecidomyia tulipifera 
Tulip-tree (pig 9); Thecodiplosis liriodendri (Fig. 10), 

brown spots with a yellow or greenish areola. 



Plate XCIX, Fig. 11: Cecidomyia (?; 
Maple incorrectly classed in Sciara; probably not 

a Mycetophilid, according to Dr. Felt) ocellaris, light 
yellow or green, usually with a red, central dot; it has 
never been reared. Phyllocoptes acericola make slender, 
spindle-shaped galls on the upper surface of sugar-maple 
leaves; and P. quadripes, small, bladder-like galls on the 
upper surface of soft-maple leaves. 



Plate XCIX, Fig. 12: Pemphigus rhois, 
Sumac yellowish-green tinged with red, hollow, 

on under side of leaf. 

466 



Plate XCIX 




467 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Plate CI: Schizomyia pomum (Fig. i), 
Grape variable, with 8 or 9 ridges when mature, 

numerous longitudinal cells each divided by a partition; 
Cecidomyia viticola (Fig. 2), green or red; Lasioptera vitis 
(Fig. 3), yellowish-green or reddish, on stems and leaf- 
stalks. 5. coryloides makes a rounded mass, about 2 
inches in diameter, of from 10 to 50 opaque, woolly, rather 
spindle-shaped, green galls. Aster omyia petiolicola makes 
spindle-shaped swellings on the petioles. For Phylloxera 
vastatrix see page 88; the leaf-galls are hollow, fleshy 
swellings, which are rather wrinkled and hairy, on the 
under surface of leaves, opening above. 



Plate CI, Fig. 4: Cecidomyia impatientis, 
Touch-me-not succu l e nt, semi-transparent, containing a 
number of cells, at base of flower of Impatiens. Lasi- 
optera impatientifolia causes a swelling of the base of leaves. 



Plate CI, Fig. 5 : Cecidomyia verrucicola, 
Ba n s twood d wart-like, about a fifth of an inch in di- 
ameter, usually formed in July. Ceci- 
domyia citrina deforms young terminal buds; Eriophyes 
abnormis, top-shaped galls on the under side of leaves. 



Plate CI, Fig. 6: Lasioptera clavula, 
Dogwood contains an elongated channel inhabited 

by a single larva. 



Plate CI, Fig. 7: Solenozopheria vaccinii, 
Huckleberry Qn stems of Vaccinium; the illustration 
shows an old gall with exit holes. 



Plate CI, Fig. 8: Aulax tumidus varies 
■eatly, on main stal 
often involving the flower-panicle. 



Wild Lettuce greatly, on main stalk of Lactuca canadensis, 



470 



Plate C 




469 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Plate CI: Schizomyia pomum (Fig. i), 
Grape variable, with 8 or 9 ridges when mature, 

numerous longitudinal cells each divided by a partition; 
Cecidomyia viticola (Fig. 2), green or red; Lasioptera vitis 
(Fig. 3), yellowish-green or reddish, on stems and leaf- 
stalks. S. coryloides makes a rounded mass, about 2 
inches in diameter, of from 10 to 50 opaque, woolly, rather 
spindle-shaped, green galls. Aster omyia petiolicola makes 
spindle-shaped swellings on the petioles. For Phylloxera 
vastatrix see page 88; the leaf -galls are hollow, fleshy 
swellings, which are rather wrinkled and hairy, on the 
under surface of leaves, opening above. 



Plate CI, Fig. 4: Cecidomyia impatientis, 
Touch-me-not succu l e nt, semi-transparent, containing a 
number of cells, at base of flower of I m pattens. Lasi- 
optera impatientifolia causes a swelling of the base of leaves. 



Plate CI, Fig. 5: Cecidomyia verrucicola, 
Lin s two a d d wart-like, about a fifth of an inch in di- 
ameter, usually formed in July. Ceci- 
domyia citrina deforms young terminal buds; Eriophyes 
abnormis, top-shaped galls on the under side of leaves. 



Plate CI, Fig. 6: Lasioptera clavula, 
Dogwood contains an elongated channel inhabited 

by a single larva. 



Plate CI, Fig. 7: Solenozopheria vaccinii, 
Huckleberry Qn stems f V actinium ; the illustration 
shows an old gall with exit holes. 



Plate CI, Fig. 8: Aulax tumidus varies 
Wild Lettuce greatly, on main stalk of Lactuca canadensis, 
often involving the flower-panicle. 



470 



Plate CI 




471 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



Plate CI: Eurosta solidaginis (Fig. 10 
Goldenrod shows gaUs from which the flieg haye 

emerged), pithy inside with a rounded cell in the center on 
the main stalk; Rhopalomyia solidaginis (Fig. n), caused 
by the arrest of stalk; CEdaspis polita (Fig. 12), caused by 
the arrest of side branches. Lasioptera solidaginis makes 
a gall much like that of Eurosta. Galls made by two 
genera of moths are often confused with these but, if the 
larvae are present, one can at least determine whether or 
not they are Lepidopterous ; to mention two species: the 
gall of Gnorimo schema gallcesolidaginis is about the size of 
Eurosta but is more tapering (adults emerge in September 
and hibernate), that of Eucosma scudderiana is merely an 
elongate thickening of the stem near the flower head 
(adults are found from June to August, larvae or pupae 
hibernating). The aerial gall of Rhopalomyia hirtipes is 
a large swelling of a bud "resembling a dried prune in 
texture; hard center"; it also makes a subterranean root- 
stalk swelling. R. fusiformis causes a ribbed, elongate 
structure, about a quarter of an inch in length, which 
occurs singly or in masses on the stem or foliage. Species 
of Aster omyia live mostly in galls, which are apparently 
affected with fungus; carbonifera causes a black blister 
and rosce, a rosy one; similar galls occur also on asters. 
About 1 50 kinds of galls have been recorded from American 
Composit3e. 

Plate CI, Fig. 9: Contarinia canadensis, 
succulent, pale green and sometimes tinged 
with red, formed in May or June. Eriophyes fraxiniflora 
deforms the catkins ; and E. fraxini makes numerous galls 
on a single leaf, wart-like, subdivided by irregular, hairy 
curtains within. Dasyneura tumidosce causes a gall much 
like pellex but on the base of the midrib and apical part 
of the petiole. 



472 



APPENDIX 



473 



APPENDIX 



473 



APPENDIX 

Chitin Chitin is a definite organic chemical corn- 

Page 6 pound that is found in the skin of most 

Arthropoda (p. 32), as well as in some other invertebrates 
and in certain fungi. The parts of an insect's skin which 
contain chitin are, for that reason, hard and tough, in 
contrast with other parts such as those between the seg- 
ments of the body or the joints of the appendages. Chitin 
is insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, acetic acid, dilute 
mineral acids, and dilute alkalies. 

_.„. _ , It has become rather difficult for those 

Killing Bottles . , . ._" . 

Page 16 not connected with scientific institutions to 

get cyanide of potassium and there is a ra- 
ther needless fear that cyanide bottles are dangerous in the 
hands of children. Several entomologists have reported 
good success with Carbona, a fluid that is sold for cleaning 
purposes. I have not used it myself and, therefore, can not 
vouch for its general adaptability. Cotton, saturated with 
Carbona, is kept in an olive bottle or something of the sort 
and specimens are killed by putting them into this bottle 
for a few minutes. 

Control of Thoreau said: "We accuse savages of 

Injurious In- worshipping only the bad spirit or devil, 
sects Though they may distinguish both a good 

Page 27 anc j a b a( ^ they regard only the one which 

they fear, worship the devil only. We too are savages in 
this, doing precisely the same thing. This occurred to me 
yesterday as I sat in the woods admiring the beauty of the 
blue butterfly. We are not chiefly interested in birds and 
insects, for example, as they are ornamental to the earth 
and cheering to man, but we spare the lives of the former 
only on condition that they eat more grubs than they do 
cherries, and the only account of the insects which the 
State encourages is of the insects injurious to vegetation." 
The appendix to the present book gives notes on introduced 
pests which, alone, would justify all the work that has been 

475 



APPENDIX. 

done in economic entomology, but it should be remembered 
that less than half of one percent of the different kinds 
of insects are distinctly injurious to man or his crops and 
many times that number are distinctly beneficial, either 
directly or by controlling injurious species. Parasitic and 
predacious insects do much more in the latter field than do 
birds. 

Ticks are not insects but mites (p. 32). 
All but the very young have four pairs of 
legs; the "seed ticks" have only three pairs. The abdo- 
men is neither distinctly segmented nor separated from the 
head-thorax. The distinctions between the various kinds 
of ticks are rather technical; see the bulletin of the U. S. 
Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology, Technical 
Series, No. 15, by Banks. Margaropus annulatus is the 
principal cattle tick of the Southern States and the dis- 
tributor of Texas Fever. Dermacentor venustus of the 
Northwest is guilty of carrying Rocky Mountain Spotted 
Fever. The common eastern species, Dermacentor vari- 
abilis, has not been proved guilty of bearing diseases. 



Key to the Orders of Commonly Observed Insects. 
Page 39 

No "key" (see p. 27) is necessary in order to place most 
of the commonly observed insects in their proper orders 
(see p. 5), provided we remember that the True Flies have 
no more than two wings and compose the order Diptera; 
Beetles usually have hard front wings and are the Coleop- 
tera; Butterflies and Moths are the Lepidoptera; Wasps, 
Bees, and Ants are the Hymenoptera; True Bugs have 
sucking mouth parts and are Hemiptera; and members of 
the Grasshopper group are Orthoptera. 

The following key is offered for the use of the increas- 
ingly large number of nature-lovers who wish to go more 
deeply into the details of insect classification. At the same 
time, I have tried to simplify the subject by omitting cer- 
tain forms that are almost certain not to be noticed by any 
but the specialist. 

476 



APPENDIX 

Chitin Chitin is a definite organic chemical corn- 

Page 6 pound that is found in the skin of most 

Arthropoda (p. 32), as well as in some other invertebrates 
and in certain fungi. The parts of an insect's skin which 
contain chitin are, for that reason, hard and tough, in 
contrast with other parts such as those between the seg- 
ments of the body or the joints of the appendages. Chitin 
is insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, acetic acid, dilute 
mineral acids, and dilute alkalies. 

_-,. „ , It has become rather difficult for those 

Killing Bottles - ' . , . .„ 

Page 16 not connected with scientific institutions to 

get cyanide of potassium and there is a ra- 
ther needless fear that cyanide bottles are dangerous in the 
hands of children. Several entomologists have reported 
good success with Carbona, a fluid that is sold for cleaning 
purposes. I have not used it myself and, therefore, can not 
vouch for its general adaptability. Cotton, saturated with 
Carbona, is kept in an olive bottle or something of the sort 
and specimens are killed by putting them into this bottle 
for a few minutes. 



Control of Thoreau said: "We accuse savages of 

Injurious In- worshipping only the bad spirit or devil, 
sects Though they may distinguish both a good 

Page 27 an( j a k a( ^ they regard only the one which 

they fear, worship the devil only. We too are savages in 
this, doing precisely the same thing. This occurred to me 
yesterday as I sat in the woods admiring the beauty of the 
blue butterfly. We are not chiefly interested in birds and 
insects, for example, as they are ornamental to the earth 
and cheering to man, but we spare the lives of the former 
only on condition that they eat more grubs than they do 
cherries, and the only account of the insects which the 
State encourages is of the insects injurious to vegetation." 
The appendix to the present book gives notes on introduced 
pests which, alone, would justify all the work that has been 

475 



APPENDIX. 

done in economic entomology, but it should be remembered 
that less than half of one percent of the different kinds 
of insects are distinctly injurious to man or his crops and 
many times that number are distinctly beneficial, either 
directly or by controlling injurious species. Parasitic and 
predacious insects do much more in the latter field than do 
birds. 

Ticks are not insects but mites (p. 32). 
All but the very young have four pairs of 
legs; the "seed ticks" have only three pairs. The abdo- 
men is neither distinctly segmented nor separated from the 
head-thorax. The distinctions between the various kinds 
of ticks are rather technical; see the bulletin of the U. S. 
Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology, Technical 
Series, No. 15, by Banks. Margaropus annulatus is th^ 
principal cattle tick of the Southern States and the dis- 
tributor of Texas Fever. Dermacentor venustus of the 
Northwest is guilty of carrying Rocky Mountain Spotted 
Fever: The common eastern species, Dermacentor vari- 
abilis, has not been proved guilty of bearing diseases. 



Key to the Orders of Commonly Observed Insects. 
Page 39 

No "key" (see p. 27) is necessary in order to place most 
of the commonly observed insects in their proper orders 
(see p. 5), provided we remember that the True Flies have 
no more than two wings and compose the order Diptera; 
Beetles usually have hard front wings and are the Coleop- 
tera; Butterflies and Moths are the Lepidoptera; Wasps, 
Bees, and Ants are the Hymenoptera; True Bugs have 
sucking mouth parts and are Hemiptera; and members of 
the Grasshopper group are Orthoptera. 

The following key is offered for the use of the increas- 
ingly large number of nature-lovers who wish to go more 
deeply into the details of insect classification. At the same 
time, I have tried to simplify the subject by omitting cer- 
tain forms that are almost certain not to be noticed by any 
but the specialist. 

476 






APPENDIX. 

i. Winged insects 2 

Wingless insects, including the young of winged 

adults ,23. 

2. The front, or mesothoracic, wings (those on the same 
segment as the second pair of legs) entirely membranous, 
except for the "veins," and not bearing scales 3. 

These wings bearing scales, usually enough to hide the 
veins. Butterflies and Moths. Lepidoptera (p. 115). 

These wings not bearing scales but being in part, at 

least, horny, leathery, or parchment-like 18. 

3* Only one pair of wings 4. 

Two pairs of wings 6. 

4. Abdomen with a pair of caudal filaments 5. 

Abdomen with no caudal filaments; a pair of knobbed 

structures (halteres or "balancers") where hind wings 
would be. True Flies. Diptera (p. 229). 

5. Cross-veins between the long veins abundant in wings. 
Certain rare May-flies. Plectoptera (p. 40). 

No cross-veins. Male Scale-insects. Homoptera 
(p. 91). 

6. Wings very narrow and almost veinless; the margins 
fringed with long hairs. Not more than two tarsal joints, 
the terminal one being swollen. Mouth fitted for sucking. 
Small insects. Thrips. Thysanoptera (p. 79). 

Not so 7. 

7. Hind wings larger than the front ones and with the 
hind (when the wings are expanded) part folded like a fan 
when the insect is at rest 8. 

Not so 10. 

8. Tarsi three- jointed. Body somewhat flattened and 
with prominent, jointed appendages at end of abdomen. 
Stone flies. Plecoptera (p. 50). 

Not so 9. 

9. Front part of wings with but few, if any, cross-veins. 
The wings fairly well covered with very fine hairs. Pro- 
thorax small. Caddis-flies. Trichoptera (p. 57). 

Not so. Dobson Flies, etc. Megaloptera (p. 52). 

10. Antennae short and inconspicuous. Wings with many 
cross-veins between the long veins 11. 

Not so 12. 

11. Long, thread-like appendages on end of abdomen. 

477 



APPENDIX. 

Hind wings much smaller than the front wings. May- 
flies. Plectoptera (p. 40). 

Not so. Dragon- and Damsel-flies. Odonata (p. 42). 

12. Head prolonged into a beak. Scorpion-flies. Mecop- 
tera (p. 56). 

Not so 13. 

13. Mouth-parts fitted for chewing 14. 

Not so. No abdominal appendages. Few cross-veins. 

Hemiptera. See p. 80 for the division into suborders, now 
frequently considered as orders. 

14. Tarsi five-jointed. No abdominal appendages. . . .15. 
Tarsi with four or fewer joints. Wings with but few 

veins 17. 

15. Prothorax very long and cylindrical. Antennae many- 
jointed. Wings with many cross-veins. Raphidioidea. 
This order, including the Snake-flies, was not in the first 
edition of the Field Book as its members are not often 
noticed, even in the West, and are not found at all in the 
East. Both larvae and adults are carnivorous, the former 
usually living under bark. The single family, Raphidiidae, 
contains two genera, Raphidia (three simple eyes, "ocelli," 
between the compound eyes) and Inocellia (no ocelli). 

Not so 16. 

16. Wings usually with many veins and cross-veins (wings 
covered with a fine powder if veins are few); hind wings 
usually about the same size as the front ones. Ant-lions, 
etc. Neuroptera (p. 53). 

Veins and cross-veins not numerous and wings not 
powdered; hind wings smaller than the front ones. Abdo- 
men usually constricted at the base and, in females, ending 
in a sting or sting-like structure which is usually with- 
drawn into the body. Wasps, Bees, and Ants. Hymen- 
optera (p. 406). 

17. Prothorax inconspicuous. Hind wings smaller than 
the front ones; wings held like the sloping sides of a roof 
when the insect is at rest. Book- and Bark-lice. Corro- 
dentia (p. 76). 

Not so. Isoptera (tarsi apparently four-jointed) and 
the tropical Embiidina (tarsi three-jointed). Isoptera are 
White Ants; see p. 76. 

18. Mesothoracic wings without apparent veins; hind 

478 



APPENDIX. 

wings, when present, folded crossways as well as lengthways. 

Mouth-parts fitted for chewing 19. 

Not having this combination of characters 20. 

19. Movable forceps at end of abdomen. Earwigs. 
Dermaptera (p. 61). 

Not so. Front wings ("elytra") usually very hard. 
Beetles. Coleoptera (p. 280). 

20. Mouth-parts fitted for sucking. Hemiptera in a 
broad sense. See p. 80. 

Mouth-parts fitted for chewing. Mesothoracic wings 
of nearly uniform texture throughout and usually with 
many veins 21. 

21. Front wings about as wide as the hind ones; the hind 
ones not folded. White Ants. Isoptera (p. 76). 

Not so 22. 

22. Very small. Antennas short and few- jointed. Male 
Strepsiptera (p. 405). 

Not so. Roaches, Grasshoppers, etc. Orthoptera 
(p. 62). 

23. Legless, maggot like creatures, without distinct body 
parts. Larvae of either Diptera, Hymenoptera, or (more 
rarely) Coleoptera; difficult to differentiate further. 

Sedentary forms not capable of much, if any, locomo- 
tion 24. 

Neither of the above 29. 

24. Small; scale-like, or covered with powder or cottony 
tufts; with a beak for sucking sap. Homoptera (p. 80). 

Not so. Pupas 25. 

25. The skin encasing the legs, wings, etc., holding these 
tightly against the body. Mouth-parts, if visible, a pro- 
boscis 26. 

Not so 27. 

26. Proboscis, if any, long. Four wing-cases, if any. 
Sometimes in a silken cocoon. Lepidoptera (p. 115). 

Not so. Diptera (p. 229). 

27. Prothorax small, fixed into one piece with the.meso- 
thorax. Sometimes enclosed in a cocoon. Hymenoptera 
(p. 406). 

Not so 28. 

28. Wing-cases with few or no veins. Coleoptera (p. 
280). 

479 



APPENDIX. 

Wing-cases with a number of veins. JNeuroptera 
(P- 53) an d related orders. 

29. Parasites on man and other animals 30. 

Not so 35. 

30. Four pairs of legs. Not insects at all but mites or 
ticks. Acarina (pp. 32 and 476). 

Not more than three pairs of legs 31. 

31. Body flattened sideways. Mouth-parts a sharp beak, 
Jumping species. Fleas. Suctoria (p. 279). 

Body flattened horizontally '. 32. 

32. Mouth-parts fitted for chewing. Biting Bird-lice. 
Mallophaga (p. 78). 

Mouth-parts fitted for sucking 33. 

33. Antennae inserted in pits, not visible from above. 
Pupipara (p. 279). 

Not so, although the antennae are short 34. 

34. Beak not jointed. Tarsi hook-like. Lice. Siphun- 
culata (p. 78). 

Beak jointed. Tarsi not hook-like. Hemiptera 
(p. 80). 

35. Aquatic; larvae, usually gill-bearing 36. 

Terrestrial (or on the surface of the water but not 

living below it); breathing through spiracles 43. 

36. Mouth-parts a strong, sharp beak. Hemiptera 
(p. 80). 

Mouth-parts , if any, fitted for chewing 37. 

37. Living in a case of sand, pebbles, sticks, or leaves. 
Caddis- worms. Trichoptera (p. 57). 

Not so 38. 

38. Lower lip furnished with a pair of hooks and folded 
so that it can be extended forward. Odonata (p. 42). 

Not so 39. 

39. No gills along the sides of the abdomen 40. 

With lateral gills on the abdomen 41. 

40. The three divisions of the thorax loosely united; 
antennae and caudal (usually two) filaments long and 
slender. Plecoptera (p. 50). 

Not so. Jointed thoracic legs. Coleoptera (p. 280). 
Not so. No jointed thoracic legs. Larvae and pupae 
of Mosquitoes, etc. Diptera (p. 229). 

41. No pupal stage, hence wing-pads frequently present. 

480 



APPENDIX. 

Lateral gills on abdomen. Usually three, sometimes only- 
two, gills at end of abdomen. Tarsi with single claws 
Plectoptera (p. 40). 

Not so 42. 

42. The larvae of Whirligig Beetles (Gyrinus, p. 292) have 
a single pair of gills on each of the first eight abdominal 
segments and two pairs on the ninth ; the tenth is armed with 
two pairs of long, sharp, curved hooks. Except for that 
genus, the aquatic larvae of Coleoptera (p. 280) do not 
have "proplegs" armed with hooks or claws on the last 
abdominal segment. 

Among the Megaloptera (p. 52), Sialis has the last 
abdominal segment prolonged as a hairy or fringed tail- 
like process; Chauliodes (no fine gills at the base of each 
lateral filament) and Corydalis (a tuft of fine gills at the 
base of each lateral filament) have the last abdominal seg- 
ment forked, each prong bearing a pair of hooks and a 
small lateral filament. 

43. Mouth-parts much reduced, drawn into the head and 
scarcely, if at all, visible. Appendages on under side of 
abdomen. Delicate, small insects. A number of orders 
which are briefly referred to on p. 39 as "The Most Primi- 
tive Insects." 

Not so 44. 

44. Mouth-parts fitted for chewing 45. 

Mouth-parts, if any, fitted for sucking 55. 

45. Larvae with fleshy "legs" on abdomen. Body cylin- 
drical; thorax and abdomen not very distinct. Butterfly 
and Moth caterpillars (Lepidoptera, p. 115) have not 
more than five pairs of abdominal "legs"; Saw-fly larvae 
(Hymenoptera, p. 408) have more than five pairs of such 
"legs." 

Not so 46. 

46. Antennae long and distinct 47. 

Larvae with short antennae 54. 

47. Strong, movable forceps at end of abdomen ; prothorax 
not fused to mesothorax. Earwigs. Dermaptera (p. 61). 

No abdominal forceps 48. 

48. Abdomen strongly constricted at the base; prothorax 
fused to the mesothorax. Female Ants (p. 415), Velvet 
Ants (p. 427), etc. Hymenoptera. 

31 481 



APPENDIX. 

Abdomen not so; broadly joined to thorax 49. 

49. Head drawn out like a beak. Mecoptera (p. 56). 
Not so 50. 

50. About an eighth of an inch, or less, in length; louse- 
like. Prothorax inconspicuous. Book- and Bark-lice. 

CORRODENTIA (p. 76). 

Not so 51. 

51. Hind legs with enlarged femora, fitted for jumping. 
Grasshoppers, etc. Orthoptera (p. 62). 

Not so 52. 

52. Body white, or nearly so, and somewhat ant-like. 
Tarsi apparently four-jointed; no joint of the front tarsi 
swollen. White Ants. Isoptera (p. 76). 

Not so 53. 

53. Either prothorax much longer than mesothorax and 
front legs fitted for grasping prey (Mantidae, p. 64); or 
antennas usually with more than fifteen joints and ab- 
domen with appendages at the end, the body being either 
flattened (Blattidae, the Roaches, p. 62) or stick -like (Phas- 
midae, p. 65). Orthoptera. 

Not so. Body often hard-shelled. Beetles. Cole- 
optera (p. 280). 

54. Body cylindrical, caterpillar-like. Mecoptera (p. 
56). 

Body more or less flattened. Usually larvae of Coleop- 
tera (Mandibles almost always separate from maxillae. 
Raphidioidea, see couplet 15, and Strepsiptera would 
also come here) but the specimens may be larvae of Neu- 
roptera (Mandibles united with the maxillae to form suck- 
ing jaws). 

55. Body densely clothed with hairs or scales. Proboscis, 
if any, coiled under the head. Moths. Lepidoptera 
(p. 146). 

Not so 56. 

56. Last tarsi joint swollen and without claws. Very 
small species. Thrips. Thysanoptera (p. 79). 

Tarsi not so 57. 

57. Prothorax distinct. Hemiptera in a broad sense. 
See p. 80. 

Prothorax small and not plainly visible from above. 
Diptera (p. 229). 

482 



APPENDIX. 

Lateral gills on abdomen. Usually three, sometimes only 
two, gills at end of abdomen. Tarsi with single claws 
Plectoptera (p. 40). 

Not so 42. 

42. The larvae of Whirligig Beetles (Gyrinus, p. 292) have 
a single pair of gills on each of the first eight abdominal 
segments and two pairs on the ninth; the tenth is armed with 
two pairs of long, sharp, curved hooks. Except for that 
genus, the aquatic larvae of Coleoptera (p. 280) do not 
have "proplegs" armed with hooks or claws on the last 
abdominal segment. 

Among the Megaloptera (p. 52), Sialis has the last 
abdominal segment prolonged as a hairy or fringed tail- 
like process; Chauliodes (no fine gills at the base of each 
lateral filament) and Corydalis (a tuft of fine gills at the 
base of each lateral filament) have the last abdominal seg- 
ment forked, each prong bearing a pair of hooks and a 
small lateral filament. 

43. Mouth-parts much reduced, drawn into the head and 
scarcely, if at all, visible. Appendages on under side of 
abdomen. Delicate, small insects. A number of orders 
which are briefly referred to on p. 39 as "The Most Primi- 
tive Insects." 

Not so 44. 

44. Mouth-parts fitted for chewing 45. 

Mouth-parts, if any, fitted for sucking 55. 

45. Larvae with fleshy "legs" on abdomen. Body cylin- 
drical; thorax and abdomen not very distinct. Butterfly 
and Moth caterpillars (Lepidoptera, p. 115) have not 
more than five pairs of abdominal "legs"; Saw-fly larvae 
(Hymenoptera, p. 408) have more than five pairs of such 
"legs." 

Not so 46. 

46. Antennae long and distinct .47. 

Larvae with short antennae 54. 

47. Strong, movable forceps at end of abdomen; prothorax 
not fused to mesothorax. Earwigs. Dermaptera (p. 61). 

No abdominal forceps 48. 

48. Abdomen strongly constricted at the base; prothorax 
fused to the mesothorax. Female Ants (p. 415), Velvet 
Ants (p. 427), etc. Hymenoptera. 

31 481 



I 



APPENDIX. 

Abdomen not so ; broadly joined to thorax 49. 

49. Head drawn out like a beak. Mecoptera (p. 56). 
Not so 50. 

50. About an eighth of an inch, or less, in length ; louse- 
like. Prothorax inconspicuous. Book- and Bark-lice. 

CORRODENTIA (p. 76). 

Not so 51. 

51. Hind legs with enlarged femora, fitted for jumping. 
Grasshoppers, etc. Orthoptera (p. 62). 

Not so 52. 

52. Body white, or nearly so, and somewhat ant-like. 
Tarsi apparently four-jointed; no joint of the front tarsi 
swollen. White Ants. Isoptera (p. 76). 

Not so 53. 

53. Either prothorax much longer than mesothorax and 
front legs fitted for grasping prey (Mantidae, p. 64); or 
antennae usually with more than fifteen joints and ab- 
domen with appendages at the end, the body being either 
flattened (Blattidae, the Roaches, p, 62) or stick-like (Phas- 
midae, p. 65). Orthoptera. 

Not so. Body often hard-shelled. Beetles. Cole- 
optera (p. 280). 

54. Body cylindrical, caterpillar-like. Mecoptera (p. 
56). 

Body more or less flattened. Usually larvae of Coleop- 
tera (Mandibles almost always separate from maxillae. 
Raphidioidea, see couplet 15, and Strepsiptera. would 
also come here) but the specimens may be larvae of Neu- 
roptera (Mandibles united with the maxillae to form suck- 
ing jaws). 

55. Body densely clothed with hairs or scales. Proboscis, 
if any, coiled under the head. Moths. Lepidoptera 
(p. 146). 

Not so 56. 

56. Last tarsi joint swollen and without claws. Very 
small species. Thrips. Thysanoptera (p. 79). 

Tarsi not so 57. 

57. Prothorax distinct. Hemiptera in a broad sense. 
See p. 80. 

Prothorax small and not plainly visible from above. 
Diptera (p. 229). 

482 



APPENDIX. 



Since the first edition of this book was 
prepared the unusual came to many people 
and Pediculus vestimenti was, unfortunately, 
not "rare." Cootie is another name for this disgusting, 
uncomfortable and, by reason of the disease it may carry, 
dangerous creature. Fortunately the return to sanitary, 
uncrowded living conditions, combined with the delousing 
measures taken by the army, will again make it usually 
rare. While it is probable that capitis and vestimenti are 
distinct species, they are difficult to differentiate. 



Tree-hoppers or Insect Brownies (Membracidae) 
Page 84 and Plate XXIII 

The Tree-hoppers or Insect Brownies are small, but they 
are so curiously shaped that they have attracted much 
popular notice. W. D. Funkhouser has published {Memoir 
11, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Station) a pleasing paper on 
the species of central New York. In order to include a few 
species which may be noticed by the users of this book and 
were not covered by the statement under 4, p. 81, it would 
have been better to have said that Membracidae have an 
enlarged pronotum that usually extends over the abdomen. 

The subfamily Centrotinae is distinguished from the 
others by having a distinct scutellum not concealed by the 
enlarged pronotum; Microcentrus caryce on hickory is our 
common species. 

The anterior tibiae of the subfamily Membracinae are 
flattened, somewhat leaf -like. In Campylenchia the lateral 
ridges of the anterior horn on the pronotum are close to the 
upper margin; in Enchenopa they are about midway be- 
tween the upper and lower margins. C. latipes lives on 
grasses and has no yellow markings on its back. E. bino- 
tata lives on trees, shrubs, and vines; its back is marked 
with yellow and it covers its egg masses with a frothy 
deposit. 

Most of our Membracids, including the five species 
shown on Plate XXIII, belong to the subfamily Smiliinae, 
in which the anterior tibiae are simple. 

The genus Ceresa can usually be recognized by the horn 

483 



APPENDIX. 

on each shoulder, as is shown in the figure of bubalus (Plate 
XXIII). C. dicer os has brown transverse bands; those 
species which follow do not have such bands. It is found 
chiefly on box elder. C. basalis has the under surface of the 
body strongly marked with black; those species which 
follow do not. It is sometimes common on garden plants. 
C. constans and palmeri are small species with the dorsal 
crest marked with brown or reddish. The horns of con- 
stans are long, sharp, much recurved, and elevated; it is 
usually on locust. The horns of palmeri are shorter, little 
elevated, and only slightly recurved; it is usually rare and 
on hickory. C. borealis is much like bubalus but is smaller, 
darker, and has a very hairy pronotum; commonest on 
shrubs and low trees. C. bubalus (p. 84) has stout, nearly 
straight horns. C. taurina is about the same size; horns 
long, sloping upward, and recurved; common on fruit trees 
and bushes. 

Thelia bimaculata is frequently rather common on locust 
trees, Robinia pseudacacia. 

Telamona ampelopsidis is usually to be found on Virginia 
creeper. The numerous species of this genus are difficult 
to differentiate satisfactorily. 

Adults of Archasia belfragei occur on oak and locust. 
I do not know where its young live. 

As stated on p. 84, ants attend some Membracidae for 
the sake of "honey-dew." It has been stated that ants 
assist Entylia sinuata to moult, but doubt has been cast 
on the accuracy of the observation. Incidentally, it may 
be that "honey-dew" is not the sole object of the ants' 
visits; they seem to be interested also in the sap that flows 
from the wounds made by the Membracids' beaks. 



484 



APPENDIX. 



Since the first edition of this book was 
Cooties prepared the unusual came to many people 

and Pediculus vestimenti was, unfortunately, 
not "rare." Cootie is another name for this disgusting, 
uncomfortable and, by reason of the disease it may carry, 
dangerous creature. Fortunately the return to sanitary, 
uncrowded living conditions, combined with the delousing 
measures taken by the army, will again make it usually 
rare. While it is probable that capitis and vestimenti are 
distinct species, they are difficult to differentiate. 



Tree-hoppers or Insect Brownies (Membracidae) 
Page 84 and Plate XXIII 

The Tree-hoppers or Insect Brownies are small, but they 
are so curiously shaped that they have attracted much 
popular notice. W. D. Funkhouser has published {Memoir 
ll\ Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Station) a pleasing paper on 
the species of central New York. In order to include a few 
species which may be noticed by the users of this book and 
were not covered by the statement under 4, p. 81, it would 
have been better to have said that Membracidae have an 
enlarged pronotum that usually extends over the abdomen. 

The subfamily Centrotinae is distinguished from the 
others by having a distinct scutellum not concealed by the 
enlarged pronotum; Microcentrus caryce on hickory is our 
common species. 

The anterior tibiae of the subfamily Membracinae are 
flattened, somewhat leaf -like. In Campylenchia the lateral 
ridges of the anterior horn on the pronotum are close to the 
upper margin; in Enchenopa they are about midway be- 
tween the upper and lower margins. C. latipes lives on 
grasses and has no yellow markings on its back. E. bino- 
tata lives on trees, shrubs, and vines; its back is marked 
with yellow and it covers its egg masses with a frothy 
deposit. 

Most of our Membracids, including the five species 
shown on Plate XXIII, belong to the subfamily Smiliinae, 
in which the anterior tibiae are simple. 

The genus Ceresa can usually be recognized by the horn 

483 



APPENDIX. 

on each shoulder, as is shown in the figure of bubalus (Plate 
XXIII). C. dicer os has brown transverse bands; those 
species which follow do not have such bands. It is found 
chiefly on box elder. C. basalts has the under surface of the 
body strongly marked with black; those species which 
follow do not. It is sometimes common on garden plants. 
C. constans and palmeri are small species with the dorsal 
crest marked with brown or reddish. The horns of con- 
stans axe long, sharp, much recurved, and elevated; it is 
usually on locust. The horns of palmeri are shorter, little 
elevated, and only slightly recurved; it is usually rare and 
on hickory. C. borealis is much like bubalus but is smaller, 
darker, and has a very hairy pronotum; commonest on 
shrubs and low trees. C. bubalus (p. 84) has stout, nearly 
straight horns. C. taurina is about the same size; horns 
long, sloping upward, and recurved; common on fruit trees 
and bushes. 

Thelia bimaculata is frequently rather common on locust 
trees, Robinia pseudacacia. 

Telamona ampelopsidis is usually to be found on Virginia 
creeper. The numerous species of this genus are difficult 
to differentiate satisfactorily. 

Adults of Archasia belfragei occur on oak and locust. 
I do not know where its young live. 

As stated on p. 84, ants attend some Membracidae for 
the sake of "honey-dew." It has been stated that ants 
assist Entylia sinuata to moult, but doubt has been cast 
on the accuracy of the observation. Incidentally, it may 
be that "honey-dew" is not the sole object of the ants' 
visits ; they seem to be interested also in the sap that flows 
from the wounds made by the Membracids' beaks. 



484 



APPENDIX. 

Hints for Identifying Caterpillars 
Page 115 

No more is given here than the heading promises — hints. 
There are several extensive papers on the subject, such as 
the one by S. B. Fracker {Illinois Biological Monographs, 
vol. II., No. 1, 1915), but they are necessarily both technical 
and incomplete. A very good hint is to make use of the 
plant index, page 525 ; it was prepared for this purpose. 
Another good hint is to rear the caterpillar; this means 
work but it will be both interesting and instructive. The 
other hints given here are from notes kindly furnished me 
by Mr. F. E. Watson, Assistant in charge of Lepidoptera 
at The American Museum of Natural History. They con- 
cern full-grown caterpillars and here we meet two diffi- 
culties: nothing but experience will tell when a caterpillar 
is full-grown and young caterpillars of a given species often 
cliff sr more in general appearance from full-grown speci- 
mens of the same species than do caterpillars of different 
species. This can not be helped; it is the way they are 
made. 

A "caterpillar" with only one ocellus on each side 
of its head and no circles of hooklets on its abdominal 
legs is not a caterpillar but the larva of a Saw-fly (p. 
408). 

A caterpillar more than three inches long is certain to be 
one of the Sphingidae, if it has either a "horn" or an eye- 
like spot on its eleventh body segment; otherwise it is 
likely to be either a Saturnid or a Ceratocampid. A very 
hair^f caterpillar, unless very small, is almost certainly one 
of the Arctiidae, but see below. A caterpillar without legs 
on the sixth, seventh and eighth body segments and that 
moves by "looping" belongs to the Geometridas, but note 
that some Noctuidae lack one or more pairs of legs from the 
middle of their body and also do a sort of a loop. Cater- 
pillars with a slit in the top of the first segment from which, 
when disturbed, they protrude a yellowish or reddish V- 
shaped scent organ are, in Eastern United States, those of 
some Swallow-tail butterfly, Papilio. 

485 



APPENDIX. 

Butterfly Caterpillars 
Nymphalid^e 

On Milkweed. — A pair of thread-like appendages near 
each end of the body; see Plate XXVII. On pages 1 16 and 
127 I used the name Anosia plexippus for this butterfly, 
calling attention to other names. Since then the subject 
has been passed upon by authorities and it is said that the 
name plexippus really belongs to an Asiatic species that is 
similar to ours but has a band of large white spots across 
each front wing. According to the rules, our species must 
now be called archippus and its genus is Danaus, not 
Danais. Let us hope that it will remain so ; see page 4. 

Two southern species on Passion Flower, each about 
1.5 in. long (page 117). — The larva of Heliconius chari- 
thonius is dead white, with blackish spots and long black 
V spines. That of Dione vanilla is brownish-red, with longi- 
tudinal dark brown bands and long blackish spines. 

Euptoieta claudia. — See p-ge 117 for foodplants; Passion 
Flower and Sedum are favorites. The larva, about 1.4 in. 
long, has a black head; body usually orange to brownish- 
red. There are two bands of white spots on each side and 
an indistinct one on top; two long, finely spined horns or 
tubercle on the first segment and six rows of shorter ones 
behind these. 

Argynnis and Brenthis larvae feed by night and hide by 
day under pieces of bark, etc. To find them search for 
patches of Violets with irregular pieces eaten out of the 
/ leaves and then look carefully among the dead leaves near 
these plants. For A. idalia (about 2 in. long) and A. 
cybele (about 1.75 in. long), see page 117. A. aphrodite 
(page 118): about 1.5 in. long; blackish-brown with a 
velvety black spot at base of each spine; spines bl ck, 
sometimes reddish-yellow at base. A. atlantis (page 118): 
about 1.5 in. long; dark velvety purple with grayish spines. 
The spines of B. myrina are blackish and those of bellona 
are dull grayish-yellow; see page 118. 

Phyciodes. — See descriptions of larvae, page 119. For 
full-grown nycteis, about 1 in. long, look during early June 
on Woodland Sunflowers (Helianthus divaricatus) , espe- 
486 



APPENDIX. 

cially along roads. P. tharos, about .75 in. long, on Asters. 
The spines of the rare batesi axe light purplish-brown; 
similar to tharos and on Wavy-leafed Aster {Aster undula- 
tus). 

Melitcea. — See pages 119 and 120 for descriptions of 
larvas. M. phaeton, about 1.5 in. long, feeds especially on 
Turtle-head (Chelone glabra). M. harrisi, about 1.25 in. 
long, does not have the Baltimore's black coloring at each 
extremity. 

Having rows of barbed spines 

Grapta, Junonia and Vanessa j -album have a pair of 
spines on the head. Pyrantels and our other species of 
Vanessa do not have spines on the head. 

Grapta inter rogationis (page 120). — Head brown; body 
chestnut, flecked with yellow dots in more or less longitu- 
dinal lines; spines yellowish or reddish. Chiefly on Elm. 

Grapta comma (page 122). — Head blackish; body varying 
from green to brown; spines whitish (a good distinguishing 
character, but see f annus) . Chiefly on Nettle. 

Grapta progne (page 122). — Head brown; body yellowish- 
brown; spines blackish. Chiefly on Currant and Goose- 
berry. 

Grapta f annus (page 122). — Head black; body brownish- 
yellow, with a large white patch back of the middle; spines 
white. Chiefly on Black Birch. 

Junonia ccenia (page 126). — Head dark brown; body 
blackish-gray; spines metalic dark purple. Chiefly on 
Gerardia. 

Vanessa j -album (page 124). — Body varying from green 
to dull red; spines mostly blackish. On White Birch. 

The following do not have spines on the head (see above) . 

Vanessa antiopa (page 122 and plate XXX). — Head 
black; body with a row of orange-red spots on the back; 
spines black. Chiefly on Willow and Elm. 

Vanessa milberti (page 124). — Head black; body black, 
lighter on the sides and with broken, yellow side-stripes; 
spines black. On Nettles; usually not over an inch long. 

Pyrameis atalanta (page 124). — Head black; body usu- 

487 



APPENDIX. 

ally reddish-gray with a broken, yellow stripe on each side; 
spines reddish. On Nettles. 

Pyrantels hunter a (page 124). — Head black; body garnet 
with yellow rings, yellowish sides and two rows of white 
spots on the back; anterior spines blackish, the others 
yellowish. On Everlastings. 

Pyrantels cardui (page 126 and plate XXXI). — Head 
black; body brownish-gray with a somewhat broken, yellow 
stripe on each side and sometimes with two faint yellow 
lines down the middle of the back; spines yellowish. 
Chiefly on Burdock. 

Basllarchla. — Full-grown larvae of the species mentioned 
on pages 126 and 127 are about 1.5 in. long and easily 
recognized by the pair of long, spiny, warty tubercles on 
the second segment and the humps along the back, es- 
pecially prominent on the fifth segment (see Plate XXVII). 
The tubercles on the second segment of astyanoxc are not 
clubbed, the spiny warts being slender; those of arthemis 
are conspicuously clubbed and short, the spiny warts being 
short and conical ; those of archlppus slightly clubbed and 
thickly covered with long, conical, spiny warts. All three 
feed on Willow and Poplar, but arthemis prefers Birch and 
astyanax feeds on Wild Cherry, both being sometimes found 
on other plants. 

Most of the caterpillars of the subfamily Satyrinae have 
the last segment forked and the head usually angulate^on 
top or even having a pair of horns. See page 128 and Plate 
XXXII. The following notes are additional to the de 
scriptions given there. All of these species feed on Grasses 
Debts portlandla: about 1.25 in. long; head yellowish-green 
the moderately high conical tubercles with red or pink 
tips; body green, with a dark green line on top and a faint 
yellow stripe on each side; anal forks long. Satyr odes 
r ,anthus: about 1.25 in. long; head green, with two very 
ligh, red, conical tubercles; body green, with longitudina 
stripes of darker green; anal forks long. Neonymph 
eurytus: about .75 in. long; head brownish and angulate 
almost tuberculate; body brownish-green, with a blackisl 
line on top and obscure, brown, longitudinal markings 
anal forks short. N. phoclon: about 1 in. long; head pea 
488 



APPENDIX. 

green, with two small yellow-brown tubercles at the sum- 
mits; body yellowish-green, with a dark green line on top 
and five (two of which are indistinct) yellow lines on each 
side. Satyrus alope: about 1.25 in. long; head green and 
with no tubercles on the top; body dull, yellowish-green 
with two yellow stripes on each side; anal fork short and 
slender. 

Libythea bachmani. — Nearly an inch long; slender; dark 
green, with longitudinal yellow lines. These caterpillars 
look like Pierids and sometimes assume a somewhat 
Sphinx-like pose. The second and third segments are 
swollen, the former bearing two black tubercles in a yellow 
ring. On Hackberry (Celtis) and doubtfully on Wolf- 
berry (see p. 130). 

Erycinhle and Lyc^enid^e 

These larvae usually have the head much smaller than 
the body, often completely retractile into the first segment 
of the body. They are shaped something like "sow-bugs" 
or "wood-lice," flat and with an oval outline. Their legs 
are so short that they seem to glide, rather than to walk. 

Erycinidae (page 130). — The larva of our only specie^, 
Calephelis borealis, is unknown but, like other members of 
its family, its head is probably at least half as broad as the 
middle of its body, which is probably more cylindrical than 
among Lycaenidas. 

Lycasnidae (page 131). — Head less than half as broad as 
the middle of the body. Many species have, on the back 
of the posterior segments, from one to three, minute, ex- 
tensible sacs from which exudes a secretion that is attrac- 
tive to ants. Therefore, these larvae may sometimes be 
found by noticing where ants are congregating (see page 
132). 

Thecla melinus larvae, about .5 in. long, are dark, dull, 
velvety brown. They are commonest in August on the 
buds, flowers, and pods of Hairy Bush Clover (Lespedeza). 
See page 131 for other food plants. The larva of T. damon 
is about .5 in. long; dark green, with three rows of whitish 
dashes on each side. Mr. Watson's directions for finding 

489 



J 



APPENDIX. 

larvae of T. titus, which get to be about .75 in. long and are 
bright green with each extremity bright rose color, are: 
" Look in June on small plants of Wild Cherry. First notice 
if the leaves are eaten in an irregular manner; then if there 
is an ants' nest at the base of the main stem. The next 
step will be to remove carefully the earth around this main 
stem to a depth of one or two inches. The larva will be 
found resting on the stem with ants in attendance. It 
crawls up to the top of the plant to feed at night." 

Feniseca tarquinius, about .5 in. long, grayish brown and 
covered rather abundantly with short hairs. See page 132 
for food-habits. 

Chrysophanus hypophlaus larvae, on Field Sorrel (Rumex 
acetosella), and those of C. thoe, on Curly Dock (R, crispus), 
are bright green and get to be about .6 in. long. See page 

133. 

Lycczna comyntas, about .4 in. long, are brownish green; 
chiefly on flowers of Bush Clover and Tick-trefoil. See 
page 133. L. pseudargiolus is a better name than ladon for 
our Common Blue. Its larva, about .5 in. long, varies 
from whitish to greenish and is sometimes tinted with rose. 

PlERIN/E 

These caterpillars are slender and usually not much 
longer than one inch. 

On Cruciferous Plants (pages 134 to 137). — Pieris 
rapes (Plate XXXIV) is green, with three pale longitudinal 
stripes, one on the back and one on each side; on Cabbage, 
etc. P. protodice is green, striped with golden yellow and 
dotted with small, black "warts"; not common; chiefly on 
Lepidium virginicum, a round-seeded Pepper-grass. P. 
napi is green, minutely dotted with black except for a 
narrow streak down the back. P. monuste, about 1.25 in. 
long, is yellow, longitudinally striped with dull bluish and 
bright yellow bands and studded with shiny black warts, 
the larger ones being spiny. Euchloe genutia is dark green, 
striped with dark blue, orange, yellow, and white, and 
dotted all over with minute black warts; June and late 
May, especially on flowers and pods of the Rock-cress, 
Arabis lyrata. 

490 



APPENDIX. 

On Leguminous Plants (pages 137 and 138). — Colias 
philodice is grass-green, with a pale rose-colored stripe on 
each side; chiefly on Clover. Eurytheme is like philodice 
but with two rose-colored bands on each side; on Clovers, 
especially Alfalfa. Meganostoma casonia is yellowish- 
green, generally with narrow transverse bands of yellow or 
black or both, and dotted with small black warts; on false 
Indigo (Amorpha fruticosa). Catopsila eubule, about 1.75 y/ 
in. long, is bluish-green, with a yellow stripe on each side, 
blue transverse bands, and dotted with minute black warts; 
on Cassia. Possibly all of our species of Terias feed on Cas- 
sia. T. lisa is grass-green, with a white line on each side; 
nicippe is green, with a broad yellow band, edged slightly 
with blue, on each side. 

Nathalis iole, about .5 in. long, is green, with a purple 
stripe on the back and a double purple and yellow stripe 
on each side. On Fetid Marigold (Bcebera papposa). 

PAPILIONIN.E 

See above (page 485). 

Front Segments Much Larger Than Those Behind; 
Eye-like Spots on the Third Segment. — P. troilus (page 
140) has yellowish patches in line with these eye-spots but 
on the fourth segment ; it is common on Sassafras and Spice- 
bush. P. glaucus (page 140) does not have such yellow 
patches and is usually found on either Wild Cherry or 
Tulip-tree. P. palamedes is much like troilus but the spot 
on the third segment is more distinctly an "eye spot'-' and 
the pinkish spot behind this (on the fourth segment) has 
no black spot at its hind edge ; on Magnolia and Lauracese. 

Front Segments Much Larger Than Those Behind, but 
Without Eye-spots. — P. cresphontes (page 138 and plate 
I) lives on Citrus Trees. P. marcellus (page 142) is green, 
with narrow yellow and black cross-bands, and lives on 
Papaw. 

Front Segments Not Much Larger Than Those Behind. — 
P. philenor (page 141) is blackish-brown, with fleshy fila- 
ments and orange tubercles; rare in the North but common 
southward on Aristolochia. P. polyxenes (page 141) is 
green, with black cross-bands; on Carrot, Parsnip, and 
allied plants. 

491 



APPENDIX. 

Hesperiid^e 

" The larvae are smooth and usually have a head, some- 
what rough and hairy, which looks too big and seems to be 
supported by a too slender neck. The appearance of many 
suggests moth larvae, and nearly all of the species show a 
further resemblance to moths in that they spin a sort of a 
cocoon within which they pupate" (page 142; see Plate 
XXXVII). The first body segment of the caterpillars has 
a chitinized band back of the neck ; this band is called the 
thoracic shield. 

The Hesperiinae (page 143) make horizontal nests on a 
variety of plants (but not grasses), the young by folding 
over a leaf and the more nearly full-grown by fastening 
together several leaves. The Pamphilinae (page 144) 
make vertical, tubular nests by spining together blades 
of grass. , 

The following notes concern the Hesperiinas; the life 
histories of the Pamphilinae are but poorly known. 

Epargyreus tityrus (page 143). — Head reddish-brown, 
with two bright orange-red spots; body yellowish-green 
but first segment red and thoracic shield brown. Chiefly 
on Locust. 

Eudamus proteus (page 144). — Like tityrus but with 
orange longitudinal bands. Especially on Tick-trefoil 
(Meibomia) . 

Achalarus (misspelled Achlarus on page 144) lycidas, 
Thor'ybes bathyllus, and pylades. — Head black; body brown. 
On Tick-trefoil and Bush Clover. 

Thanaos brizo (two orange-red spots on the head), also 
(six such spots) juvenalis and horatius. — Head fawn-colored 
body whitish-green. Chiefly on Oak. Adults of horatius 
are distinguished from those of juvenalis (plate XXXVII) 
by their not having two whitish spots on the under side of 
each hind wing just back of the front edge. 

Thanaos lucilius (page 144). — Head black; body green. 
On Columbine. 

Pholisor a catullus (page 144). — Head black; body green. 
On Chenopodium and Amaranthus. 

Hesperia tessellata (page 144). — Head black; body green, 
On Sida. 

49? 



APPENDIX. 



SPHINGID/E 



Hairless caterpillars from two to five inches long having 
either a horn or an eye-like tubercle on the eleventh seg- 
ment are sure to belong to this family (p. 146), if they as- 
sume a Sphinx-like attitude when at rest. The species 
which have an eye-like tubercle instead of a horn are Sphe- 
codina abbotti, Pholus pandorus and achemon; see below. 
The horn of P achy sphinx modesta is not well developed. A 
few species belonging to other families have small larvae 
with such a tubercle but they do not assume the Sphinx- 
like pose. 

Ceratomia amyntor on Elm and White Birch may be 
recognized by the pair of tubercles on each of the third and 
fourth segments. 

Hemaris thysbe. — About 1.75 in. long. Head pale green; 
body pale green, whitish on top, with two longitudinal 
white stripes close together on top and two others which are 
close together on the second segment and meet at the base 
of the bluish horn. Common on Viburnum. See page 147. 

Amphion nessus. — About 2.75 in. long. Chocolate- 
brown, flecked with black markings and brownish dots; 
brownish stripes on the sides; horn reddish. On Virginia 
Creeper and Grape. See page 147. 

Sphecodina abbotii. — About 2.5 in. long. Sometimes 
nearly green owing to large green patches on the brown 
ground-color; with narrow dark lines and a shiny eye-like 
tubercle instead of a horn. Common on Virginia Creeper 
and Grape. See page 148. 

Deilephila lineata. — Up to 3 in. long. Yellowish green 
or black, with two rows of eye-like spots along the back. 
See page 148. 

Pholus. — P. pandorus is about 3.5 in. long; robust; 
green or reddish brown, with six oval, cream-colored spots 
on the sides; black, polished, eye-like tubercle instead of a 
horn when full-grown, but the young have a recurved horn; 
see Plate XXXVIII. P. achemon is similar but the light 
spots are elongate and have an irregular outline. Both are 
on Virginia Creeper and Grape. See page 149. 

Ampelophagus. — A. myron is about 2.25 in. long. Body 
green or brown, with two white longitudinal lines on top 

493 



APPENDIX. 

from head to horn; also a row of yellow patches on top; 
pale oblique stripes on the sides; horn red to bluish; 
on Virginia Creeper and Grape (see page 149 and Plate 
XXXVIII). A. pholus is about 2 in. long; similar to 
myron but lacks the row of yellow patches on top; horn 
white, with a bluish base and green tip ; on Viburnum. A . 
versicolor is up to 3 in. long; similar to pholus but the ar- 
rangement of the stripes is somewhat different and the 
horn is black with red sides; chiefly on Buttonball but not 
common. 

Phlegethontius or Protoparce. — Green or brown cater- 
pillars; 3 to 4 in. long; on Potato, Tomato, Tobacco, and 
allied plants. P. celeus has seven oblique yellowish-white 
side-stripes that curve backward around and below the 
spiracles. In P. Carolina these stripes do not curve back- 
ward. See page 150 and Plate XXXIX. 

Sphinx jamaicensis geminatus. — About 2.25 in. long. 
Head triangular; green, with a yellow side-stripe. Body 
green, with seven oblique, yellowish bands on each side and 
a short white longitudinal stripe on each side on the ante- 
rior segments; horn usually blue but sometimes greenish or 
even pink. Body and head granular. Chiefly on Willow 
and Poplar. See page 152. 

Calasymbolus.— The following are about 2.5 in. long; head 
triangular and partly green ; body green, with seven oblique 
side-stripes. C. exccecatus has a yellow side-stripe on the 
head; two yellow longitudinal stripes on the back; horn 
green ; head and body granular ; on a great variety of plants. 
C. myops also has a yellow stripe on the head; usually four 
rows of bright red spots on the body; horn green; head and 
body not granular; on Cherry. C. astylus has yellowish- 
green head and body ; head with pinkish sides and the seven 
yellow oblique bands on each side of the body are marked 
with pinkish above; two short pinkish stripes on the back 
of the anterior segments; horn yellow, with a pink base; 
chiefly on Huckleberry and rather rare. 

P achy sphinx modesta is about 3 in. long. Head and body 
light green, with white granulations; body with two yellow 
longitudinal lines above and seven oblique ones on each 
side; horn rudimentary. On Willow and Poplar. See page 
150. 

494 



APPENDIX. 

Cressonia juglandis. — About 2.5 in. long. Green or 
brown, with white granulations; head triangular, pointed 
at the top; body with seven pale, oblique stripes on each 
side; horn brownish. Chiefly on Hickory, Walnut, and 
Butternut. 

Hyloicus. — H. eremitus is up to 3 in. long; dark reddish- 
brown, with seven pale, oblique stripes on each side; on the 
second segment is a tubercle-like projection, back of which 
is an oval black spot; on Pepper, Wild Bergamot, Salvia, 
and various species of the mint family. H. drupiferarum 
has seven white side-stripes bordered with purple; chiefly 
on Wild Cherry but also on Plum. H. kalmice has seven 
oblique white side-stripes bordered with blue-black and 
yellow. H. chersis has a whitish-green body, with the 
oblique stripe pale yellow. The last three are up to 3.5 in. 
long and rather robust ; the last two feed chiefly on Lilac, 
Privet, and Ash. See also page 153. 

Chlcenogrammajasminearum. — Up to 3.5 in. long. Rather 
robust; green, with six oblique stripes white and the sev- 
enth red. On Ash, probably also Lilac and Privet. 

Saturnhd^e and Ceratocampid/e 

These two families are often grouped together in our 
minds because species of each are large and showy moths. 
Large, robust, hairless (except B. imperialis) caterpillars 
with prominent paired horns or tubercles are fairly certain 
to belong to one of them. 

Philosamia cynthia. — About 2.75 in. long. Pale green, 
covered with a whitish powder; six rows of bluish-green 
tubercles. Chiefly on Ailanthus. See page 153 and Plate 
XL. 

Samia cercropia. — About 3.5 in. long. Bright green; 
second and third segments each have a pair of large, coral- 
red tubercles; a pair of yellow tubercles on the fourth seg- 
ment and a single unpaired one on the eleventh segment. 
On almost any kind of tree and woody shrub. See page 
154 and Plate XLI. 

Callosamia promethea. — About 2.25 in. long. Pale green ; 
the second and third segments each have a pair of coral-red 
tubercles and there is an unpaired yellow one on the eleventh 

495 



APPENDIX. 

segment. On a great variety of trees and woody shrubs. 
See page 156 and Plate XLII. The rather rare C. anguli- 
fera is similar to promethea but has yellow side-stripes; on 
Tulip-tree. 

Telea polyphemus. — About 2.75 in. long. Bright apple- 
green; six rows of scarlet tubercles which are silvered 
on the sides. On a great variety of trees and shrubs, 
Oak and Maple being favorites. See page 158 and Plate 
XLIV. 

Actias luna. — Very similar to T. polyphemus but the 
tubercles are not silvered. Chiefly on Hickory and Sweet- 
gum. See page 158 and Plate XLIII. 

Automeris io. — This spiny caterpillar is easily recognized 
by reference to Plate XLV. A favorite food is Wild Cherry. 
See page 160. 

Anisota. — About 2 in. long; three rows of short black 
spines on each side and a pair of long ones on the second 
segment; chiefly on Oak. A. stigma has a yellow head; 
body light brown, with white granules and three dark 
longitudinal stripes. A . virginiensis has a brown head with 
a greenish or yellowish tinge; body dark greenish, with 
four purplish stripes. A . senatoria has a black head ; body 
dull black, with eight orange stripes. See pages 161 and 
162 and Plate XLVIII. 

Dryocampa rubicunda. — Plate XLV is sufficient de- 
scription. On Maple and rarely on Oak. As noted on page 
162, it is really an Anisota. 

Citheronia regalis. — About 5 in. long. Green; second and 
third segments each have a pair of very long horns and a 
pair of shorter ones, orange with black tips; a short horn 
on segment eleven. On Sweet-gum and Walnut, less com- 
monly on other trees. See page 162 and Plate XL VI. 
Citheronia sepulchralis is smaller than regalis and is brown- 
ish with yellowish horns; on Pine. 

Basilona imperialis. — About 4 in. long. Color varying 
from green through brownish orange to black; second and 
third segments each have a pair of short yellow horns and 
another pair of still shorter ones ; a short one on the eleventh 
segment; body covered with scattered, long hair. On a 
great variety of trees, Sassafras, Sweet-gum, and White 
Pine being favorites. See page 164 and Plate XLVII, 

496 



APPENDIX. 



Woolly Bears 

These are, typically, members of the family Arctiidae. 
They are only moderately long and usually have dense 
hair. There are a large number of species, but the com- 
moner ones are described on pages 1 66 to 1 70 and figured on 
Plates XLIX and L. See also Acronycta americana, page 
174 and Plate LI; Malacosoma, page 191 and Plate LVII; 
and Hemerocampa, page 186 and Plate LV. 



Unfortunately this pest has invaded New 
Gypsy Moth Jersey. Apparently it was a fresh introduc- 
tion on nursery stock imported by the Duke 
estate near Somerville. Owing to insufficient inspection 
of importations at the docks, it was allowed to come in and, 
owing to insufficient entomological service in New Jersey, 
it became established and spread before it was discovered. 
Both of these unfortunate oversights were due to insuffi- 
cient appropriations for important work. Now many times 
the cost of prevention must be spent for a cure. 

A small Pyralid moth, Pyrausta nubilalis, 
European hag found j ts way to t fa s COU ntry from Eu- 

Page 209 rope, probably in a shipment of broom corn 

from Austria-Hungary about 19 10, and 
some of our best economic entomologists fear that it may 
become a very serious pest. It was discovered in 19 17 
infesting corn in the vicinity of Boston. The mature larva 
is about an inch long, flesh-colored, often somewhat smoky 
or reddish dorsally; head dark brown; each abdominal 
segment with a cross-row of four dark spots, in each of 
which is a short, stout spine, and behind each such row are 
two smaller spots. The insect has only one brood a year 
in some places; in others, adults not only appear in May 
from larvas that have overwintered in old stalks and pu- 
pated in the Spring but there is another generation in 
midsummer. The larvae bore almost anywhere in the corn 
plant: in the tassel-stalk, causing it to break; in the main 
stem, lowering the vitality of the plant; and in the ear, 
spoiling it for food. Unfortunately, because this fact makes 

497 



APPENDIX. 



the insect more difficult to control, it also breeds in a great 
variety of weeds. 

Through an inexcusable laxness in Ian- 
Simuliidae guage I said that the larvae of these interest- 

ing and often troublesome insects cling 
by means of sucker-like hind legs. I should have said 
"each larva clings by suckers located at the posterior end 
of its body." Johannsen's description (N. Y. State Museum 
Bulletin 68) is: "At the caudal end, with its plane nearly 
at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the body, are 
concentric circles of tiny hooks, the center of the circle 
being hollowed out, sucker-like. The rows of hooks, though 
arranged in concentric circles, are also arranged radially, 
so that about ioo radii may be counted, each radius with 
from eight to 20 hooks (varying with the species and, per- 
haps, also with the age)." These suckers are not true legs 
and neither are the "front pair, which they use when 
crawling," true legs; what has apparently happened is 
that fleshy appendages, analogous to the proplegs of cater- 
pillars, have been modified to form these structures. 
Adults of Simulium have been accused of carrying pellagra 
to man and anthrax to cattle. 



Key to Some Families of Beetles 

Page 280 

In the general remarks about Coleoptera, I said : ' ' After 
some familiarity with the various groups has been gained 
by matching specimens with the pictures, the student will 
be able to assign most beetles to their proper family on 
'general appearance'." This is, as a matter of fact, the 
way we usually work but there are even common species 
that are troublesome because they are not entirely typical 
of the family to which they belong. Mr. A. J. Mutchler, 
Assistant in charge of Coleoptera at The American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, has kindly drawn up the following 
key (see page 27) in order to help with these species and 
also with families that do not have very striking character- 
istics. Only those who have attempted such a task can 
498 



APPENDIX. 

realize how difficult it is to make a key simple enough to be 
used by an amateur and also scientifically accurate. I 
believe that Mr. Mutchler has succeeded wonderfully 
well. 

The student should be careful when counting the tarsal 
joints. The claws are not joints but the segment that bears 
them is one, the last one. Where a joint is said to be small 
or inconspicuous, it is often very much so. The few neces- 
sary technical terms are explained either in the key or else- 
where in the book; see the index. Where more than one 
character is given, your specimen must have each of them, 
unless there is a clear qualifying statement such as "usu- 
ally." If your specimen does not have that combination 
of characters, go on to the next step. 

i. All of the tarsi three- jointed ; second joint dilated and 
pad-like beneath. Antennae eleven-jointed, terminating in 
a more or less distinct three-jointed club. Last joint of the 
maxillary palpi broad, hatchet-shaped. Head nearly con- 
cealed by the thorax. Lady Beetles. CocciNELLiDiE. 
See page 297 and Coccinella, Megilla, Adalia, Hippodamia, 
Anatis, and Epilachna, Plate LXXV. 

Not having this combination of characters 2. 

2. Antennae arising from the front of the head, above the 
base of the mandibles; eleven-jointed, thread-like, with at 
least the six outer joints pubescent. Head usually verti- 
cal, and usually wider than the thorax. Eyes usually 
prominent (bulging). Legs slender. All tarsi distinctly 
five-jointed. They are usually of a metallic green or 
bronze color or, like lepida and dor salts that live on white 
sand, grayish white. Tiger Beetles. Cicindelid^e. See 
page 281 and Cicindella, Plates LXXII and LXXIII. 

Not having this combination of characters 3. 

3. Antennae arising from the sides of the head, between 
the base of the mandibles and the eyes; eleven-jointed, 
usually distinctly thread-like (however, see Scarries, page 
286), with at least the six outer joints pubescent. Eyes 
usually moderate in size (however, see Elaphrus, page 285). 
Head usually horizontal or slightly inclined, and usually 
narrower than the thorax. All of the tarsi distinctly five- 
jointed. The species are usually black, blue, green, or 

499 



APPENDIX. 

brown, and a few are spotted. Carabid^e, See page 282 
and Plates LXXII and LXXIII. 

Not having this combination of characters 4. 

4. First three and claw joints of all the tarsi plainly 
visible; the third one is usually deeply notched; hidden in 
this notch is a small fourth joint, which is immovably 
united with the fifth or claw joint, making the tarsi appear 
four-jointed. Sole of tarsi usually densely pubescent. 
Antennae usually either filiform (thread-like) or serrate 
(saw-toothed), rarely thickened towards the tip. (Where 
posterior tarsi are five-jointed and the third joint is not' 
lobed, try 16. See also 6, 7, and 8 for species having the 
first or fourth joint of the tarsi very small) 5. 

Not having this combination of characters 6. 

5. Front of head prolonged into a broad quadrate beak. 
Antennas short, serrate, inserted in front of the eyes. 
Margin of the eyes more or less indented in front. Elytra 
short, leaving the last dorsal abdominal segment exposed. 
Front and middle legs of moderate length, their femora not 
dilated; hind femora dilated and often toothed beneath. 
First tarsal joint elongate; this and the two following joints 
clothed beneath with spongy pubescence; third joint deeply 
bilobed; claws usually broadly toothed at the base. All 
but one species are less than .25 inch in length. Bruchid^e. 
See page 379. Certain Rhynchophora, such as Anthribidae 
(see 19) are difficult to separate from other beetles (see 
pages 394 and 395) and the student may have them, also, 
at this point. 

Antennae usually long (rarely very short) ; their points of 
insertion usually much embraced by the eyes and usually 
upon frontal prominences. Eyes usually transverse, with 
deeply indented margin or sometimes entirely divided. 
(Species with eyes slightly or not indented may be hard to 
separate from the next division and, in that case, other 
characters should be carefully compared.) Elytra usually 
covering the abdomen, but in a few species very short 
(those species which are long and narrow and have short 
elytra may superficially be mistaken for Staphylinidae). 
Tibiae with more or less distinct spurs. Upper surface 
usually hairy, but sometimes glabrous and shining. 
Cerambycid.e. See page 337. 
500 



APPENDIX. 

Antennae either moderately long or short and either 
thread-like, saw- toothed, or clubbed; their point of inser- 
tion rarely, or not at all, surrounded by the eyes and not 
upon frontal prominences. Margins of the eyes not, or 
scarcely, indented. Elytra usually covering the abdomen, 
sometimes leaving the last dorsal segment exposed and 
rarely not nearly covering the enlarged abdomen of gravid 
females. Legs usually short; hind femora frequently en- 
larged; tibiae never serrate and usually without spurs. 
Upper surface usually glabrous, often shining. Chry- 
somelid^e. See page 362. 

6. Tarsi very variable; usually five-jointed, with the first 
joint usually small and somewhat inconspicuous; some- 
times with fourth joint small; sometimes with the middle 
and hind tarsi four-jointed in the males. Antennae either 
thread-like or terminated by a slight club (usually the 
outer joints are but slightly thickened) ; first joint usually 
elongated, sometimes to a great degree. (Try also 7 and 
8 which have the first joint of tarsi small or, if maxillary 
palpi are longer than the antennae, try 15 for some species 
with first tarsal joint small and inconspicuous.) Elytra 
usually flat, strongly margined, and usually covering the 
abdomen. Legs rather short. Femora large. Tibiae 
slender. The species are generally flat and elongated, 
sometimes excessively so, and usually of sombre tint. 
Cucujid^e. See page 299. 

Not having this combination of characters 7. 

7. Antennae with eleven or rarely ten joints; rather short; 
usually serrate, the outer joints larger and forming an open 
or less often a compact club. First and fourth tarsal joints 
often very small; all but the fifth furnished beneath with 
membranous appendages. The species are usually pubes- 
cent and more or less cylindrical in form. Clerid/E. See 
page 318. 

Not having this combination of characters 8. 

8. Antennae eleven-jointed, more or less thickened 
throughout, the outer joints being widest and forming a 
club of varied form. Elytra never shortened, always cover- 
ing the abdomen. Tarsi five- jointed, slender; first joint 
very short; second slightly longer; last joint very long; 
claws simple. Between the claws there is a short pad ter- 

501 



APPENDIX. 

minated with two hairs. Form oblong or oval, usually 
flattened. They are usually black, reddish-black or steel 
blue in color, and usually glabrous. Temnochilim:. 
See page 305. 

Not having this combination of characters 9. 

9. Elytra short, usually leaving a greater part of the ab- 
domen exposed above. Abdomen flexible, capable of being 
turned upward, and with eight, or rarely only seven, seg- 
ments visible from below. Mandibles somewhat long, 
sharp, and sickle-shaped. Tarsi usually with five, or rarely 
with only four or three, joints. Staphylinid^e. See page 
297. 

Not having this combination of characters 10. 

10. Prothorax loosely joined behind (the basal part fitting 
loosely to the elytra); hind angles prolonged backwards 
into more or less elongated points. None of the five ventral 
segments of the abdomen more closely united than the 
others. Middle of the prosternum with a spine-like pro- 
longation which projects into, but does not fill, the cavity 
at the middle of the mesosternum. Antennae more or less 
saw- toothed, rarely fan-like or comb- like. Tarsal claws 
either simple, toothed, or comb-like. Elaterid^e. See 
page 306. 

Not having this combination of characters ri. 

11. Prothorax fitting closely to the elytra; hind angles of 
prothorax usually not, or at most slightly, prolonged. 
Middle of the prosternum prolonged and fitting rather 
tightly into the mesosternum. First and second ventral 
segments of the abdomen more closely united than the 
others. The junction of these segments may be (1) very 
indistinct, making the first and second segment appear as 
one large segment; (2) with a more or less distinct line 
indicating the point of contact; or (3) the junction may be 
distinct but not as markedly so as that between the other 
segments. Elytra nearly or entirely covering the abdomen. 
Antennas saw-toothed. All of the tarsi distinctly five- 
jointed. The surface of these beetles is usually bronzed or 
metallic and their bodies are hard and not flexible. Many 
of them resemble the Elateridae in general form, but the 
thorax and abdomen are more firmly united. Bupres- 
tid/E. See page 310. 

502 



APPENDIX. 

Not having this combination of characters 12. 

12. Body and elytra softer than is usual for beetles. 
Seven or eight segments of the abdomen showing on ventral 
side. Often with light-giving apparatus, which is visible on 
the under side of one or more segments of the abdomen. 
Antennae usually eleven- jointed ; usually saw- toothed, 
rarely comb-like, or with long flat processes folding like a 
fan. Elytra thin and flexible; sometimes short; never 
embracing the sides of the abdomen. Legs long, slender, 
and often compressed. Tarsi without appendages be- 
neath; the fourth joint more or less bilobed. For the most 
part, these are plain black, or brownish, or brownish- 
yellow species; some are black and yellow. Lampyrid^e. 
See page 314. 

Not having this combination of characters 13. 

13. Antennae with seven to eleven, usually ten, joints and 
usually with three, sometimes as many as seven, of the 
external joints prolonged on one side so as to form an en- 
largement consisting of leaf -like parts. These parts may 
be brought together so that they seem to form a compact 
club. Basal joint of the antennas elongate and thicker than 
the third joint. Elytra usually short, leaving the last dor- 
sal abdominal segment exposed. Front tibias with finger- 
like processes. Tarsi of middle and hind legs usually long 
and always five-jointed; those on the anterior legs some- 
times wanting. ScARABiEiD^E. See pages 326 to 335. 

Not having this combination of characters 14. 

14. Hind coxae grooved for the reception of the femora in 
repose. Antennae with eleven (sometimes nine or ten) 
joints; the last three joints forming a large club. Elytra 
usually covering the abdomen. Legs short. Tibiae with 
spurs. Tarsi five-jointed; claws usually simple. These 
are usually oval, plump, dark beetles less than .4 in. long. 
They often have the surface partly covered with pale gray 
or brownish spots composed of minute hairs which are 
easily rubbed off. Dermestid^e. . See page 302. 

Not having this combination of characters 15 

15. Hind coxas more or less conical and prominent. Eyes 
sometimes absent. Antennae with eleven (rarely nine or 
ten) joints; gradually or suddenly thickened, usually 
forming a club at the apex, but sometimes nearly filiform. 

503 



APPENDIX. 

Abdomen with five or six visible ventral segments. Tibae 
sometimes fitted with spines for digging, sometimes slender 
and with large terminal spurs. Tarsi usually five- jointed. 
The elytra are sometimes a little shorter than the abdomen. 
Silphid^e. See page 295. 

Not having this combination of characters 16. 

16. First joint of antennas long, sometimes longer than all 
the others united, and more or less bent or curved; the 
second joint being attached a little to one side of the tip of 
the first, the outer joints are naturally on an angle with the 
first, making the antennas elbowed ("geniculate"). Outer 
antennal joints thicker, forming either a loose comb-like 
or a compact club. (If the head is more or less prolonged 
into a beak, see also 19) 17. 

Antennae not elbowed ; either thread-like, or short and 
thick, or with the outer joints forming a club 18. 

17. First antennal joint long; the eighth and following 
joints forming a compact club. Elytra truncate, leaving 
the two end segments of the abdomen uncovered. All of 
the tarsi five-jointed except in Acritus and JEletes, where 
the hind ones are four- jointed. Compact beetles, with a 
very hard surface. Histerid^e. See page 304. 

Outer antennal joints broader on one side, so as to 
form a peculiar pectinate (with branches like coarse teeth 
of a comb) club, the parts of which are movable but not 
capable of being folded together. Elytra covering the 
abdomen. Front tibiae more or less toothed and fitted for 
digging; middle and hind tibias with lateral teeth and 
terminal spurs. Tarsi slender, five- jointed ; claws simple, 
with a short bristle-bearing pad between them. Lucan- 
idje. See page 324. 

18. Maxillary palpi usually longer than the antennae, and 
by the inexperienced student often mistaken for the moder- 
ately short antennas, which are usually concealed beneath 
the head. Antennae six- to nine- jointed, the outer joints 
forming an abrupt club; all of the joints, excepting the basal 
ones, are pubescent. Metasternum usually large, often 
keeled, and often produced into a long spine behind. Tarsi 
on all legs five- jointed, the first joint often very small and 
inconspicuous. The middle and hind tarsi are sometimes 
more or less compressed and fringed for swimming. (There 

504 



APPENDIX. 

are some species that have the thorax narrower than the 
elytra; of elongate form; usually narrowed behind, and 
often roughly sculptured. They are usually gray or brown 
in color, more or less tinged with bronze or silver, and the 
tarsi are not compressed. For this reason they do not re- 
semble other members of the family.) Hydrophilid^e. 
See page 293. 

Antennae eleven-jointed, usually thread-like and not 
pubescent. Hind legs longest and strongly adapted for 
swimming, being more or less flattened and fringed with 
long hairs (these hairs may be flattened against the legs 
and hard to see). Tarsi five-jointed; the fourth joint of 
the anterior and middle tarsi obsolete in some of the 
smaller species. Dytiscid^e. See page 289. 

Antennae short, thick, and stumpy; the third joint 
enlarged. Eyes divided by the sides of the head into an 
upper and underneath portion, giving the insects the ap- 
pearance of having two eyes for looking up into the air 
and two for gazing down into the water. Middle and hind 
legs forming broad short paddles; front ones rather long 
and slender. Gyrinid^e. See page 292. 

Not having these combinations of characters 19. 

19. Front and middle tarsi five-jointed, hind tarsi four- 
jointed; the joints are usually slender and bare or at most 
sparsely haired or spinose. Heteromera. See page 380 
for a key to families which is probably sufficiently plain to 
separate any of the families that are likely to come to the 
reader's attention. In separating this section from the 
others, the tarsal characteristics will hold good for all cf the 
families contained in it, but there are a number of genera 
in some of the other families which have the hind tarsi 
four-jointed; they are: Sphindid^; some small Silphiile; 
some male Cucujid.e; some male Cryptophagid^e (see 
page 300) ; and the genus Rhizophagus of the Nitidulid^: 
(see page 304). There are also four families belonging to 
the true Heteromera which are not mentioned in the key on 
pages 380 and 381; they are: yEGiALiTro.E, represented by 
only two species and occurring from Alaska and California ; 
Othinid^e, represented by four species, one from the East 
and three from the West; Monommid;e, represented by four 
species, one of which was described from Virginia, the 

505 



APPENDIX. 

others are Western and Southwestern; and Cephaloid^e, 
represented by three species, all from the Western States. 
Not having the tarsal characters of the Heteromera. 
Head more or less prolonged to form a beak, which is 
usually longer than broad. Rhyncophora (for key, see 
page 393; also Plate LXXXVI). See also Bruchidae, 5 and 
page 379. Other characteristics of this suborder are as 
follows. Tarsi usually four-jointed (five-jointed in Scoly- 
tidae, pages 393 and 404; then the tibiae are saw- toothed 
and the antennae elbowed). Antennae usually terminating 
in a more or less compact club and usually elbowed, but 
sometimes straight. Those with straight antennae may 
have either (1) a long slender beak, or (2) the beak may be 
narrowed about the middle, or (3) thicker at the end be- 
yond the insertion of the antennae, or (4) broad and flat 
(Anthribidae) ; in the last case there is on the top of the 
prothorax a basal or ante-basal ridge, which is bent for- 
ward at right angles or nearly so, forming a more or less 
shortened side margin. The last dorsal segment is exposed 
and with more c r less of a notch in the middle into which 
the inner edges cf the elytra fit when closed. 



There are a number of families of mostly small, incon- 
spicuous, or rare species which have not been treated in the 
foregoing key. The following notes, additional to those 
given in the body of this book, may be of use to the reader 
in case he should, by chance, come across such specimens. 

Amphizoid^e. — There are only two known North Amer- 
ican species, ranging from Alaska to Southern California. 
They are nearly equal in size (about .65 in. in length) and 
are related to the Carabidae but can be separated from them 
in having glabrous antennae. They have been said to be 
related to the Dytiscidae but differ in that the legs are 
similar to those of the Carabidae. They are found clinging 
to logs or stones under the surface of streams. 

Haliplid^e. — Species .16 in. or less in length. The hind 
coxae are much expanded, covering part of the hind femora 
and three to six abdominal segments. See pages 288 and 
289. 

LEPTiNlDiE. — Only two species known from North 
America. They are not over .1 in. in length and belong in 
506 



APPENDIX. 

the section with club-like antennas. The palpi are distant 
at the base and eyes wanting. They live with rodents and 
Insectivora. 

Scydm^enid^e. — See page 296. 

Brathinid^e. — See page 296. 

Pselaphid^e. — See page 296. 

Trichopterygid^e. — This family includes the smallest 
known beetles, the largest scarcely exceeding a pin head in 
size. They belong in the series with three-jointed tarsi. 
The wings (not elytra) are fringed with long hairs and there 
are whorls of long hairs on the middle antennal joints. 
They live in rotten wood and dung, on fungus covered logs 
and in ants' nests. 

Platypsyllid^e. — The only species known resembles a 
roach in miniature, and is parasitic on the beaver. 

Hydroscaphid^e. — The only species listed from North 
America is found in California. 

SpH^ERiiDiE. — See page 294, under Hydrophilidae. 

Scaphidiid^e. — The members of this family are less than 
.2 in. in length. They are thickest and arched in the middle 
and narrowed toward each end. The tarsi are five- jointed. 
The antennas are long, slender, and sometimes hair-like. 
The elytra are shorter than the abdomen. See page 297. 

Phalacrid/e. — See page 297. 

Co-RYLOPHiDiE. — Oval; rounded; about .08 in. or less in 
length. The tarsi are four-jointed but the third joint is 
concealed by the notched second joint and appears three- 
jointed. Like the Trichopterygidae, the wings are fringed 
with hairs but these hairs are shorter than in that family. 
See page 297. 

Endomychid^e. — These look somewhat like Coccinel- 
Hdas and may be put in the section with the three-jointed 
tarsi, as the third joint is very small and concealed in the 
base of the terminal joint. None are over. 7 in. in length 
and they differ from the Coccinellidas in usually being less 
convex, more elongate, and in having much longer an- 
tennae. They occur on woody fungi, in decaying wood, and 
beneath logs and bark. See page 299. 

Erotylid/e. — Allied to the Endomychidae but differ 
mainly by having the tarsi five- jointed, with the fourth 
joint usually very small. They occur mostly upon fleshy 

507 



APPENDIX. v 

fungi growing upon logs, although the members of one 
genus (Languria) are found upon plants and are more or 
less injurious. See page 299. 

Colydiid^e. — Small elongate species and so closely 
allied to the Cucujidas that they have been included as one 
of. its subfamilies, but the tarsi are four-jointed and the 
first four ventral segments are firmly united. They are in 
part carnivorous, as the larvae of certain genera are known 
to feed on small wood-boring insects. See page 299. 

Rhyssodhle. — See page 299. 

Crypto PHAGID.E. — Oval or oblong oval; never very de- 
pressed. See page 300. 

Mycetophagid^e. — See page 300. 

Nitidulid^e. — See page 304. 

Lathridiiile. — These belong in the section with the 
three-jointed tarsi. See page 305. 

MoNOTOMEDiE. — Probably none over .15 in. in length. 
They are much depressed and look like some of the smaller 
Cucujidae, but they have three-jointed tarsi, and the an- 
tennae are ten-jointed. They live beneath the bark of trees 
and in the nests of ants. 

Derodontid^e. — Only four North American species. 
About .16 inch or less in length. The tarsi are five-jointed 
and the antennae have the last three joints somewhat, but 
not suddenly, enlarged. The color is brownish yellow. 
The only species which is likely to come to notice is to be 
found on fungi and beneath the bark of fungus-covered logs. 

Byrrhid^;. — The largest is probably less than .5 in. in 
length. They are oval and convex. The tarsi are five- 
jointed. The legs are retractile and the hind coxae grooved 
to receive the femora in repose. Found most commonly in 
sandy places, where they are usually upon the ground, 
either beneath cover or burrowing about the roots of the 
tufts of coarse grasses which grow in such localities. 

Georyssid^e. — Represented in the United States by 
only two species, each less than .4 in. in length, which live 
on the margin of streams and cover themselves with a coat- 
ing of mud or fine sand, so that they can be detected only 
when they move. They are minute, rounded, and convex. 
The tarsi are four- jointed. The antennae short and nine- 
jointed, the last three joints forming an oval club. 
508 



APPENDIX. 

Parnid^:. — The tarsi are five-jointed; the fifth, or last, 
joint is longer than the other four united and is armed with 
long simple claws. See page 305. 

Heterocerid^e. — Thelargest is not over .28 in. in length. 
The antennae are short, the seven outer joints broad. 
Tibiae dilated and armed with rows of spines and fitted for 
digging. The labrum and mandibles project forward. 
Tarsi four- jointed. They are semi-aquatic and live in 
galleries which they excavate in the sand or mud, along the 
borders of streams and lakes. When disturbed, they run 
from these galleries and take flight. 

Dascyllid^e. — None more than .26 in. in length. The 
antennae are more or less saw-toothed. The tarsal claws 
are either simple or comb-like. They are oval, somewhat 
convex, and of rather soft texture and dull color. They 
usually occur on plants near water, although some are 
found on dead timber, others in rotten wood, and a few in 
running water. 

Rhipicerid^e. — The largest of the three species likely 
to occur in the Eastern United States is less than 1 in. in 
length. The antennae are saw-toothed and in most males 
this is so pronounced as to be fan-like. The tarsal claws 
have a large hairy pad between them. They are usually 
found on or near dead trees. 

Throscid^e. — See page 309. 

Malachiid^e. — Although similar to the Lampyridae, 
these do not have the fourth tarsal joint bilobed and the 
antennae of some male species are curiously knotted. See 
page 318. 

Ptinid^e. — See page 320. 

Bostrychidje. — See page 322. 

Cupesid^e. — See page 323. 

Lymexylonid^e. — The three known North American 
species vary from more than .4 in. to as small as . 1 in. in 
length. The antennae are short and saw-toothed; the 
elytra nearly or quite as long as the abdomen. They are 
elongate, narrow, and are probably all wood-borers, the 
best known European species being called the ship-timber 
beetle. See page 324. 

Cioid^e. — These differ from most of the other Serri- 
cornia in having four-jointed tarsi. See page 324. 

509 



APPENDIX. 



Sphindid^e. — The representatives of this family in the 
United States consist of only three species, the largest 
being about .1 in. in length. They belong to the Serri- 
cornia but are "heteromerus" (the front and middle tarsi 
being five- jointed and hind tarsi four- jointed) . They occur 
in dry fungi on logs and the trunks of trees. 

Spondylid^e. — See page 336. 

It is pleasant to record that injurious 
Calosoma insects are not the only introduced species 

to spread beyond their point of entry. 
Calosoma sycophanta, introduced near Boston for control- 
ling the Gypsy Moth, is now to be found in the vicinity of 
New York City. It is about the size of scrutator; the pro- 
thorax and underside are dark blue ; and there is no reddish 
margin on the elytra. 

Another introduced pest that has become 
Green important since the first edition of this book 

Beetle * s t ^ ie Green Japanese Beetle, Popillia 

japonica. It is a Scarabaeid, of the subfamily 
Rutelinae (page 332), about half an inch long, and may be 
recognized by its being almost entirely green, except for 
the brown elytra, which do not reach to the tip of the ab- 
domen. When Messrs. Weiss and Dickerson, inspectors 
for the New Jersey State Department of Agriculture, dis- 
covered it in 1916 in Burlington County, N. J., they could 
find only about a dozen beetles; a recent bulletin states 
that in 19 19 it had increased to such an extent that 20,000 
beetles could "be collected by hand by one person in a 
single day." The first beetles probably came in with earth 
surrounding the roots of some ornamental plant such as 
iris or azalea. The adults skeletonize the leaves of trees 
and hardy shrubs, practically defoliating them. 

There is always great danger in making 
Antennae of unqualified statements cover a wide field 
noidea in entomology. It is for that reason I have 

put in "usually" and its various synonyms 
so often. There is a case in point on page 407, where I said 
that members of the superfamily Ichneumonoidea have 
5io 



APPENDIX. 



more than sixteen joints in each antenna. The very first 
genus, Evania, mentioned under this division on page 411 
does not and there are others. 

As was pointed out on page 430, Polistes 
Paper-making ma k es no envelope for its nest but Vespa 
does. Some authors consider that the in- 
troduced crabro (Plate XC), having the ocelli much below 
the level of the upper edges of the compound eyes and 
nearer to each other and to the compound eyes than they 
are to the back of the head, is our only true Vespa. The 
others are called Vespula. Vespula is then divided into 
subgenera : Vespula, proper, has the compound eyes nearly 
touching the base of the mandibles and includes consobrina 
and communis (the numbers 2 and 3 were unfortunately 
transposed in the first edition of this book) ; Dolichovespula 
has the eyes remote from the mandibles and includes 
maculata, arctica, and diabolica. The markings of maculata 
are whitish (often not as yellow as shown on plate XC) and 
usually there are none on the first three segments ; the under 
side of each antenna is reddish yellow. The so-called 
germanica and vulgaris, referred to on page 430, are se- 
parated from each other and from communis as follows : V. 
germanica has the black spot on the first dorsal abdominal 
segment lozenge-shaped; this spot is triangular or trans- 
verse in vulgaris (base of the first dorsal abdominal seg- 
ment black and a black point in the middle of the yellow 
posterior margin) and communis (first dorsal abdominal seg- 
ment yellow, with a transverse black spot). Vespula (in 
the limited sense) vidus was not mentioned on page 430. 
It has yellow markings like communis but the second ab- 
dominal segment is black, except for a narrow even band 
along the posterior margin, while in other species of the 
subgenus Vespula the yellow covers much of the second 
segment and the front edge of the yellow band is irregular. 
A southern Vespula that comes as far north as New Jersey 
is Carolina. It has a pair of longitudinal, pale lines extend- 
ing to the posterior margin of the mesonotum. The 
worker and male have yellow markings, including bands on 
the abdomen; the light markings, including most of the 
abdomen, of the queen are somewhat reddish or orange. 

5H 



APPENDIX. 

Key to Bees 
Page 439 

In order to make certain that the specimen is a bee, run 
over the classification on pages 407 and 408. The wing 
veins and cells referred to here are those of the front wings; 
see p. 406 for their names and the figures on page 513 for 
rather typical examples 

1. Three closed submarginal cells 2. 

Two closed submarginal cells , .22. 

Less than two closed submarginal cells. Phileremulus 

(small, western Nomadidse, p. 442) and Stingless Honey- 
bees (p. 453) of the tropics. 

2. Marginal cell very long, almost reaching the apex of 
the wing (Pig. 1); no apical spurs on the hind tibiae; eyes 
with hair visible under a lens. The ordinary Hive or 
Honey Bee. Apid^e (p. 453). 

Not having this combination of characters 3. 

3. First recurrent vein meeting the first transverse cubital. 
Southern bees. Caupolicana (Megacilissa of some authors) 
in the Colletidae. 

First recurrent vein received by the second submarginal 
cell near or beyond its middle, rarely uniting with the 
second transverse cubital vein. (One of the species in which 



Explanation of Figures on Page 513 

These figures are merely more or less typical examples; in some 
genera there are considerable variations from species to species (and 
sometimes even within a species) from the condition illustrated. 

1. A wing of Apis mellifera, the ordinary Hive-bee. 2. A dia- 
gram of a side view of the head of a bee in which the posterior angle 
of the mandible is not farther forward (toward the left) than the 
posterior margin of the eye. 3. A similar diagram showing this 
angle farther forward than the posterior margin of the eye. 4. A 
wing of a Bumble-bee, Bombus. 5. A wing of a Carpenter Bee, 
Xylocopa. 6. A wing of Anthophora. 7. A wing of Melissodes. 
8. A wing of Exomaiopsis. 9. A diagram of tarsal claws with a 
pad, called pulvillus or cmpodium, between them. 10. A diagram 
of tarsal claws without such a pad. 11. A wing of Epeolus. 12. 
A wing of Nomada. 13. A wing of Ceratina. 14. A wing of 
Haliclus. 15. A wing of Andrena. 16. A wing of Colleles. 17. 
A wing of Prosopis. 18. A wing of a Leaf-cutting Bee, Megachile. 
19. A wing of a Pcrdita. 

512 




513 



, APPENDIX. 

these veins meet is Protoxcea gloriosa of our Southwest. 
This bee is nearly three-fourths of an inch long; has reddish 
yellow pubescence; its marginal cell is very narrow; and 
the submarginal cells increase in size from the first to the 
third. See also Xylocopa, Fig. 5) 4. 

4. Submarginal cells all of about the same size but the 
second somewhat the longest and strongly produced to- 
ward the body; the first usually divided by a delicate, 
rather indistinct oblique nervure. Stigma not well de- 
veloped. First discoidal cell not much longer than the 
marginal cell, which is pointed at the tip and extends far 
beyond the apex of the third submarginal cell. Fig. 4. 
Rather large and densely hairy bees. Bombid^e (p. 448). 

Not having this combination of characters 5. 

5. Third submarginal cell almost as long as the first and 
second combined; the second wedge shaped, narrowed and 
pointed toward the body; the third scarcely narrowed to- 
ward the marginal cell, which is long and narrow. First 
recurrent vein uniting with the second traverse cubital. 
Stigma not well developed. First discoidal cell not much 
longer than the marginal cell. Fig. 5. Large bees. Xylo- 
copa, Xylocopid^e (p. 447). 

Not having this combination of characters 6. 

6. Posterior angle of mandible farther forward toward the 
face than the posterior line of the eye (see Fig. 3). Body 
hairy. First portion of subdiscoidal vein distinctly longer 
than the third portion of the discoidal vein. Marginal cell 
not especially long or narrow, rarely longer than the first 
two submarginal cells united. Females and most males 
with a flat triangular area on the apical dorsal abdominal 
segment. Most Anthophoridae in a broad sense. See p. 
444, where, however, some of the following are not men- 
tioned 7. 

Not having this combination of characters 13. 

7. First discoidal cell much longer than the marginal cell. 
See Fig. 6 8. 

First discoidal cell scarcely, if any, longer than the 
marginal. See Figs. 7 and 8 9. 

8. Third submarginal cell almost quadrate, not, or scarce- 
ly, narrower above than beneath. Marginal cell obtuse at 
the tip, which extends beyond the apex ot the third sub- 

514 



APPENDIX. 

marginal cell only about as far as the marginal cell is wide. 
Anthophora (Fig. 6 and p. 444; mandibles with not more 
than two teeth) and Clisodon. C. terminalis nests in dead 
wood; its female has yellowish red hair on the apex of the 
abdomen. 

Third submarginal cell narrower above than beneath. 
Tip of marginal cell far beyond the apex of the third sub- 
marginal cell and touching the costal margin of the wing. 
First recurrent vein reaching the apical corner of the second 
submarginal cell. Largely western. Emphoropsis. A 
common eastern species is E. flari-dana, a moderate-sized 
black bee with grayish hair on the thorax and first ab- 
dominal segment. 

9. Stigma well developed, lanceolate. Second recurrent 
nervure not strongly sinuose. First submarginal cell about 
as l?ng as the third. Fig. 8. Southern bees. Exomalopsis. 

Not having this combination of characters 10. 

10. Second submarginal cell rather longer than either the 
first or third, not narrowed above. Marginal cell obtuse 
at tip and not extending more than its width beyond the 
apex of the third submarginal cell, which is very much 
narrowed towards the marginal. Hind legs of female with 
long, dense pubescence. Southern bees. Centris. 

Second submarginal cell smaller than either the first 
or third. See Fig. 7 11. 

11. Vertex raised in the middle at the ocelli; male anten- 
nas usually conspicuously longer than the female's; male 
clypeus with more or less yellowish markings. Tetralonia, 
Xenoglossa, Cemolobus, and Melissodes (see Fig. 7 and 
page 445). 

Not so 12. 

12. Pulvilli (pads between the tarsal claws; Fig. 9) pres- 
ent. Melitoma (proboscis, when folded, extending be- 
neath the thorax as far as the base of the abdomen; page 
444) and Diadasia (proboscis not so elongate; western 
bees^ . 

Pulvilli absent. (See Fig. 10.) Emphor (page 444). 

13. First discoidal cell much longer than the marginal 
cell; first portion of the subdiscoidal vein shorter than the 
third portion of the discoidal vein. (See Figs. 11 and 12.) 
Posterior angle of mandible farther forward than the 

515 



APPENDIX. 

posterior line of the eye (see Fig. 3). Females and most 
males with a flat triangular area on the apical dorsal ab- 
dominal segment. Females without pollen collecting ap- 
paratus. Body usually with but few, if any, long hairs; 
often black or red with white or yellow markings or else 
nearly all red. Some Nomadidae (p. 442) ; for three genera 

not mentioned there see 14. 

Not having this combination of characters. First 
discoidal cell not, or scarcely, longer than the marginal 
cell . ..15. 

14. Usually yellow and black or red and black bees; the 
light markings on the abdomen not due to hairs. Nomada 
(Figs. 12 and page 442). 

Abdomen with hairs and the light markings, if any, 
due to them. Bombomelecta (scutellum with two spines; 
abdomen without pale spots) and P seudomelecta (scutel- 
lum sometimes with merely two lobes or tubercles; usually 
spots of white pubescence on abdomen) are western bees 
with the marginal cell scarcely or not half the length of 
the first discoidal cell and not, or scarcely, extending be- 
yond the apex of the third submarginal cell. See Fig. 11 
and page 442 for Epeolus and Triepeolus. Viereckella has 
five-jointed maxillary palpi; our common species, pilosula, 
looks like a black Nomada with hair on its abdomen. 

15. Head, thorax, and sometimes the abdomen with 
metallic bronze, blue, or green 16. 

Head and thorax not metallic, usually black, rarely 
with some red ; in a few cases the abdomen with opalescent, 
metallic bands 18. 

16. Small bees. First recurrent vein joining the second 
submarginal cell near its apex; first submarginal cell about 
as long as the third, longer than the second. Fig. 13. Apex 
of last dorsal abdominal segment of female with a spine. 
Ceratinid^e (page 447) ; Ceratina our only genus. 

Not having this combination of characters. .17 (See 
also 18). 

17. Basal vein forming, more or less perfectly, an arc of a 
circle (Fig. 14); face without pubescent depressions. Some 
Halictidae (page 440). 

Basal vein not greatly arched (Some Panurgidae, page 
442, recognizable by truncate marginal cell, would come 
516 



APPENDIX. 

here by reason of exceptionally having three submarginal 
cells. In that case go to 32) ; face of female, at least, with 
pubescent depressions. See Fig. 15. Some Andrenidae 
(page 441). 

18. Stigma well developed, lanceolate 19. 

Stigma not well developed, short and often nearly 

obsolete Try 4 again. 

19. Second recurrent vein strongly sinuose, the lower half 
bulging outwardly towards the apex of the wings. Second 
and third submarginal cells about equal in length. Fig. 16. 
Hairy bees; the females collect pollen on their hind legs. 
Colletes, Collethle (page 445). 

Not having this combination 20. 

20. First submarginal cell conspicuously longer than the 
third and about as long as the second and third com- 
bined 21. 

First submarginal cell about as long as the third. 
Some Andrenidae (pages 441). Nomia, put by some au- 
thors near Halictus (page 440), would come here. In fact, 
the Halictidas probably should not be separated from the 
Andrenidae. 

21. Basal vein straight, or nearly so. Andrenidae (page 
441); also Protandrena, which is put in Panurgidae on 
page 442 and which has the apex of the marginal cell 
truncated. 

Basal vein arched. Some Halictidae (page 440). 

22. Second submarginal cell nearly quadrate; only 
slightly, if any, longer than high; and conspicuously smaller 
than the first. First recurrent vein often uniting with the 
first transverse cubital. Second recurrent vein bent or 
directed outward before joining the first portion of the sub- 
discoidal vein. Fig. 17. Small bees with very little hair; 
usually black with pale markings on the face. Prosopid^e 
(page 445). 

Not having this combination of characters 23. 

23. Second submarginal cell much longer than high and 
usually not conspicuously shorter than the first. Second 
recurrent vein not strongly bent or directed outward before 
joining the first portion of the subdiscoidal vein. Marginal 
cell not truncate at the tip. See Fig. 18. Many of the 
females have pollen-collecting hairs on the under side of 

517 



APPENDIX. 

the abdomen. No flat triangular area on the apical dorsal 
abdominal segment. Megachilid^e (page 446). For further 

details see 24. 

Not having this combination of characters 31. 

24. No pad between the tarsal claws (except in male 
Lithurgus; see below). Not metallic colored. Usually of 
medium or large size and with rather hairy thorax. Pollen- 
collecting hairs on under side of female's abdomen. Apex 
of marginal cell more or less distinctly separated from the 
costal margin of the wings. Second submarginal cell re- 
ceiving both recurrent veins. Fig. 18. Abdominal pale 
markings, if any, caused by hairs. Megachile (page 447). 
The southern and western Lithurgus has the marginal cell 
sharply pointed, instead of obtuse, and the female's face 
is protuberant. 

Not having that combination of characters 25. 

25. Pale markings in the surface of the abdomen, and not 
merely, if at all, due to hairs. The last dorsal abdominal 
segment of male toothed or lobed. Female with pollen- 
collecting hairs on under side of abdomen. Abdominal 
markings usually yellow or red. Anthidium and Dianthid- 
ium (page 446). 

Not having this combination of characters 26. 

26. Abdomen conical ; pointed in female, armed with teeth 
or spines in male; pale markings, if any, caused by hairs. 
No pollen-collecting hairs on under side of female. No 
pad between claws. Fine hairs, visible only with a lens, 
on the eyes. Ccelioxys (page 446). A western genus, 
Dioxys, has much the same form but does not have hairy 
eyes; post-scutellum with a median tooth. 

Not having that combination of characters 27. 

27. Claws cleft, the inner tooth near the apex; a pad be- 
tween the tarsal claws. Second recurrent vein received 
beyond the tip of the second submarginal cell. No pollen- 
collecting hairs on under side of abdomen. Usually black 
with whitish markings on abdomen. Postscutellum not 
toothed. Stelis (page 446). The western Chelynia has 
the second recurrent vein received at or a little before the 
second transverse cubital; some of the species are dark 
green or blue. 

Not having that combination of characters. A pad 

518 



APPENDIX. 

between the tarsal claws. Frequently metallic blue or 
green. Sometimes rather small. Pollen collecting hairs on 
imder side of female's abdomen. Abdomen strongly con- 
vex. The subfamily Osmiinas 28. 

28. Metallic green, bluish, or purplish (rarely not). Apex 
of marginal cell more or less distinctly separated from costal 
margin of the wing. Second submarginal cell narrowed not 
more than one-half towards the marginal. Stigma not well 
developed. Antennae similar in both sexes. Abdomen 
globose, or nearly so. Osmia (page 446). The rare Monu- 
metha would come here but it is rather large; black; with 
long, parallel- sided abdomen; male antennae somewhat as in 
Akidamea (see below) but without an apical hook. 

Not having this combination of characters 29. 

29. Stigma well developed; lanceolate. Head quadrate, 
considerably extended behind the eyes. Vein separating 
the stigma from the first submarginal cell not longer than 
that between stigma and marginal cell. Base of first ab- 
dominal segment with a flattened or concave, smooth, 
shining plate or basin, the edge of which is well defined. 
Heriades (page 446). Ashmeadiella has clear wings; male 
abdomen ending with four projections; second ventral 
segment with no prominent tooth or ridge. 

Not having this combination of characters 30. 

30. Stigma not well developed. Apex of marginal cell 
reaching the costal margin of the wing. Second submar- 
ginal cell narrowed at least two-thirds towards the mar- 
ginal. Base of abdomen not as in Heraides. Southern 
and western. Chelostoma. 

Marginal cell more or less distinctly separated from the 
costal margin of the wing. Second submarginal cell nar- 
rowed not more than one-half towards the marginal. Vein 
separating the stigma from the first submarginal cell 
longer than that between stigma and marginal cell. First 
dorsal abdominal segment rounded and with a narrow 
longitudinal sulcus; first ventral segment bluntly pointed. 
Male flagellum (the "whip-lash" part of the antennae) 
broad at first but abruptly narrowed at the sixth joint; 
joints of unequal lengths, the terminal one simple. An- 
dronicus (page 446). In Akidamea the male's flagellum is 
thickened, the joints of about equal length, the terminal 

519 



APPENDIX. 

joint abruptly constricted into a slender curved spine. 
In Robertsonella the flagellum is long and thread-like. 

31. Thorax and head black; abdomen red, with white 
markings due to hair; marginal cell long and obtuse or very 
slightly truncate at its tip. Small parasitic bees. Neo- 
pasites (page 444). 

Not so 32. 

32. Posterior angle of mandible not farther forward than 
the posterior margin of the eye (See Fig. 2). Females and 
most males with a flat triangular area on the apical dorsal 
abdominal segment. Panurgidae (page 442). Usually the 
apex of the marginal cell is somewhat truncate, often dis- 
tinctly so (see Fig. 19) but in Halictoides this cell is pointed 
and its apex reaches the costal margin of the wing. Our 
eastern H. novce-anglice visits pickerel- weed flowers; its 
thorax is hairy; second submarginal cell narrowed above 33. 

Not so. Usually rare genera which, although having 
only two submarginal cells, belong to families that typi- 
cally have three. 38. 

33. Apex of marginal cell more or less remote from the 
costa or else broadly obliquely truncate, mandibles not 
toothed. (Perditella, largely yellow, has only one recurrent 
vein) 34. 

Apex of marginal cell reaching the costa, rather 
pointed 37. 

34. First submarginal cell not much, if any, longer than 
the second. Abdomen black, smooth, shining. Ocelli 
almost in line, not in a triangle. Scrapter. 

First submarginal cell distinctly longer than the 
second 35* 

35. Marginal cell not longer than the well- developed 
stigma; truncate at the tip. Fig. 19. Hind metatarsus 
narrower than the tibia. Small bees with the head and 
thorax more or less metallic green or blue and the abdomen 
usually with light spots or bands. Perdita (page 442), and 
its subgenera. 

Marginal cell much longer than the stigma 36. 

36. Abdomen with conspicuous light spots or bands in the 
surface (not caused by hairs). Spinoliella. 

Abdomen not so marked. Calliopsis has the ocelli 
in a triangle and has rather conspicuous light-colored "bands 
520 



APPENDIX, 

of hair on the abdomen. Panurginns' (body delicately 
punctured; wings nearly clear) and Psendopanurgus 
(coarsely punctured; wings very dark) have no such bands. 
Panurgas differs from these in not having the marginal 
cell distinctly truncate at the tip; female hind tibiae and 
tarsi with long dense pubescence. 

37. Abdomen short, rather globose; black or with white 
hair-bands. Hind tibia and metatarsus of equal breadth; 
female hind legs densely pubescent ; male hind femora short 
and stout. Macropis. 

Abdomen usually rather long. Second joint of hind 
tarsus not angulate beneath. Halictoides has the labrum 
as large as the clypeus; head and thorax sparsely pubes- 
cent; antennas longer than the thorax; male clypeus black. 
Parandrena has the head and thorax rather densely pubes- 
cent; antennas not longer than the thorax; male clypeus 
yellow; female abdomen at least partly reddish or brownish. 
Dufourea (or Hemihalictus) differs from these in that the 
transverse median vein joins the median vein before the 
basal vein. 

38. Basal vein arched in the fashion characteristic of its 
f amily, Halictidae (page 440). Dialictus. 

Basal vein not strongly arched 39. 

39. Short, compact, southern Anthophorids (page 444). 
Apex of marginal cell not touching the margin of the wing. 
Anthophorula, practically Exomalopsis (9 and Fig. 8) 
with only two submarginal cells. 

Marginal cell extremely small. Very small parasitic 
bees (Nomadidas, page 442). Neolarra. 

Marginal cell much longer than the stigma and obtuse 
at its tip, which does not touch the wing's margin, second 
submarginal cell much longer than high and receiving both 
recurrent veins near each other at about its middle; third 
discoidal cell contracted above. Small parasitic bees 
(Nomadidae, page 442), usually red and black with pale 
markings caused by scale-like hairs. Phileremus; has been 
put near Ccelioxys (page 446). 



521 



APPENDIX. 



Several whose opinions I value very highly 

have objected to my referring (p. 455) to 

potatoes as fungus root galls. My authority was Bernard, 

a Frenchman. I do not know whether he was right or 

wrong but I still believe that he was right. 

On page 414 the alternation of generations in Cynipoidea 
was mentioned and the confession made that the matter 
had not been worked out for the American species. The 
American Museum of Natural History has in press some 
papers on the subject by Mr. Kinsey. It is found that such 
a condition of affairs does exist in American species. 



52? 



FIELD BOOK OF INSECTS. 



In closing, permit me to request that, if errors are de- 
tected among the thousands of categorical statements 
made in this book, they be brought to my attention, if 
portions are not clear or if you desire further information, 
I shall be glad to do what I can to help you. It is for such 
a service, among others, that the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York City, exists. 






5*3 



HABITAT AND PLANT INDEX 



It is hoped that the following index will be useful, but it gives only 

hints. For example, in the matter of food: Many larvae feed on a 

wide variety of plants; it would be out of the question to list them all. 

Roughly grouping by habits and habitat the insects mentioned in 

this book, notice: 

On and in mammals, including man, 77, 231, 260, 268, 270, 279, 
476, 507; birds, 77, 106, 279; frogs and turtles, 262; snails, 262, 
284, 316; earthworms, 271. 

In ants' nests, 132, 184, 253. 254. 296, 304, 334, 365, 507, 508. 

Feeding on plant-lice or scale-insects, 108, 132, 212, 242, 254. 
255, 257, 278, 298. 

Under stones, boards, etc. Many insects, especially Carabidas, 
hide in such places. See, also, 107, 112, 113, 247, 305, 507. 

Under bark, 39, 61, 64, 79, 97, 112, 214, 236, 241, 242, 248, 297, 
300, 304, 305, 308, 309, 323-325, 336, 337, 339, 342, 344, 350, 356, 
35?, 384, 385, 398, 404, 507, 508. 

In dry wood, 308, 323, 332, 337, 342, 411, 447, 508, 509. 

In decaying wood, 184, 226, 242, 247, 248, 278, 297, 308, 309, 
321, 324, 326, 332, 335, 336, 381, 385. 507, 509- 

In decaying vegetables, etc., 236, 252, 268, 272, 276, 278. 

At sap, 241, 247, 278, 297, 304, 318. 

In or on fungi, toadstools, etc., 226, 236, 242, 295-300, 304, 324, 
329, 381, 384, 385, 395, 405. 507, 508, 510. 

In books, food-stuffs, cereals, drugs, etc., 39, 77, 210, 212, 213, 
222, 247, 300, 302, 305, 321, 322, 324, 381, 382, 400, 404. 

In dry animal matter, hair, feathers, ham, etc., 226, 272, 276, 
302,320, 330. 

In carrion, 272, 273, 295-297, 304, 305, 320, 330. 

In and about excrement, 236, 247, 263, 264, 268, 270-274, 
278, 294. 296, 297, 326, 329, 507. 

Aquatic insects, 40-53, 57-60, 96-104, 209, 236-248, 256, 275, 
278, 288-294. 305, 363. 400, 506, 509. 

On snow, 40, 57^ 236. 

Galls. The main discussion, arranged according to plants, 
455-472. See, also, 218, 219, 223, 278, 312, 360, 396, 401, 408, 
410, 414, 522. 

For some of the general feeders on orchard trees see pp. 82, 85, 
93, 105, 140, 168, 194, 201, 219, 310, and 338; on shade trees, 82, 
93, 176, 194, and 219. The following are the principal references 
to special plants eaten by insects: 



Actinomeris, 134. 

Ailanthus, 153, 495. 

Alder, 132, 153, 174, 213, 221. 

225, 360, 362, 370, 398. 
Amarantace^e, 144. 
Amaranthus, 492. 
Ambrosia, 176, 218, 353, 

369-371. 
Atnelanchier, 224, 359. 
Amorpha, 137, 491. 
Anemones, 236. 
Apple branches, etc., 85, 81 

308, 323, 335. 352, 353, 356, 

358, 360. 
Apple fruit, 216, 276, 401, a 
Apple leaves, 88, 148, 152, 

172, 181, 184, 185, 190, 

196, 200, 201, 212, 218, 219, 

222-226, 374. 
Aquilegia, 144. 



357, 



94. 



02. 

168, 

[9] 



Arabis, 490. 

Arbor- vitas, 220, 221. 

Aristolochia, 141, 491. 

Ash, 153. 162, 168, 203, 344, 

345, 348, 350, 495- 
Ash, Prickly, 140. 
Ash, Mountain, 312. 
Asparagus, 365. 
Asters, 119, 120, 221, 392, 487. 
Azalea, 149, 371. 

Balsam, 354. 

Barley, see Grasses. 

Basswood, 225, 375. 

Bayberry, 153, 219. 221. 

Beans, see Legumes. 

Beech, 213. 335, 344. 349, 350, 

355. 357. 359- 
Beets, 175, 263, 372. 
Beggar-ticks, 218, 



525 



HABITAT AND PLANT INDEX. 



Benzoin, 141. 

Bergamot, Wild, 153, 495. 

Bidens, 218, 370. 

Bindweed, see Convolvulaceas. 

Birch, 122, 124, 127, 152, 153, 

158, 180, 181, 196, 213, 225, 

226, 314, 487, 488, 493. 
Blackberry, 185, 195, 201, 206, 

219, 224, 226, 263, 312, 

338, 361, 410. 
Black-eyed Susan, 194, 219. 
Bcebera, 491. 
Bouvardia, 152. 
Box-elder, 312, 352, 357, 483. 
Burdock, 126, 220, 488. 
Butternut and Walnut branches, 

etc., 213, 344, 345, 347, 350, 

354, 357, 359, 360. 
Butternut and Walnut hulls, 219. 
Butternut and Walnut leaves, 

132, 153. 158, 162, 181, 185. 

224, 399, 495. 496. 
Buttonball, 149, 494. 
Buttonwood, 152. 

Cabbage, see Cruciferas. 

Carrots, 141, 491. 

Cassia, 138, 491. 

Catalpa, 153. 

Cat-briar, see Smilax. 

Cat-tail, 209. 

Cauliflower, see Cruciferae. 

Ceannthus, 134. 

Cedar, 131, 342. 

Celery, 179. 

Celtis, 489. 

Cephalanlhus, 149. 

Chelone, 487. 

Chenopodium, 144, 492. 

Cherry branches, etc., 207, 214, 
310, 312, 323. 335- 

Cherry fruit, 276, 402. 

Cherry leaves, 127, 132, 140, 
152, 153. 156, 166, 181, 190, 
I9i» 195. 200, 212, 214, 218, 
219. 221-224, 226, 371, 410, 

488, 490, 491, 494. 495. 496. 
Chestnut branches, etc., 203, 

208, 310, 339. 342, 347. 349, 

355, 357. 395- 

Chestnut leaves, 132, 162, 196, 

224. 
Chestnuts, 401. 
Chionanlhus, 152, 153. 
Cimicifuga, 134. 
Citrus, 140, 491. 
Clematis, 410. 
Clover, 133, 137, 221, 225, 242, 

400, 491- 
Clover, Bush, 144, 225. 314, 

489, 490, 492. 
Columbine, 144, 492. 
Composite, 119- 
Comptonia, see Sweet-fern. 
Conifers, 188, 198, 312, 340, 342, 

396,410. 

CONVOLVULACE/^, 152. 153.373. 
37°- 377.392. 



Corn, 96, 112, 160, 176, 178, 

200, 220, 263, 334, 371. 374. 

403, 497. 
Cornus, 134, 223, 314, 345, 348, 

358, 359. 370. 
Cotton, in, 178, 182, 401. 
Cottonwood, see Populus. 
Cranberry, 212, 219. 
Cratcsgus, 219, 223, 226, 359, 

360, 370. 
Crolalaria, 166. 
Croton, 218. 
Crucifer,e, 114, 134, 136, 137, 

179, 220, 263, 373, 402, 490. 
Cucumber, 209, 371, 374. 

CUCURBITACE^E, 2O4, 209, 290, 

n 371. 

Currant, 105, 122, 148, 195, 208, 

219, 276, 352, 410, 487. 
Cynoglossum, 131. 

Dahlias, 106. 

Daisies, 194, 195, see Composite. 

Dangleberry, 152. 

Decodon, 149. 

Desmodium, 144. 

Dock, 133, 176, 368, 490. 

Doellingeria, 120. 

Dogbane, 367. 

Dogwood, see Cornus. 

Dutchman's-pipe, 141. 

Egg-plant, 150, 374. 

Elder {Sambucus), 339, 

Elm branches, etc., 93, 124, 346, 

348, 349. 353. 355. 360. 
Elm leaves, 120, 124, 153, 164, 

166, 174, 222, 225, 370, 410, 

487. 493- 
Epilobium, 149. 
Eupatorium, 221, 371. 
Euphorbia, 152. 
Everlastings, 124, 488. 

Ferns, 93, 209. 

Cerardia, 126, 487. 
Gledilsia, see Legumes. 
Golden-rod, see Solidago. 
Gooseberry, 122, 195, 213, 218, 

352, 410, 487. 
Grape fruit, 215. 276, 402. 
Grape leaves, 88, 93. I47-I49. 

170, 202, 208, 214, 215. 

223, 226, 332, 367. 373. 

374. 402, 410, 493, 494- 
Grape stems, etc., 88, 206, 323. 

342, 345, 348, 349, 352, 368, 

401. 
Grasses and Sedges, including 

Wheat, Oats, etc.: 85, 86, 

88, in, 128, 130, 144, 146, 

164, 175. I84, 210, 220, 222, 
223, 242,308, 331. 363.371, 
403, 410, 414, 483, 488, 
492. 

Hackberry, 130, 344, 355, 489, 



5?6 



HABITAT AND PLANT INDEX. 



Hazel. 162. 222. 224. 225. 370. 

398. 
Hemlock. 164. 221. 313. 348. 
Hickory branches, etc., 213, 

3io, 323,332.339. 341. 344- 

345. 346. 348-360. 405. 483- 

484. 
Hickory hulls. 219. 
Hickory leaves. 153. 158, 162, 

164. 170. 1S1. 1S5. 213, 

222-225. 309. 495- 496. 
Hickory nuts. 401. 
Hollyhock. 126. 
Honeysuckle. 147. 225. 
Hop. 120, 122, 124. 131. 
Horn-beam, see Ironwood. 
Horse chestnut. 219. 310. 
Huckleberry, 132, 152, 153. 210, 

219. 225. 494- 
Hydrangea, 149. 
Hypericum, 131. 

Indigo. 137. 396, 491. 
Iris, 218. 

Ironweed. 39 T - 

Ironwood. 153. 222-225. 355. 

Ivy. Poison, 225. 

Jamestown Weed. 374. 
Jasminium, 152. 
June-berry, 208. 224. 
Juniper. 164. 221. 

Kalmia, 132. 225. 
Knot grass, 368. 

Lamb's-quarters, 144. 263. 

Larch, 222. 

Laurace.-e, 142. 156, 491- 

Laurel. 153. 225. 

Legumes. 131, 133. 138, 144. 

166, 219, 220. 299. 344. 

357. 372, 379, 491- 
Lepidtum. 490. 
Lespedeza, 144, 225. 314- 489- 
Lettuce. 2.17. 
Lichens, 164, 166, 209. 
Lilac. 153- 495- 
Linden. 153, 312. 349- 353- 358- 

360, 370, 410. 
Liquidambar, 156, 158. 
Liriodendron ,93. 156, 158, 21S. 

226, 491. 496. 
Locust, see Robinia. 
Locust. Honey, see Gleditsia. 
Lonicera, 225. 
Lotus. 209. 
Lupinus, 221. 

Magnolia. 142. 218, 491. 

Mandrake. 117. 

Maple branches, etc.. 93. 203, 

310. 312, 314. 344. 345. 

347. 348. 395- 4io. 
Maple leaves. 92. 162. 164. 174. 

190, 192. 196, 219, 224. 

370. 496. 
Marigold. Fetid. 49 1- 



Meibomia. see Tick-trefoil. 
Melons. 204. 209. 299. 371. 
Milkweeds. 116, 169, 362. 369. 

377.486. 
Millet, 374- 
Morning-glory, see Convolvu- 

laces. 
Moss. 247, 248. 
Mulberry, 192, 323, 354. 
Ulrica, 213. 

Nettles. 132, 124, 402, 487, 

48S. 
Xightshade. 374. 
Nuts, 222. 400. 

Oak. acorns, 219. 222, 400, 401. 

Oak branches, etc.. 92. 203. 310, 
325. 32,2. 339, 342. 344-347. 
352,354-357.395.484. 

Oak leaves. 88, no, 132, 144, 
158, 160, 162, 164, 174, 
181, 190. 199, 209, 219, 
221. 223. 224, 226, 367. 
399. 492, 496. 

Oats, see Grasses. 

Onions. 79, 263, 275- 

Opuntia, 213. 

Orange, in. 

Osage Orange. 192, 354. 

Palmetto. 403. 

Palms, 93. 

Pansies. 117. 

Papaw. 142. 492. 

Parsley. 141. 

Parsnip. 491. 

Parsnip. Water, 221. 

Passi flora. 153. 

Passion-flower. 117. 4S6. 

Peach, 93. 207, 310, 312, 323, 

37i. 374. 402. 
Pear branches, 86,310. 323-353, 

359- 
Pear fruit. 218, 242. 
Pear leaves, 86, 152, 190, 200, 

410. 
Peas, see Legumes. 
Pepper, 153, 495. 
Pepper-grass, 490. 
Persimmon. 15S. 162, 323. 
Pickerel- weed, 363. 
Pine branches, etc.. 108, 213, 

218, 308. 309. 312, 342. 

347. 350. 354. 356, 358, 
. 359- 396. 
Pme leaves, 132, 153, 164. 220. 

221. 496. 
Pitcher plants. 218. 240. 
Plantain. 126. 169. 
Plum branches, etc., 207. 214, 

226, 310. 344. 345. 353. 358- 
Plum fruit. 402. 
Plum leaves, 132. 153. 181, 212, 

223,371.495- 
Poplar. see Populus. 
Populus branches, etc.. 124. 

203, 314, 355- 360, 361, 



527 



HABITAT AND PLANT INDEX. 



Populus leaves, 124, 127, 150, 

152, 181, 221, 225, 332, 368, 

410, 488, 494. 
Portulacca, 117. 
Potato. 150, 176, 221, 247, 364, 

366, 369, 374. 39i. 392, 

402, 494- 
Prickly pear, 213. 
Primrose, evening, 223. 
Privet, 495- 
Ptelea, 140. 

Pumpkin, 204. 209, 299. 37 T - 
Pursley, 148. 

Quince, 218, 359. 

Radish, 2,6.3. 
Rag- weed, see Ambrosia. 
Raspberries, 113. 195- 
Raspberry leaves, 195, 201, 219. 

303. 367. 377, 410. 
Raspberry stems, etc., 206, 263, 

312, 361, 445- 
Rattle-box, 166. 
Red-bud, 345. 359- 
Rice, see Grasses. 
Robinia branches, etc., 203, 219, 

346, 348, 352, 358, 483. 

484, 492. 
Robinia leaves, 143, 182, 221, 

225, 374. 375- 
Robinia seeds, 379- 
Rock-cress, see Cruciferae. 
Rose, 90, 106, 152, 185, 218. 219. 

224, 331. 370, 373.396,410. 
Rudbeckia, 194, 219- 
Rumex, 133. 176, 368, 490. 
Rye, see Grasses. 

Salvia, 153, 495. 
Sand-myrtle, 210. 
Sarracenia, 218, 240. 
Sassafras, 141, 156, 219, 362, 
491. 496. 

ScROPHULARIACE.,E, 119. 

Sedum. 486. 

Shepherd's-purse, see Cruciferas. 

Sida, 144, 492. 

Skunk-cabbage, 278, 363. 

Smart-weed, 90. 

Smilax, 175. 218, 226, 323. 

Snapdragon, 126. 

Snowberry, 147. 

Solanace^:, 150. 

Solidago, 164, 218, 219, 221, 226, 

276, 369. 37i. 392. 
Sorghum, 220. 
Sorrell, 133. 490. 



Spice-bush, 141, 156, 491. 

Spinach, 263, 372. 

Spircea, 134, 218. 

Spruce, 164, 219, 221, 313, 342, 

348, 354- 
Squash, 204, 209, 299, 371. 
Strawberry, 105, 219, 367, 373, 

399-401, 403. 
Sugar cane, 403. 
Sumac, 162, 219, 221, 314, 358, 

359. 362, 399. 
Sunflower, 119, 126, 220, 486. 
Sweet-brier, 224. 
Sweet-fern, 153. 213. 
Sweet-gum, 158, 162, 496. 
Sweet-potato, see Convolvul- 

aceae. 
Sycamore, 153, 219. 224, 310, 

356. 
Symphoricarpos, 147. 

Thistle, 126. 

Thorn, Black, 226. 

Tick-trefoil, 144, 490, 492. 

Tigridia, 218. 

Tobacco, 150, 178, 210, 374 

494. 
Tomato, 150, 176, 178, 374, 

392, 494- • 
Trumpet vine, 153- 
Tulip-tree, see Liriodendron. 
Turtle-head, 487. 
Typha, 209. 

Vaccinium, see Huckleberry. 
Viburnum, 147, 149, 223, 493, 

494- 
Violets, 117. 118. 236, 486. 
Virginia Creeper. 93. I47-U9. 

170, 202, 226, 359. 367. 

484, 493. 494- 

Walnut, sec Butternut. 
Walnuts, English, 218. 
Water-lily, 363, 371. 
Witch-hazel, 174. 225. 
Wheat, see Grasses. 
Willow branches, etc., 124. 203, 

207, 226, 359. 360, 410. 
Willow catkins, 218, 364. 
Willow leaves, 122, 124, 127. 

150, 152, 153. 181, 223- 225. 

332. 368, 370, 371. 410, 

487, 488, 494- 
Wolf berry, 130, 489. 

Yucca, 146, 228. 



528 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX 



abboti, Oiketicus, 199. 

abbotii, Sphecodina, 148, 493. 

abbreviata, Sphex, 439. 

Abdomen, 7. 

abdominalis, Cephenomyia, 260. 

abdominalis, Tipula, 236, LXIII. 

Aberrant Long-horned Beetles, 

■ 336. 
abnormis, Eriophyes, 470. 
abrupta, Bombyliomyia, 262, 
LXVI. 

ACALYPTER^E, 258, 279. 

Acalypterate, 274. 
Acanalonia, 85. 
ACANTHIID/E. 102. 
Acanthocephala, 113. 
Acanthocerini, 328. 
Acanthocinus, 356. 
Acanthoderes, 355. 
Acanthoderini, 353, 355. 

ACANTHOSOMIN^E, 114. 
Acanthus, 106. 
ACARINA, 480. 
Acarus, 456, 468. 
acericola, Phenacoccus, 92. 
acericola, Phyllocoptes, 466. 
aceriella, Phyllonoryter, 225. 
Achalarus, 144, 492. 
achemon, Pholus, 149, 493. 
Achlarus, 144, 492. 
Achrostical, 230. 
Acilius, 290. 
Acm^ojs, 350. 
Acorn Weevil, 400. 
acroea, Estigmene, 168, XLIX. 
Acraspis, 457, 462. 
Acridid<e, 66. 
Acridin^e, 68 
Acritus, 504. 
-4cro6a5T5, 213. 
Acronycta, 172, 497. 
Acrosternum, 114. 
Acrydium, 66, 68. 
Actios, 158, 496. 
aculiferus, Leptostylus, 356. 
acuminata, Melanophila, 313. 
acuminata, Strangalia, 351. 
Adalia, 499, LXXV. 
adeallis, Symphysa, 209. 
Adelocera, 309. 
Adephag.a, 280, 281, 292. 
Adirus, 410. 
admirabilis, Syrbula, 68. 
Admiral, Red, 124. 
advena, Catharlus, 300. 
Aedes, 240. 
^Egeriid^:, 203. 
^gialitid^:, 505. 
JEletes, 504. 
cenea, Chcetopsis, 263. 
<znea, Tischeria, 226. 
ozneola, Melanophila, 313. 
ceniventris, Agromyza, 458. 
<era*a, Synchlora, 19s. LVIII. 



cereum, Callidium, 342. 
^Eschin^:, 46. 
^Eschnid^e, 45. 
cesculanum, Proteoteras, 219. 
csthiops, Endelomyia, 410. 
affinis, Bombus, 450, 451, 453. 
affinis, Trichius, 335. 
afflictella, Salebria, 213. 
Agamic reproduction, 87. 
Agapostemon, 440. 
Agaristid^e, 170, 214. 
Agelena, 36, 248. 
AGELENID.E. 38. 
Ageneotettix, 69. 
Agnopteryx, 221. 
Agonoderus, 288. 
Agrilus, 312. 
Agrion, 45. 
Agromyza, 457, 458. 
Agromyzid^e, 278, 457. 
Agrotis, 172. 

Ailanthus Silk-moth, 153. 
07a*, Papilio, 142. 
Alabama, 182. 
AZatts, 308. 

albilinea, Leucania, 176, LII. 
albipennis, Bibio, 243, LXV. 
albofasciatus, Clytanthus, 349. 
Alcidamea, 519. 
Alderfly, 52. 

ALEYRODID.E, 8 I, 90. 

Aie>ToJe5, 90. 

algonquina, Paratiphia, 427. 

algonquinus, Balaninus, 401. 

alienus, Lasius, 422. 

Allocorhynin/E, 396. 

Allocorhynus, 396. 

Allorhina, 334. 

ato/>e,5c/yr»5,i28,489. XXXII. 

alpha, Liopus, 358. 

Alsophila, 194. 

alternans, Temnostoma, LXVIII. 

alternatum, Dorcaschema, 354. 

Alula?, 229. 

Alydus, 113. 

Alypia, 170. 

A/yson, 433. 

Alysonid^e, 433. 

Amora, 287. 

Amatid^e, 164. 

Amber-wing, 48. 

Amblycorpha, 71, 72. 

Ambrosia, 405. 

Am&rysws, 96. 

Ambush Bugs, 110. 

amelanchieriella, Sligmella, 224. 

americalis, Epizeuxis, 184. 

americana Acronycta,. 17 4, 497, 

americana, Cimbex. 410, 

LXXXVII. 
americana, Galerucella, 371. 
americana, Harrisina, 202, LIX. 
americana, Hetcerina, 44, X. , 



529 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



americana, Malacosoma, 168, 

191, LVII. 
americana, Melitta, 441. 
americana, Notidobia, 57. 
americana, Olfersia, LXXI. 
americana, Periplaneta, 64, XVI. 
americana, Ranatra, 100, XXV. 
americana, Sapyga, 426. 
americana Schisiocerca, 70, 

XVIII. 
americana, Silpha, 296. 
americanum, Omophron, 286. 
americanus, Chrysophanus, 133- 
americanus, Lethocerus, 100. 
americanus, Meloe, 390. 
americanus, Necrophorus, 295- 
americanus, Stigmus, 434. 
americanus, Syrphus, LXVI. 
arnica, Catocala, 181, LIV. 
Ammalo, 169. 
Ammobia, 439. 
Ammophila, 438. 
amcenus, Phymatodes, 342. 
Ampeloglypter, 401. 
Ampelophagus, 149, 493- 
ampelophila, Drosophila, 276. 
ampelopsidis, Telamona, 484, 

XXIII. 
ampelopsiella, Phyllocnistis, 226. 
Amphibolips, 414, 457, 462, 464, 

LXXXVIII. 
Amphicerus, 323. 
Amphion, 147, 493. 
Amphionycha, 361. 
Amphizoid.e, 506. 
Ampulicid,e, 433. 
amyntor, Ceratomia, 153, 493. 
Anacampsis, 221. 
Anacrabro, 434. 
anaglyplicus, Copris, 329. 
Anal cell. 229. 
analis, Attelabus, 399. 
analis, Hydropsyche, 58. 
ananassi, Thecodiplosis, 458. 
Awasa, 113, 262. 
Anaspis, 386. 
Analis, 499, LXXV. 
A wax, 46. 
Anaxipha, 76. 
anchoceloides, Rhynchagrolis, 172 

LI. 
Ancylis, 219. 
Ancyloxypha, 144. 
anrylus,Aspididus, XXIV. 
/lndrenw, 249, 441, 512. 
AndreniD/E, 441. 517- 
Awdncws, 457. 462, 464. 
Androconia, 143. 
Andronicus, 446, 519- 
Angle-wings, 120. 
Angoumois Grain-moth, 220. 
anguinella, Stigmella, 224. 
anguinus, Pityubius, 309. 
angulala, Pyractomena, 316. 
angulifera, Callosamia, 158, 496. 
angusella, Acrobasis, 213, 
angusii, Datana, 185. 
angustuta, Amara, 287. 



anguslalus, Macrodactylus, 331. 
angusticollis, Meloe, 300, 

LXXXV. 
Anisodactylus, 288. 
Anisolabis, 61. 
Anisoptera, 45. 
Anisopteryx, 194. 
Am'so/a, 160, 496. 
annularis, Polistes, 430. 
annulatus, Margaropus, 476. 
annulicor'nis, Helicopsyche, 57, 

Anobium, 332. 
Anomala, 332. 
Anopheles, 238, LXIV. 
A«o«'fl, 116, 127, 138, 486. 
antceus, Siratcegus, 333. 
Antenna, 7, 32. 
antennaia, Xylina, 172, LII. 
antennator, Lhariesterus, 113. 
antennatum, Callidium, 342. 
anthici, Itonida. 458. 
AnTHICID/E, 381, 386. 
Anthidium, 446, 518. 
Anthoboscin,e, 427. 
Anthocorid^e, 97. 
Anthomyia, 263. 
Anthomyid^e, 259. 263. 
Anthonomus, 401. 
Anthophora, 390, 391, 444, 512, 

515. 
Anthophorid^e, 440, 444, 514, 

521. 
A w*/zo/>/2ortt/a, 52 1. 
AwMra*, 249. 
Anthrenus, 303. 
Anthribid^e, 393.394. 395. Soo, 

506. 
antiopa, Vanessa, 122, 487, 

XXX. 
Antispila, 223. 
Ant-lion, 54, 478. 
Ant's cows, 88. 
Ants, True, 88, 106, 132, 134. 

184, 253, 254. 295, 304, 

334. 365. 408, 415. 436, 

478, 481. 484, 489. 
Ants, Velvet, 427. 481. 
Ants, White, 76, 478, 479, 482. 
Apantesis, 169. 
Apatela, 172. 
Apanogasler, 420. 
Aphidid^e, 82, 87, 132, 456. 
Aphids, 79, 87, 132, 222, 434. 

XXIV. 
Aphilanthops, 435, 436. 
Aphis, 88. 
Aphis-lion, 54. 
Aphodiini, 329. 
Aphodius, 329. 
aphrodite, Argynnis, 118, 486, 

XXVIII. 
apic itripunclella Recurvaria, 221 
apiculaia, Nepa, 100. 
Apii^e, 439, 453, 512. 
.1 piomerus, 107. 
Apion, 396. 
APIONIN/E, 396. 



530 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX 



Apis, 453, 512. 

Apoidea, 408, 439, 512-521. 

Apocephalus, 253. 

appendiculatus, Diphadnus, 410. 

appendigaster, Evania, 411. 

Apple-borer, 360. 

Apple Curculioi 401. 

Apple Maggot, 276. 

Apple- worm, 216. 

APTERA, 39- 

Aquarius, 104. 

aquaticus, Sminthurus, 40, VIII. 

ARACHINIDA, 32. 

Aradid^e, 97, 112. 

Aranea 34, 36. 

Archasia, 484, XXIII. 

Archimerus, 113. 

archippus, Basilarchia, 116, 127, 

XXVII. 
archippus, Danaus, 486. 
Ar chips, 219. 
arctia, Hadena, 175, LI. 
arctica, Vespa, 430, 511. 
Arctiid^e, 166, 214, 497. 
Arciocon'xa, 99. 

arcuata, Corythuca, no, XXVI. 
argentata, Halisidota, 170. 
argentata, Notogonidea, 437. 
argentinotella, Phyllonoryter. 225. 
argillacea, Alabama, 182, LII. 
Argiope, 36. 
Argiopid^e, 33, 34. 
argus, Chelymorpha, 376. 
argus, Halesus, 57. XV. 
irgutanus, Episimus, 219. 
4rgy««*'s, 117, 118, 486. 
Argyresthia, 220. 
Arhopalus, 347. 
Arilus, 108. 
Arista, 230. 
Arustotelia, 221. 
Armored Scales, 92. 
armiger, Heliothis, 178, LII. 
Army maggots, 242. 
Army-worm, Beet, 175. 
Army-worm, Fall, 175. 
Army- worm, Wheat-head, 176. 
Arnly, 53. 
Arphia, 70. 
arthemis, Basilarchia, 127, 488, 

XXVII. . 
Arthromacra, 384. 
ARTHROPODA, 32. 
arvensis, Sphecodes, XCIII. 
Asemini, 339, 341. 
AscmMm, 341. 
Asexual reproduction, 87. 
Ashmeadiella, 519. 
ashtoni, Psithyrus, 449, 453. 
Asilid^:, 230, 234, 249, 250. 
Asilus, 250. 
Asopin^e, 114. 
asparapj, Crioceris, 365, 

LXXXIII. 
aspersus, Hyperplatys, 358. 
Aspidiotus, 93, XXIV. 
Assassin-bugs, 107. 
assimilis, Dineutes, 293- 



assimilis, Muscina, 267, 271. 
Astata, 437. 
Astatine, 436. 
As/erorayz'a, 457, 470, 472. 
aster ias, Papilio, 141. 
astyanax, Basilarchia, 126, 488, 

XXXI. 
astylus, Calasymbolus, 152, 494. 
atalanta, Pyrameis, 124, 487, 

XXXI. 
ater, Ampeloglypter, 402. 
Atimia, 340. 
Atimioides, 340. 
Atlanticus, 73. 
atlantis, Argynnis, 118, 486. 
atomarium, Romaleum, 344. 
a^a, Orsodachna, 364- 
atrata, Megarhyssa,. 414. 
atratum, Priononyx, 438. 
atratus, Tabanus, LXV. 
atripennis, Diabrotica, 371. 
atriventris, Tetralonia, 445. 
Atropid^e, 76. 
Atropos, 78. 

atrox, Psammochares, 428, XCII. 
Airy/owe, 146. 
Attacin^e, 158. 
Attagenus, 302. 
Attelabin^e, 396, 398. 
Attelabus, 398. 
AttiDjE, 38. 
Augochlora, 440. 
augustus, Thecla, 132. 
Aw/ax, 457, 470. 
aurantia, Miranda, 36. 
auratus, Chrysochus, 367, 

LXXXI. 
auricomus, Bombias, 451. 
auricularia, Forficula, 61. 
auronitens , Phyllonoryter, 225. 
aurora, Eros, 316. 
australasia, Periplanela 64, 

XVI. 
Autographa, 179. 
Automeris, 160, 496. 
Auxiliary vein, 229, 269. 
axillaris, Purpuricenus, 346. 
Axillary Cell, 229. 
azurea, Chrysobothris, 3*4- 

Baccha, 255. 

bachmani, Libythea, 130, 489, 

XXXIII. 
Back-swimmers, 100. 
Bacon-beetle, 302. 
baculus, Lipeurus, 78, XXI. 
Bag- worm, 198. 
bajalus, Hylotrupes, 342. 
Balancers, 229. 
Balaninus, 400. 
balsamicola, Cecidomyia, 458. 
Baltimore, 119. 
Barce, 108. 
Bark-beetle, 405. 
Bark-lice, 78, 91, 478, 482. 
Bark-slippers, 342. 
Basal cell, 229. 
Basal veins, 406. 



531 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



basalis, Celetes, 316. 
basalts, Ceresa, 484. 
Basilarchia, 116, 126, 127, 488. 
basilare, Sinoxylon, 322. 
Basilona, 164, 496. 
Basitarsus, 8, 408. 
bassettii, Diastrophus, 468. 
batatas, Rhabdophaga, 458. 
batatus, Neurolerus, 464. 
batesi, Phyciodes, 119, 487. 
bathyllus, Tharybes, 144, 492, 

XXXVII. 
Batrachedra, 223. 
Batyle, 346. 
Bean Weevil, 379. 
Beare-wormes, 166, 497. 
Bed-bug, 106, 112. 
Bed-bug, Big, 107. 
bedeguar, Cecidomyia, 468. 
Bee Fly, 249. 
Bee-moth, 212. 
Bees, 249, 406, 408, 439, 478, 

512-521. 
Beetles, 280, 479, 482, 498. 
Beetles of Our Lady, 298. 
belangerella, Telphusa, 221. 
belfragei, Archasia, 484, XXIII. 
bella, Euaresta, LXXI. 
bella, Utetheisa, 166, XLIX. 
Bellamira, 350. 
bellona, Brenthis, 118 486, 

XXIX. 
Belostoma, 90, 100. 
Belostomid^:, 96, 99. 
Bembecia, 206. 
Bembecid^e, 433, 437- 
Bembex, 438. 
Bembidium, 286, 287. 
Bembidula, 438. 
Benacus, 100. 
berenice, Anosia, 116. 
Berytid^:, 112. 

BETHYI.IDiE, 425, 427- 
betulella, Acrobasis, 213. 
betulivora, Phyllonoryter, 225. 
bibens, Trichius, 335. 
Bibio, 243. 
BibionidjE, 232, 243. 
bicaudatus, Amphicerus, 323. 
bicolor, Astata, 437. 
bicolor, Chalepus, 375- 
bicolor. Coptocycla, 377. 

LXXXIII. 
bicolor, Galerita, 287. 
bicolor, Rhodites, 468. 
bicolor, Rhynchites, 396. 
bicolor, Strangalia, 351. 
bicornis, Bostrichus, 323. 
Bicyrtes, 437, 438. 
Bidessus, 290, 
bifasciata. Latreillimyia, 262, 

LXVIII. 
bifoveolatum, Prtovonyx, 438. 
bifurcus, Boletotherus, 384. 

LXXXIV. 
bigsbyana, Calligrapha, 370. 
Bill-bugs, 403. 
bimaculata, Oberea, 361. 



bimaculaia, Thelia, 484, XXIII. 
bimaculatus, Bombus^ 450 453. 
bimaculatus, Molorchus, 345. 
bimaculatus, Tylonotus, 344. 
binotata, Enchenopa, 483. 
Biorhiza, 457. 464. 
bipunctata, Adalia. LXXV. 
bipunctata, Xabea, 76. 
bipustulatus, Attelabus, 399. 
Bird Lice, 78. 
Bird Locust, 70. 
birenimaculatus, Odynerus, XC. 
biselliella, Tineola. 227. 
Bittacomorpha, 236. 
Bitlacus, 56. 

biustus, Leptosiyius, 357. 
bivittata, Acanalonia, 85, XXIII. 
biviltata, Aumaops, 350. 
bivittata, Cassida, 377, 

LXXXIII. 
Black-bettle. 64. 
Blackberry. Crown-borer. 206. 
blackburnii, Geotrupes, LXXX. 
Black-flies. 79, 243. 
Black-head of Cranberry, 219. 
Black-wing, 45. 
Blastobasid.*:, 222. 
blatchleyi, Manomera, 65. 
5Za«a, 64. 
Blattella, 62. 
Blattid^e, 62, 482. 
Blepharida, 373. 
Blepharocerid^e, 231, 246. 
Blepharomastix, 209. 
Blight, 87. 
Blissus, in. 
Blister-beetle, 387. 
Blow-fly, 272. 
Blue-bottle, 272. 
Blue, Common, 134. 490. 
Blue, Eastern Tailed, 133. 
Body-louse, 79. 
Bolboceras, 329- 
Bolbocerosoma, 329. 
Boletophagus, 384- 
Boletotherus, 384. 
6oh7, Spharagemon. XVIII. 
Bombardier Beetles, 288. 
Bombias, 449. 
Bombid^:, 439. 448, 514- 
bombiformis, Emphor, 444, 

XCIII. 
Bombomelecta, 516. 
Bombus, 4. 448, 449. 5 T 2. 
BOMBYCID/E. 192. 
bombycoides. La para, 153- 

BOMBYLIID/E. 230, 234. 249- 
Bombyliomyia, 262. 
Bombylius, 249. 
Bombyx, 192. 
Bone Beetles, 320. 
Book-lice, 78, 478, 482. 
Book Worm, 321. 

BORBORIDiE, 274- 

Borborus. 265. 275- 
borealis, Bombus, 451. 452. 
borealis, Calephelis, 130, 489. 
XXXIII. 



532 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



borealis, Ceresa, 484. 

borealis, Epilachna, 299, LXXV. 

borealis, Gryllotalpa, XX. 

borealis, Poniania, 460. 

Boreus, 57. 

Bostrichus, 323. 

BOSTRYCHID/E, 322. 

Bot Flies, 259. 

Bots, 229, 259. 

bovis, Hypoderma, 260. 

Brachinus, 287. 

BRACHYCERA. 230, 231, 246. 

Brachymyrmex, 417, 421. 

Brachynus, 284. 

Brachypeplus, 71. 

Br achy s, 3.14. 

Brachytarsus, 395. 

Braconid^e, 411. 

3rain, 7. 

Brand, 143* 

brassiccB, Autographa, 179, LI. 

brassiccB, Phorbia, 263. 

brassicoides. Rhabdophaga, 458. 

Brathinid^e, 296. 

Brathinus, 296. 

Break-backs, 306. 

Breeze Flies. 247, 259. 

Brenthis, 118, 486. 

Brentid/E, 394. 

brevicornis, Sphyracephala, 278. 

brevicornis, Truxalis, 68, XVIII. 

brevilineum, Physocnemum, 342. 

brevinodis, Myrmica, 421. 

brevipennis, Emesa, 108, XXVI. 

brevis, Megachile, 447, XCIII. 

brevivitella, Mompha, 223. 

brizo, Thanaos, 144, 492. 

Brochymena, 114. 

Brownies, 84, 483. 

Brown-tail Moth, 188, 190, 285. 

Bruchid.e, 362, 379, 500, 506. 

Bruchus, 379. 

brunnea, Colaspis, 368. 

brunnea, Mantispa, XV. 

brunnea, Parandra, 336. 

brunneum, Orthosoma, 338. 

brunnicollis, Lenta, 365. 

Brush-footed Butterflies, 116. 

bubalus, Ceresa, 85, 484, XXIII. 

Bucca, 258, 267. 

buccata, Cuterebra, 260, LXVIII. 

Bucculalrix, 224. 

Buckeye, 126. 

Bud-worm, False, 178. 

Bud-worm, True, 178 

Buffalo-bugs, 303. 

Buffalo Gnats, 243. 

Buffalo-moths, 303. 

Buffalo Tree-hopper, 85. 

Bugs, True, 95. 

Bumble -bee, 448, 512. 

Bumble Flower-beetle, 334. 

BUPRESTID.E, 310, 337, 502. 

Buprestis, 313. 
Burrowing-bugs, 114. 
Burying Beetles, 295 
buskiella, Gnorimoschema, 221. 
Butterflies, 115. 477- 



Byrrhid.e, 306, 508. 
By turns, 303. 

Cabbage-bug, 114. 
Cabbage-butterfly, Imported, 

134. 
Cabbage-butterfly, Old-Fash- 
ioned, 136. 
Cabbage-butterfly, Southern, 

136. 
Cabbage-maggot; 263. 
cacti. Coccus, 91. 
cadaverina, Cynomyia, 266, 267, 

270, LXIX. 
Caddice flies, worms, 57, 228, 

477, 480. 
Cadelle, 305. 
Cceniella, 316. 
canius, Calephelis, 130. 
cceruleum, Chalybion, XCII. 
ccesar, Lucilia, 265, 268, 272, 

LXX. 
ccesar ion, Pseudopyrellia, 265, 

267, 272, LXIX. 
ccesonia, Meganostoma, 137, 

491. XXXV. 
ccespitum, Tetramorium, 421, 

LXXXIX. 
Calandra, 403, 404. 
Calandrinne, 398, 403. 
calanus, Thecla, 131. 
Calasymbolus, 152, 494. 
calcarata, Saperda, 360. 
calcitrans, Stomoxys, 266, 268, 

LXX. 
Calephelis, 130, 489. 
Calichroa, 410. 
Calico-back, 114. 
calidum, Calosoma, 285, LXXIII. 
caliginosus, Harpalus, 288, 

LXXIL 
calignosellus, Cr ambus, 210. 
Callicera, 253. 
Callidiini, 339, 342. 
Callidioides, 338. 
Callidium, 342. 
callidus, Chrysops, LXV. 
Calligrapha, 369. 
Callimoxys, 345, 
Calliopsis, 442, 520. 
Callipbora, 265, 267, 270, 272. 
Callirhytis, 457, 462, 464. 
Calloides, 347. 
Callosamia, 156, 495. 
Calochromus, 316. 
Calopternus, 387. 
Calopteron, 315. 
Calopleryx, 45- 
calopus. Aides, 240. 
Calosoma, 284, 285, 510. 
Calypterate Diptera, 258. 
Calyptrae, 229. 
Camberwell Beauty, 122. 
Camel crickets, 73. 
camellifolia, Pterophylla, 72. 

XIX. 

CAMPONOTINiE, 417. 

Camponotus, 417, 424. 



533 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



Campsomeris, 427. 
Campylenchia, 483. 
canadensis, Aedes, 240. 
canadensis, Contarinia, 472. 
canadensis, Epochra, 276. 
canaliculars, Valgus, 335. 
Cancer-worme, 196. 
Candida, Saperda, 359. LXXXI. 
canellus, Typophorus, 367. 
canescens, Tetrops, 362. 
canicular is, Homalomyia, 263, 

265. 
ca*m, Ctenocephalus, 279. LXXI. 
Canker-worm, Fall, 194. 
Canker-worm, Spring, 196. 
canteriator, Telraopes, 362. 
Cantharides, 387. 
Cantharini, 391. 
Cantharis, 392. 
Canlhon, 328. 
canthus, Satyrodes, 128, 488, 

XXXII. 
capitis, Pediculus, 79, 483. 

XXI. 
caprcea, Neoclytus, 348. 
Capsid^e, 105. 
r.apsulus, Callirhytis, 462 
cara, Catocala, 181, LIII. 
Carabid/E, 281, 282, 381, 500, 

506. 
Carabus, 284, 

carbonifera, Asteromyia, 472. 
cardui, Pyrameis, 126, 488, 

XXXI. 
carnifex, Phanceus, 329, 

LXXXI. 
Carnivore, The, 132. 
Carolina, Copris, 328, LXXX. 
Carolina, Dissosteira, 69, XIX. 
Carolina, Luteva, 108. 
Carolina, Phlegethontius, 150, 

494. XXXIX. 
Carolina, Stagmontantis, 65, 

XVII. 
Carolina, Stictia, 438. 
Carolina, Vespa, 511. 
carolinensis, Monohammus, 354. 
Carpenter Ant, 424. 
Carpenter-bees, 447, 512. 
Carpet-beetle, 303. 
Carpet-beetle, Black, 302. 
Carpocapsa, 216, 218. 
Carpophilus, 305. 
Carrion Beetles, 295. 
Carteria, 91. 
caryce, Acrobasis, 213. 
caryce, Acrobasis, 213. 
caryce, Balaninus, 401. 
caryce, Cyllene, 346. 
caryce, Halisidota, 170, L. 
caryce, Microcentrus, 483. 
caryceca-ulis, Phylloxera, 400. 
carycecola, Caryomyia, 460. 
carycefallax. Phylloxera, 460. 
caryafoliella, Coleophora. 222. 
caryafoliella, Phyllonoryter, 225- 
caryafoliella, Stigmella, 224. 
caryceren, Phylloxera, 460. 



caryceyence , Phylloxera, 460. 

car y ana, Laspeyresia, 219. 

Caryomyia, 457, 460. 

Case-makers, 222. 

case*", Piophila, 276, LXXI. 

Cassida, 377. 

cassidea, Chelymorpha, 376. 

Cassidini, 363, 376. 

Castianeira, 36. 

cataclystiana, Eucosma, 218. 

catalpce, Ceratomia, 153. 

Caterpillar Hunter, 285. 

Caterpillars, 481, 485. | 

Cathartus, 300. 

Catia, 144. 

Catocala, 179. 

Catocalin.*, 180. 

Catopsilia, 137, 491. 

Cattle Tick, 476. 

catullus, Pholisora, 144, 492. 

Caupolicana, 512. 

Cave crickets, 73. 

cavicollis, Galerucella, 371. 

Cecidomyia, 457, 458, 462, 466, 

468, 470. 
Cecidomyiid^e, 242, 457. 
cecropia, Samia, 154, 415. 495. 

cecrops, Thecla, 131. 

ceter, Chrysops, LXV. 

Celerio, 148. 

Celery Looper, 179, 

Celetes, 316. 

celeus, Phlegethontius, 150, 494. 

Celithemis, 50. 

cementarius, Sceliphron, 439, 

XCII. 
Cemolobus, 445, 515. 
Cenopis, 219. 
Centipede, 32, 38. 
centrata, Sapyga, 426. 
Centris.. 515. 
Centrodera, 350. 
Centrotin^e, 483. 
ceparum, Phorbia, 263. 
cepetorum, Phorbia, 263. 
Cephaloid^:, 506. 
Cephalothorax, 33. 
Cephenotnyia, 260. 
Cephid^e, 408, 410. 
Cephus, 410. 

Cerambycid^:, 337. 362, 500. 
CERAMBVCINiE, 337. 338, 352. 
Cerambyc.ini, 340, 344. 
Cerambycoides, 340. 
cerasi, Cahroa, 410. 
Ceratina, 447, 512, 516. 
Ceratinid^e, 447, 516. 
Ceratocampid^e, 100, 262, 

495. 
Ceratographis, 356. 
Ceratomia, 153, 493. 
Ceratophyllus, 2 79- 
Cer certs, 435, 436. 
CERCOPIDiE, 81, 86, 433- 
cerealella, Sitotroga, 220. 
Ceresa, 85, 483. 
Cm'c, 253. 



534 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



cerisyi, Sphinx, 152. 

Ceropales, 428. 

Ceroloma, 372. 

Ceruchus, 325, 326. 

Cetoniin^e, 333. 

Ceuthophilus, 73, XX. 

Ceutorhyncus, 402. 

Chcetocnema, 373. 

Chcetopsis, 263. 

Chalcidid/e, 90. 

ChalciDoidea, 407, 414. 

Chalcomyia, 254. 

Chalcophora, 313. 

Chalepus, 375. 

chalybea, Haltica, 373. 

Chalybion, 439. 

Changa, 74. 

Chariesterus, 113. 

Charislena, 375- 

charithonius, Heliconius, 117 .486. 

Chauhodes, 52, 481. 

Chauliognathus, 317. 

Checkered Beetles, 318. 

Checkered White, The, 136. 

Cheese Skippers, 276. 

Chelostoma, 519. 

Chelymorpha, 376. 

Chelynia, 518. 

Chermes, 456. 

Chermid^e, 81, 86. 

Cherry-worms, 276. 

chersis, Hyloicus, 153. 495- 

Chestnut Weevil, Lesser, 401. 

Chicken-louse, 78. 

Chigger, 279. . 

Chigoe, 279. 

Chilo, 210. 

CHILOPODA, 32, 38. 

Chilosia, 254. 

Chinch-bug, III. 

Chion, 340, 344. 

Chionaspis, XXIV. 

Chionea, 236. 

chionosema, Olethreutes, 218. 

CHIRONOMIDiE, 232, 24I, 252. 

Chironomus, 241, 244. 
Chitin, 6, 475. 
Chlaznius, 284, 288. 
Chltznogramma, 153- 495- 
Chlamydini, 365, 366. 
Chlamys, 366. 
Chlcealtis, 69. 
Chloeon, 40. 
Chloridea, 178. 
Chlorion, 438. 
chloris, Euclea, 200, LIX. 
Chlorochroa, 114. 
Chceridium, 328. 
Chcerocampa, 152. 
Choirocampin^:, 147. 
Chorthippus, 69. 
Chortophaga, 70. 
Chrysalis, 116. 
Chrysidid<e, 425. 
Chrvsidoidea, 407. 424- 
Chrysis, 425. 

Chrysobothris, 3 10, 313, 314. 
Cfcryioc/tWS, 367. 



Chrysodina, 368. 
Chrysogaster, 254- 
Chrysomela, 369. 
Chrysomelid^e, 362, 379. 501. 
Chrysomelini, 363, 308. t 
Chrysomyia, 266, 270. 
Chrysopa, 56, XIV. 
Chrysophanus, 133, 490. 
Chrysopid<e, 54, 90. 
Chrysopila, 248. 
Chrysops, 247. 

chrysorrhcea, Euproctis, 190, LVI. 
Chrysotoxum, 254. 
Cicada, 84. 
Cicada, 82. 
Cicada-killer, 433. 

ClCADELLID^E, 8l, 86. 
ClCADID^E, 80, 82. 

Cicindela, 249. 282, 285, 499. 
Cicindelid.e, 281, 499. 
Cigarette Beetle, 322. 
Cimbex, 410. 

cimbiciformis, Hemaris, 147. 
Cimex, 106. 
Cimicid^e, 97. 106. 
cincinnatiella, Phyllonoryter, 224. 
cincta, Odontomyia, LXVl. 
Cincticornia, 457. 462. 
cinctipes, Halisidola, 170. 
cinctipes, Podops, 114. 
cinctus, Chion, 344. 
cinctus, PseUiopus, 108. 
cinerea, Epicauta, 392. 
cinerea, Hetcemis, 354- 
cinerea, Molanna, 57. XV. 
cinerea, Piesma, no. 
cinereocostella, Despressaria, 221. 
cingulata, Oncideres, 353. 
cingulata, Phlegethontius, 152. 
cingulata, Rhagoletis, 276. 
cinnamopterum, Tetropium, 341. 
CioiD/E, 324, 509. 
Circotettix, 70. 

circumscriptella, Mompha, 223. 
Cistelid^e, 380, 384- 
Citheronia, 162, 164, 496. 

ClTHERONID^E, 160. 

«#•*, Pseudococcus, 92. 

citrina, Cecidomyia, 47°- 

citripennella, Tischeria, 226. 

Cladius, 410. 

Clceotus, 328. 

clandestina, Noctua, 172, LI. 

Class, 5. 

claudia, Euptoieta, 117. 486, 

XXVIII. 
clavata, Coptocycla, 378. 
clavatus, Mydas, LXVII. 
Clavicorns, The, 280, 293. 
clavipes, Bittacomorpha, 236. 
clavipes, Cucujus, 299- 
Clavula, Callirhytis, 464- 
clavula, Lasioptera, 470. 
clavulo, Lasioptera, 470. 
Clerid^e, 318, 501. 
Click Beetles, 306. 
Clisiocampa, 191. 
Clisodon, 515. 



535 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



clivicollis, Labioderma, 369. 

Clivina, 286. 

Clothes-louse, 79. 

Clothes-moths, 226. 

Clover-hay Worm, 210. 

Clover-leaf Beetle, 400. 

Clubionid^e, 36. 

Cluster-flies, 271. 

clymene, Haploa, 168, XLIX. 

clypeata, Cerceris, XCII. 

Clypeus, 417. 

Clytanthus, 349. 

Clythrini, 365, 366. 

Clytini, 341, 346. 

c-nigrum, Noclua, 172, LI. 

coarctata, Ponera, 418. 

Coccid, XXIV. 

CoccidjE, 81, 91. 

coccidivora, Lcetilia, 212. 

Coccin^e, 92. 

coccinea, Graphocephala, 86, 

XXIII. 
Coccinella, 499, 

LXXV. 

COCCINELLID^E, 90, 297, 499. 

„ 507. 

Coccus, 91. 

Cochineal Insect, 91. 

Cochlidiid^e, 200. 

Cockchafers, 330. 

Cocoon, 116. 

Codling-moth, 212, 216. 

Calebs, Amphibolips, 462. 

Ccelioxys, 446, 518, 521. 

ccenia, Junonia, 126, 487, 

XXXI. 
cceruleans, Chrysis, XC. 
cceruleus, Encyclops, 340. 
Colaspis, 368. 
Coleophora, 222. 
COLEOPTERA, 2, 280, 479- 

482, 498. 
Colias, 137, 491. 
collaris, Elaler, 309. 
collaris, Lema, 365- 
collaris, Leptostylus, 357. 
collaris, Stenispa, 375. 
COLLEMBOLA, 39, 40. 
Colletes, 446, 512, 517. 
Colletid^e, 445, 512, 517. 
Collops, 318. 
colon, Omosita, 305. 
colonus, Xylotrechus, 348. 
Colopha, 456, 466. 
Colorado Potato Beetle, 369. 
columba, Tremex, 411, 

LXXXVII. 
Columbia, Samia, 156. 
COLYDIIDiE, 299, 300, 508. 
Colymbetes, 290. 

comma, Grapta, 122, 487, XXX. 
Comma, Gray, 122. 
communis, Melanotus, 309, 

LXXVII. 
communis, Vespa, 430, 511, 

XC. 
compactus, Colletes, XCIII. 
comptana, Ancylis, 219. 



Compton Tortoise, 124. 
comptoniella, Acrobasis, 213, 
comyntas, Lycana, 133, 491 
XXXIII. 

concavus, Cyrtophyllus, 72. 
concinna, Schizura, 185, LV. 
concolor, Cupes, 323. 
concolor, Sapcrda, 359. 
concumbens, Catocala, 181, LIV, 
confinis, Chcetocnema, 373. 
confluenlus, Amphibolips, 462 
confusa, Atimia, 340. 
confusor, Monohammus, 354. 
confusum, Tribolium, 382 

LXXXIV. 
conglomeratella, Phyllonoryter 

224. 
conifer arum, Lapara, 153. 

CONIOPTERYGIDyE, 54. 

connecta, Saperda, 359. 
Conniption-bug, 53. 
Conocephalus, 72, XX, 
Conopid/e, 235, 257, 275. 
Conorhinus, 107. 
Conotrachelus, 402. 
consobrina, Vespa, 430, 511, 
consors, Pontania, 460. 
conspersa, Chlcealtis, 69. 
conspicuella, Ornix, 226. 
constans, Ceresa, 484. 
Contarinia, 242, 457, 472. 
convergens, Hippodamia, LXXV 
Cooties, 483. 
Copper, American, 133. 
Copper, The Bronze, 133. 
Coppers, The, 131. 
Coprin^e, 326. 
Coprini, 328. 
Copris, 328. 
Coptocycla, 377' 
Coptodisca, 223. 
coquus, Tragidion, 346. 
coras, Polites, 144, XXXVII. 
Corbicula, 453. 
CORDULIN^E, 48. 
COREID^E, 98, 112, II3. 
CORETHRID^:, 241. 
CORIMELiENID^:, 98. 

Coriscus, 98. 
Corium, 95. 
Cor/xa, 99. 
CorixidjE, 96, 99- 
Corn bill-bugs, 403. 
Corn-borer, European, 497. 
Corn Ear- worm, 178. 
cornifoliella, Antispila, 223. 
cornigerus, Callirhytis. 464. 
Corn-root aphis* 90. 
cornuta, Coryd lis, 53. XIII. 
cornutus, Passalus, 3 2 6, LXXIX, 
CORRODENTIA, 2, 76, 478, 

482. 
corlialis, Tenebrioides, 305- 
Corlicaria, 305. 
corticola, Boletophagus, 384- 

CORYDALirMC, $2. 

Corydalis, 52, 53. 48 1. 
corylifoliella, Coleophora, 222. 



536 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



corylifoliella, Stigmella, 224. 
coryliseUa,, Phyllonoryter, 225. 
coryloides, Schizomyia, 470. 
CORYLOPHID^E, 297, 507. 
Corymbites, 309. 
Corymbitini, 309. 
Corythuca, no. 
Coscinoplera, 365. 
COSSID.E, 202. 
COSSONIN/E, 398. 

Cossonus, 398. 

Costal cell, 229, 269. 

Costal vein, 229, 269, 406. 

costalis, Hypsopygia, 210. 

Cotalpa, 332. 

Cotton Boll-worm, 178. 

Cotton-boll Weevil, 401. 

Cottony Cushion Scale, III. 

Cottony Scale, 93, 212. 

Cotton-stainer, in. 

Cottonwood-borer, 360. 

" Cow sheds," 420. 

Coxa, 8. 

Crab-louse, 79. 

Crabro, 435. XCII. 

crabro, Vespa, 430, 511, XC. 

Crabs, 32. 

Crab-spider, 36. ' 

Crabronid^e, 432, 434. 

crambin,e, 210. 

Cr ambus, 210. 

Cranberry Fire- worm, 219. 

Cranberry Fruit-worm, 212. 

Cranberry Vine- worm, 219. 

Crane-flies, 112, 236. 

Craponius, 402. 

crassipes, Apiomerus, 107. 

cratcegifolia, Hormomyia, 468. 

crates gifoliella, Ornix, 225. 

Crawler, 53. 

Crayfish, 32. 

Cremastochilus, 334. 

Cremastogaster, 418, 420. 

Creophilus, 297- 

Crepidodera, 373. 374- 

Crescent, Pear], 119. 

Crescent, Silver, 119, 

cresphontes, Papilio, 138, 491, I. 

Cressonia, 153, 495- 

cretata, Sdperda, 360. 

Crickets, 73. 74. 438. 

Criocephalus, 341. 

Criocerini, 363, 364. 

Crioceris, 364. 365^ 

crisp ata, Megalopyge, 201. 

cristatus, Arilus, 108, XXV. 

cristifasciella, Paralechia, 221. 

Croton-bug, 64. 

cruentatus, Rhynchophorus, 403. 

Crustacea, 32. 

Cryptocephalini, 365, 366. 

Cryptocephalus, 366. 

Cryptophagid^e, 300, 505, 508. 

Ctenocephalus, 279. 

Ctenucha, 164. 

Cubital cell, 406. 

Cubital veins, 406. 

Cuckoo-bees, 439. 442. 



Cuckoo wasps, 424. 

CVCUUDJE, 299, 300, SOI.S05. 

508. 
cucujiforme, Smodicum, 341. 
Cucujus, 299- 
cucumeris, Epitrix, 374. 
cucurbits, Pachypsylla, 466. 
Culex, 238, LXIV. 

CuLICID^E, 232, 238. 

Culicoides, 241. 

cunea, Hyphanlria, 168, L. 

Cuneus, 95. 

Cupes, 323. 

Cupesid^e, 323. 

cupripennis, Platynus, LXXIII. 

CURCULIONID^E, 393,^394. 395- 

CURCULIONIN^E, 398, 400. 

Currant-worm, 276, 410. 
Currant Span-worm, 195. 
curtipennis, Chorthippus, 69. 
curvispinosus, Leptothorax, 421. 
cuscutczformis, Diastrophus, 468. 
Cuterebra, 260. 
Cut-worms, 172, 175. 
cyanana, OlethretUes, 218. 
cyanea, Gastroidea, 368. 
cyaneum, Chlorion, 438. 
cyanipennis, Gaurotes, 350. 
cybele, Argynnis, 118, 486, 

XXVIII. 
Cybister, 292. 
Cychrus, 284. 
Cyclocephata, 332. 
Cyclorrhapha, 230, 253- 
Cycnia, 169. 
Cydia, 219. 
Cydnid^e, 98. 
Cydninve, 114. 
cylindrica, Sphoerophoria, 

LXVIII. 
cylindricollis, Toxotus, 349. 
Cylindrotoma, 236. 
Cyllene, 346. 
Cymatophora, 195- 
Cymolomia, 218. 
Cynipid^:, 414. 457- 
Cyxipoidea, 407, 414. 522. 
Cynips, 457, 462, 464. 
cynipsea, Caryomyia, 460. 
Cynomyia. 266, 267, 270. 
cynthia, Philosamia, 153. 495. 

XL. 
Cyrtid.e, 233. 248. 
Cyrtinini, 352. 
C yrtinus, 352. 
Cyrtophorus, 349- 
Cyrtophyllus. 72. 

Dactylopin^:, 92. 
Daddy-long-legs, 32, 236. 
daeckeana, Olethreutes, 218. 
Dagger-moths, 172. 
dama, Lucanus, 325, LXXIX. 
damnifica, Schistocerca, 70. 
datnon, Thecla, 131. 489. 

XXXIII. 
Damsel-bugs, 98. 
Damsel-flies, 42, 44. 478. 



537 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



Danais, ri6, 486. 

Dance Flies, 252. 

Dancing insects, 42, 241, 252. 

Darkling Beetles, 381. 

Darning-needles, 42. 

Dascyllid^e, 306, 509. 

dasycerus, Ecyrus, 359. 

Dasyllis, 250. 

Dasymutilla, 428. 

Dasyneura, 242, 457, 460, 472. 

Datana, 184, 

daunus, Papilio, 142. 

Death-watch, 78, 322. 

debilis, Goes, 355- 

Debts, 128, 488. 

decimlineata, Leptinotarsa, 369, 

, LXXXIII. 
decidua, Cynips, 462. 
decipiens, Acanthoderes, 355. 
decolorata, Centrodera, 350. 
decora, Galerucella, 371. 
decorus, Cyllene, 346. 
Dectes, 357. 
Deer Flies, 247. 
Deilephila, 148, 493. 
delta, Terias, 138. 
Deltoids, 184. 
demotella, Acrobasis, 213. 
Dendroides, 387. 
dentipes, Chrysobothris, 313. 
deplanata. Phylloxera, 460. 
depressa. Phylloxera, 460. 
depressus, Boletophagus, 384. 
depressus, Pasimachus, 285, 

LXXII. 
derhami, Tegenaria, 38. 
Dermacentor, 476. 
DERMAPTERA,2„6i,479.48i. 
Dermatophilid.e, 279. 
Dermatophilus, 279. 
Dermestes, 302. 
Dermestid^e, 302, 503. 
Derodontid^e, 306, 508. 
descripta, Castianeira, 36. 
desertana, Eucosma, 219. 
Desmia, 208. 
Desmocerini, 339. 
Desmocerus, 339. 
desmodioides, Pontania, 460. 
Despressaria, 221. 
destructor, Mayetiola, 242, LXV. 
devastalrix, Hadena, 175, LI. 
Devil's Rearhorse,- 65. 
Dexiid.*:, 258, 260. 
diabolica, Vespa, 430, 511. 
Diabrotica, 371. 
Diachlorus, 248. 
Diacrisia, 169. 
Diadasia, 515. 
diadema, Sinea, 108. 
Dialictus, 521. 
diana, Argynnis, 118. 
Dianthidium, 446, 518. 
Dia peris, 384. 
Diaphania, 209. 
Diapheromera, 65. 
DiASPiNiE, 92, 93. 
Diastrophus, 45 7t 468. 



Dibolia, 373. 

Diccelus, 287. 

Dicerca, 312, 313. 

diteros, Ceresa, 484. 

Dichelonycha, 330, 331. 

dichlocerus, Rhodites, 468. 

Dicromorpha, 69. 

Dictyna, 34. 

Dictynid.e, 34. 

Didea, 2 55- 

difficilis consocians, Formica, 42$. 

diffinis, Hemaris, 147. 

Dilophonota, 152. 

dimidiata, Cceniella, 316. 

dimidiatus, Phymatodes, 342. 

Dineutes, 293. 

Dione, 117, 486. 

Diopsid/E, 278. 

Dioxys, 518. 

Diphadnus, 410. 

DIPLOPODA, 32, 38. 

Diplosis, 242. 

Diplotaxis, 330. 

Di prion, 410. 

DIPTERA, 2, 229, 457, 477. 

479, 480, 482. 
dipterum, Chloeon, 40. 
directa, Acmceops, 350. 
Discal cell, 229, 269. 
discalis, Stratiomyia, LXV. 
Discoidal cell, 406. 
Discoidal vein, 406. 
discoidea, Adelocera, 309. 
discoidea, Saperda, 360. 
discoideus, Elaler, 309. 
discolor, Dineutes, 293- 
Disease-carrying Fly, 264. 
Disease-fly, 278. 
Disholcaspis, 457, 464. 
disippus, Basilarchia, 127. 
Disonycha, 372. 
dispar, Porthetria, 188, LVI. 
Dissosteira, 69, 70. 
disstria Malacosotna, 191, 192, 

LVII. 
Distenia, 339. 
Disteniini, 339. 
distincta, Larropsis, 437. 
divaricata, Dicerca, 312, 313, 

LXXVIII. 
divinatorius, Troctes, 78. 
DixiDiE, 232, 236. 
Dobson-fly, 53, 477. 
Dodgers, 86. 
Dog-face, 137. 
Dog-flea, 279. 
DoJ&a, 153. 
Dolerus, 410. 

DoLICHODERINiE, 417. 

Dolichoderus, 417, 421. 

DOLICHOPODID/E, 23O, 235, 25O. 

Dolichovespula, 511. 
domestica, Lepistna, 39. VIII. 
dotnestica, Musca, 263, 265, 267, 

268, 271.LXX. 
domeslicus, Gryllus, 74. 
dominicana, Coscinoptera, 365. 
domitia, Perithemis, 48, X. 






538 



C 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



Donacia, 363, 364. 

Donaciini, 363. 

donatus, Triepeolus, XCIII. 

Dorcaschema, 352, 354. 

Dorcus, 325. 

dorsalis, Chalepus, 37s, 

dor salts, Cicindela, 282, 499, 

LXXII. 
dorsisignatana, Eucosma, 218. 
Dorso-central, 230. 
Dorylin^e, 418. 
Dragon-flies, 42, 45, 478.' 
Drake, Gray, 42. 
Drilin^e, 315, 318. 
Drone Flies, 257. 
Drosophila, 265, 276. 
Drosophilid^e, 275, 276. 
Drug-store Beetle, 321. 
drupiferarutn, Hyloicus, 153, 

495. 
druryi egeremet, Catia, 144, 

XXXVII. 
dryas, Grapta, 122. 
Dryinid<e, 425, 427. 
Dryobius, 344. 
Dryocampa, 162, 496. 
Dryophanta, 457, 462. 
dubitata, Ccelioxys, XCIII. 
Dufourea, 521. 
Dufourid^e, 442. 
Duns, 57. 

duodecim-punctata, Crioceris, 365. 
duodecitn-punctata, Diabrolica, 

371.LXXXIII. 
dupla, Ceratina. XCIII. 
duricaria, Disholcaspis, 464. 
Dynastes, 333. 
Dynastin<e, 332. 
Dyschirius, 286. 
Dyscinetus, 332. 
Dysdercus, 111. 
Dytiscid^e, 288, 289, 293. 505. 

506. 
Dytiscus, 289, 290, 292, LXXIV. 

Eacles, 164. 

Ear, 7. 66, 71, 73. 

Ear Flies, 247. 

Earwigs, 61, 479, 481. 

ebenus, Heterachlhes, 344. 

Eburia, 344. 

Ecdytolopha, 219. 

ecostata, Pyractomena, 316. 

Ecyrus, 359- 

egeremet, catia, 144. 

egle, Euchcetias, 169, XLIX. 

eglenensis, Pareuchcetes, 169. 

Elachistid^e, 222. 

Elaphidion, 345. 

Elaphrus, 285, 499- 

elaphus, Lucanus, 325. 

Elater, 309. 

Elaterid^e, 306, 382. 502. 

Elaterini, 309- 

elathea, Terias, 138. 

Electric-light Bugs, 99. 

elegans, Calligrapha, 370. 

Eleodes, 381. 



Elephant Bugs, 403. 

elevatus, Cychrus, LXXII. 

EliiN/E, 427. 

E/zs, 427. 

elisa, Celithemis, 50. 

eWo, Dilophonota, 152. 

Ellychnia, 316. 

Elm-borer, 360. 

Elm-leaf Beetle, 370. 

eloisella, Mompha, 223. 

elongatus, Diccelus, 287. LXXII. 

Elytra, 280. 

emarginata, Leptura, 351. 

emarginata, Notoglossa, 434. 

emarginatus, Dineutes, 293. 

EMBIIDINA, 478. 

enter soni, Leptothorax, 421. 

Emesa, 108. 

Emesid^e, 97, 108. 

Emphor, 444, 515. 

Emphorid.<e, 444. 

Emphoropsis, 515- 

Empidid^e, 233, 23S. 252. 

Empis, 252. 

Enarmonia, 219. 

Enchenopa, 483. 

Encoptolophus, 70. 

Encyclopini, 340. 

Encyclops, 340. 

Endelomyia, 410. 

Endomychid<e, 299, S07. 

Engraver Beetles, 404. 

Ennomos, 196. 

Entylia, 484. XXIII. 

Epalpus, 262. 

Epargyreus, 143, 492. 

Epeira, 34. 

Epeiridae, 32. 

Epeolus, 442, 512, 516. 

Ephemera, 42, VIII. 

ephemerceformis, Thyridoperyx, 

198, 201, LIX. 
Ephemerid^e, 2, 40. 
Ephestia, 212. 
EphydriD/E, 278. 
EpicBSchna, 46. 
Epiccerus, 399. 
Epicauta, 387, 39L 392. 
Epicordulia, 48. 
Epilachna, 299. 499, LXXV. 
epimensis, Psychomorpha, 214. 
Episimus, 219. 
Epitrix. 372, 373. 374- 
Epizeuxis, 184. 
Epochra, 276. 

eponina, Celithemis, 50, XII. 
egwr, Gastrophilus, 259. 
equinus, Borborus, 265. 
Eras, 250. 
Erebus, 182. 

eremicola, Osmoderma, 335. 
eremitus, Hyloicus, 153, 495. 
erinacei, Acraspis, 462. 
Eriophyes, 456, 470, 472. 
Eristalis, 256, 278. 
Eritettix, 68. 
Eros, 316. 
erosa, Phymala, no, XXVI, 



539 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



ErotyliD/E, 299, 507. 
errabunda, Ploiariola, 108. 
Erycinid^e, 116, 130, 13 1,134,489. 
Erynnis, 144. 
Erythraspides, 410. 
erythrocephala, Calliphora, 265, 

267, 272. 
erythrocephalus, Neoclytus, 348. 
Estigmene, 168. 
Euaresta, 275. 
eubule, Catopsilia, 137, 491. 
Eucerceris, 435. 
EucERiDiE, 444. 
Euchatias, 169. 
Euchloe, 137, 49°. 
Euclea, 200. 

EUCNEMIN^E, 306, 308. 

Eucosma, 218, 457, 472. 
Eudamus, 144, 492. 
Euderces, 349. 
Eulecanium, 93. 
Eulia, 220. 
Eumenes, 428, 429. 
EumeniDjE, 426, 428. 
Eumeyrickia, 221. 
Eumolpini, 366. 
Euparius, 395- 
Euparthenos, 182. 
Euphoria, 334. 
EUPLEXOPTERA, 61. 

EuPLtEINiE, ll6. 
Eupogonius, 358, 359- 
Euproctis, 190. 
Eupsalis, 394. 
Euptoieta, 117, 486. 
European Corn-borer, 497. 
Eurosta, 457. 472. 
Eurymycter, 395. 
Euryopthalmus, ill. 
eurytheme, Colias, 137, 491. 
ewry/tts, Neonympha, 128, 

488, XXXII. 
Euschistus, 114. 
Euthochtha, 113. 
Euura, 410, 457, 458. 
Euxoa, 172. 
Euzopkera, 214. 
Evania, 411, 511. 
Evaniid^e, 411. 
evecta, Volucella, 256, LXVI. 
e^c«caM5, Calasymbolus, 152, 494. 
Exema, 366. 
exigua, Anaxipha, 76. 
exigua, Laphygma, 175, LI. 
exitwsa, Sanninoidea, 207, 208, 

LX. 
exoleta, Cymolomia, 218. 
Exomalopsis, 512, 515. 521. 
Exoprosopa, 249. 
exsectoides, Formica, 422, 423. 
externum, Calosoma, 285. 
Eye, 8. 

fabricii, Grapta, 120. 
facetus, Lepturges, 358. 
False gid, 260. 
False, vein. 253- 
famelica, Strangalia, 351. 



Family, 5. 

farinalis, Pyralis, 210. 
farinosa, Lasioptera, 468. 
fasciata, Buprestis, 313. 
fasciata, Neurotoma, 410. 

LXXXVII. 
fasciata, Stegomyia, 240. 
fasciata, Volucella, 256. 
fasciatus, Ceratophyllus, 279. 
fasciatus, Eurymycter, 395. 
fasciatus, Graphisurus, 356. 
fasciatus, Oncopeltus, 112. 
fascipennis, Exoprosopa, LXVII. 
fasciventris, Dytiscus. 290. 
faunus, Grapta, 122, 487. 
fausta, Rhagolelis, 270. 
faDonius, Thecla, 131. 
/ayi, Saperda, 360. 
femorata, Chrysobothris, 310, 

313. LXXVIII. 
femorata, Diapheromera, 65. 
femoratus, Pelecoris, 96. 
femoralus, Tetraopes, 362. 
Femur, 8. 

femur-rubrum, Melanoplus, 71. 
fenestralis, Psinidia, 70. 
'fenestralis, Scenopinus, 249, 

LXVII. 
■Feniseca, 132, 490. 
fernaldm, Psilhyrus, 449. 
ferruginea, Corticaria, 305. 
ferruginea, Epicauta, 392. 
ferrugimum, Tribolium, 382. 
fervidana, Ar chips, 219. 
fervidus, Bombus, 451, 452. 
fervidus dorsalis, Bombus, 450. 
Fidia, 367. 
Fig-eater, 334. 
Filiform, 500. 
fimbriatus, Tachinus, 297, 

LXXV. 
fimbriolatus, Cybister, 292. 
fimetarius, Aphodius, 329. 
Fire-brat, 39. 
Fire-bug, 114. 
Fire-flies, 314. 317. 
Fish-flies, 52. 
Fish-moth, 39. 

flammata, Amphionycha, 361. 
Flannel-moth, Crinkled. 201. 
Flappers, 240. 
Flat-bugs, 112. 
Flat-headed Apple-tree Borer, 

310. 
Flat-head Borers, 310. 
flavicauda, Tachys, 286. 
flavipennis, Rkipiphorus, 393, 

LXXXV. 
flavipes, Leptogaster, LXVII. 
flavipes, Termes, 76, XXI. 
Flax-seed, 242. 
Flea-beetles, 372. 
Fleas. 279, 480. 
Flesh Flies, 262. 

fletchere.il a, Coleophora , 2 2 2 ,LXI. 
./Zr.ra, Tntoxa, 275, LXXI. 
Flies, 229, 477- 
flocci, Andricus, 462. 



540 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



floccosus, Neuroterus, 462. 
floricola, Chrysobothris, 313. 
fioridana, Emphoropsis, 515. 
Flour Beetles, 382. 
Flour-moth, 212. 
Flower Flies, 253. 
Footman Moths, 166. 
florbesi, Aspidiotus, XXIV. 
forceps, Scutigera, 38, VII. 
Foresters, 170. 
Forficula, 61. 
Formica, 417, 422. 
Formicid^e, 415. 
formicoidea, 407, 415. 
forticornis , Biorhiza, 464. 
fossor, Aphodius, 329. 
Four-lined Leaf-bug, 105. 
Foveola, 68. 

fragilella, Pkyllonoryter, 225. 
fragarice, Tyloderma, 403. 
fraternus, Bombias, 451, 452. 
fraternus, Eumenes, 428, XC. 
fraxini, Eriophyes, 472. 
fraxiniflora, Eriophyes, 472. 
frigidum, Calosoma, 285. 
Fritillary, Great-Spangled, 117- 
Fritillary, Gulf, 117. 
Fritillary, Meadow, 118. 
Fritillary, Regal, 117. 
Fritillary, Silver-bordered, 118. 
Fritillary, Variegated, 117. 
Frog-hoppers, 86. 
Front, 230. 

frontalis, Photuris, 317. 
frontalis, Psilotreta, 57. 
Frosted Scale, 93. 
frugiperda, Laphygma, 175, LI. 
Fruit-fly, 276. 
Fruit-tree Bark-beetle, 405. 
fucosa, Hypoprepia, 166, 

XLVIII 
fulgidus. Euphoria, 334. 
Fulgora, 85, XXIII. 
FULGORID.E, 8l, 85. 
fulrninans, Arhopalus, 347. 
fulvicollis. Scepsis, 164, XLVIII. 
fulvoguttata, Melanophila, 313. 
fumans, Brachinus, LXXIII, 
funeralis, Desmia, 208. 
fungivorella, Aristotelia, 221. 
Fungus Gnats, 242. 
Funiculus, 417. 
fur, Ptinus, 321, LXXIX. 
furfura, Chionaspis, XXIV. 
fusca, Formica, 423. 
fusca subsericea, Formica, 423, 

424. 
fusciceps, Phorbia, 263. 
fuscilabris, Megilla, LXXV. 
fuscojubatus, Emphor, 444. 
fusiformis, Rhopalomyia, 472. 
futilis, Callirhytis, 462. 

Gad Flies, 247, 259. 
galeator, Euthochtha, 113. 
Galeriia, 287. 
Galerucella, 370. 
Galerucini, 363, 370. 



GALGULID/E, 95. 
Galgulus, 95, 102. 
gallcesolidaginis, Gnorimoschema, 

219, 221, 472. 
gallcesteriella, Gnorimoschema, 

221. 
Galleria, 212. 
Galleriin^e, 212. 
gallicola, Podapion, 396. 
Galls, 221, 222, 243, 276, 278, 

312, 455. 522. ^ 
Gaster, 417. 
Gastroidea, 368. 
Gastrophilus, 259. 
Gaurotes, 350. 
Gelastocoris, 95, 102, XXV. 
Gelastocorid^e, 95, 96. 
Gelechia, 221. 
Gelechiid^e, 220, 457. 
geminata, Tillomorpha, 349. 
geminatus, Sphinx, 150, 494, 

XXXIX. 
gemma, Pachypsyla, 466. 
generosa, Cicindela, 282, 

LXXIII. 
Geniculate, 504. 
Genus, 5. 
genutia, Euchloe, 137, 490, 

XXXIV. 
Geometrid^:, 192. 
Geometrin^e, 195. 
Georyssid^e, 306, 508. 
Geosargus, 247. 
Geotrupes, 329. 
Geotrupini,329- 
germanica, Blattella, 62, XVI. 
germanica, Vespa, 430, 511. 
Gerrid^e, 96, 103, 104. 
Gerris, 103, 104. 
Ghost-moth, 228. 
Giant Water-bugs, 99. 
Gibbium,322. 

glandulella, Valentinia, 222. 
glaucus, Papilio, 140, 491, 

XXXVI. 
globulus, Disholcaspis. 464. 
globulus, Rhodites, 468. 
gloriosa, Protoxaa, 514. 
gloveri, Samia, 156. 
Glow-worms, 314. 
Gnats, 229. 

Gnorimoschema, 219, 221, 457, 
_ 472. 

Goat-moths, 202. 
Goes, 354. 355- 
Gold-bugs. 377. 
Goldsmith Beetle, 332. 
Gomphin^e, 45. 
Gonaspis, 457, 468. 
Goniops, 248. 
Gooseberry Saw-fly, 410. 
Gooseberry Worm, 276. 
gordius, Hyloicus, 153. 
Gorytes, 433. 
Gorytid^;, 433. 
Gossamer, 33. 
Gouty Galls, 312. 
Gracilaria, 225. 



541 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



gracilis, Hemaris, 147. 
gracilis, Micrathena, 36, VII. 
gracilis, Oberea, 362. 
gracilis, Pontania, 460. 
Grain-weevil, 300, 403. 
granaria, Calandra, 404. 
Grandfather-graybeard, 32. 
grandis, Anthonomus, 401. 
grandis, Lebia, 287, LXXIII. 
Grape Curculio, 402. 
Grape Flea-beetle, 373. 
Grape Leaf-folder, 208. 
Grape-vine Plume, 214. 
Graphisurus, 356. 
Graphocephala, 86. 
Grapholitha, 218. 
Graphomyia, 266, 270. 
Graphops, 367. 
Graphosomin^e, 114. 
Grapta, 120, 122, 124, 487. 
Grasshoppers, 66, 71, 438, 479, 

482. 
Grass-nymphs, 128. 
Grass-spider, 248. 
Grave Diggers, 436. 
Gray-back, 79. 
Gray drake, 42. 
Green Flies, 87. 
Green-headed Monsters, 247. 
greenei, Megarhyssa, 414. 
Green Japanese Beetle, 510. 
griseus, Benacus, 100, XXV. 
grossularicB, Zophodia, 213. 
Ground-beetles, 282. 
Ground-pearls, 91. 
Grouse Locusts, 66. 
Grub-in-the-head, 260. 
Grubs, White, 172. 
GrylmdjE, 71, 73. 
Gryllotalpa, 73. 
Gryllus, 73. 74. XX. 
grynea, Catocala, 181, LIV. 
guttea, Ornix, 225. 
guttifinitella, Phy Honor yter, 225. 
Gypsy Moth, 188, 497, 510. 
Gyrinid^e, 288, 292, 293, 505. 
Gyrinus, 293, 481, LXXIV. 

Hadena, 175: 
Harmatobia, 266, 268. 
Hcematopinus, 79. 
Hcemotopota, 248. 
Hcemonia; 364. 
Hcemorrhagia, 147. 
hcemorrhoidalis, Psilocephala, 

LXVII. 
hcemorrhoidalis, Sarcophaga, 

LXX. 
Hag-moth, 200. 
Hair-streaks, 131 
Halesus, 57. 
halesus, Thecla, 131. 
Halictid^;, 440, 516, 517. 
Halictoides, 442, 520, 521. 
Halictus, 436, 440, 512, 517. 
Halipmd/E, 288, 289, 506. 
Halisidota, 17c. 
Haltcres, 229. 



Hallica, 372, 373. 
Halticini, 363, 372. 
Halticus, 106. 

Ham-beetle, Red-legged, 320. 
hamamelidis, Hormaphis, 466. 
hamamelis, Acronycta, 174. 
hamamelis, Phyllonoryter, 225. 
Hamamelisles, 456, 466. 
Hammer-head, 310. 
Haploa, 168. 

Harlequin Cabbage-bug, 114. 
Harlequin caterpillar, 169. 
Harpalus, 288. 
harrisii, Dytiscus, 290. 
harrisi, Grapta, 122. 
harrisi, Melilcea, 120, 487. 
Harrisina, 202. 
Harvester, The, 132. 
Harvest-flies, 82. 
Harvest-man, 32. 
hastulifera, Acronycta, 174. 
Hawk Moth, 146 
Hazel-nut Weevil, 401. 
Head-louse, 79. 
hebcsana, Olethreutes, 218. 
Hebrides, 96. 
Hebrus, 96. 
Hedgehog, 168. 
Hedychridium, 425. 
Hedychrum, 425. 
/zeeri depilis, Brachymyrmex, 
421. 

HELICONIIN.E, 117. 

Heliconius, 117, 486. 
Helicopsyche, 57. 
Heliophila, 175. 
Heliothis, 176, 178. 
Hell-diver;-devil, 53. 
Hellgrammite, 53. 
Helophilus, 256. 
Helophorini, 294. 
Helophorus, 294. 
Hemaris, 147, 203, 493. 
Hemerobiid^;, 54, 56. 
Hemerocampa, 186, 497. 
hemidesma, Olethreutes, 218. 
Hemihalictus, 521. 
HEMIPTERAj 2, 80, 95. 478- 

480, 482. 
hemipterus, Carpophilus, 305. 

HEPIALIDiE, 228. 
Hercostomus, 252. 
hcrculeanus pennsylvanicus,Cam- 

Ponotus, 424. 
Heriades, 446, 519. 
Hermetia, 247. 
heros, Epiceschina, 46, XI, 
Hesperia, 144, 492. 
HesperiiDjE, 116, 142, 492. 
Hesperiin^e, 143, 492. 
hesperius, Metrobates, 104. 
Hesperotettix, 71. 
Hessian Fly, 242. 
IletcErina, 44. 
Heterachthes, 344. 
Heterocera, us. 146. 

HETEROCERIDiE, 306, 509. . , 

Hlteromera, 281, 380, 505. 



542 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



Heteroneurid.e. 278. 
HETEROPTERA, 2, 80, 95. 
Hetcemis, 354. 

ioctyia, Orneod.es, 215. 

Hexapcda. 32. 
Hickory Homed Devil. 162. 
Hickory-nut Weevil. 401. 
hieroglyphica, Cicada. 84, XXII. 
hieroglyphicus, Corymbites, 309, 

L XXVII. 
Hilar a, 252. 
Hippissus. 70. 
HlPPOBOSCID.E, 2 79. 
Hippodamta, 499. LXXV. 
Hippopsini. 353. 
Hippopsis. 353- 
hirticollis. Cicindela. 2S2. 

-:<-. Rhcpalomyia, 472. 
hirundinis. (Eciacus, 106. 
Hispini. 375. 
Hister. 304. 

HlSTERID.£, 3O4. 504. 

histrionica, ilurgantia, lis, 

XXVI. 
Hive-bees. 453- 
hobomok. Ajfvtone, 146. 

XXXVII. " 
Holcaspis. 457- 
holotricha, Caryomyia, 460. 
Homalomvia. 263. 265. 
HOMOPTERA. 2. So. 456, 477. 

479- 
Honey. 429. 440. 
Honey-ants, 421. 
Honey-bee. 257, 440, 453. 512. 
Honey-dew. 84, 86, 88, 91, 93, 

420, 4S4. 
Hoplia, 330. 331. 
Hoplosia, 359. 
Hop-merchants. 122. 
horatius. Thanaos, 492. 
Horiini. 391. 
Hormaphis. 456. 466. 
Harmomyia, 457. 460, 468. 
Horn-blowers. 150. 
Horned Devil, 162. 
Hornets. 425, 429. 
Horn-fly. 268. 
Hornia. 391. 
Horn-tails. 411. 
Horse Bot Fly. 259. 
Horse Flies. 247. 
Horseshoe Crab, 32. 
Horse-stingers. 42. 
House-flies, 264. 
House-fly, Biting. 268. 
House-fly, Common. 264, 271. 
House-fly. Lesser, 264. 
hudsonias, Systena, 374. 
Human-flea. 2 _ o. 
Humble-bee, 448. 
humeralis, Purpuricenus. 346. 
humeralis, Thecesternus. 398. 
Humming-bird Moths. 147. 
kumuli. Hypena, 184. 
huntera, Pyrameis, 124. 48S, 

XXXI." 
Hunter's Butterfly, 124. 



hyalina, Pontania, 460. 
hyalinata, Diaphania, 209. 
hybridus, Dytiscus, 290. 
Hydria, 195. 
Hydrobatid.e. 103. 
Hydrobiini. 294. 
Hydrocharis. 294. 
Hydrockus, 294 
Hydrcecia. 176. 
Hydrometra, 104. 
Hydrometrid.e, 96. 103, 104. 
Hydrophilid.*:. 293. 505- 
Hydrophilini, 294. 
Hydrophilus, 293, 294, LXXIV. 
Hydro phorns. 252. 
Hydro psyche. 58. XV. 
Hydropsychid.e, 60. 
Hydroptilid.e. 60. 
Hydroscaphid.*:, 507. 
Hygrotrechus, 103. 
HYL.EID.E. 445. 
Hylaus. 445. 
hylceus, Dolba, 153. 
Hylephila, 144.. 
Hyloicus, 153, 495- 
Hylotrupes, 342. 
HVMEXOPTERA, 2, 406, 457, 

478, 479. 481- 
Hypena, 184. 
Hypexid^:, 184. 
Hyper a. 400. 
hyperboreus, Platychirus, 

LXVIII. 
Hyperchiria, 160. 
Hyperodes, 400. 
Hyper platys, 358. 
Hyphantria, 168. 
Hypoderma, 260. 
hypophlcEus. Chrysophanus, 133. 

490, XXXIII. 
Hypopleura, 258. 
Hypoprepia, 166. 
Hypsopygia, 210. 

Ibalia, 412, 414. 
icelus, Thanaos. 143. 
ichneumonea, Chlorion. XCII. 
ichneumoneum. Ammobia, 439. 

ICHXEUMONID.E. 412. 
ICHXEUMOXOIDEA, 40 7. 4". 
510. 

idalia. Argynnis, 117, 486, 

XXVIII. 
ignita, Haltica, 373- 
ignota. Rhodites. 468. 
ilicifolicB. Amphibolips. 462. 
imbricatus. Epicatrus. 399- 
imbricornis. Prionus, 338. 
imitans, Saperda. 360. 
immaculata, Pieris. 134. 
im paris, Prenolepis. 421. 
impatiens, Bombus, 450. 453. 

XCIV. 
impatientifolia, Lasioptera. 470. 
impatientis, Cecidomyia. 470. 
Imperial Moth. 164. 
imperialis, Basilona, 164, 496, 

XLVII. 



543 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



impressus, Meloe, 390. 
incequalis, Craponius, 402. 
incequatis, Silpha, 296. 
inanis, Amphibolips, 462. 
incertum, Elaphidion, 345. 
Inch-worms, 194. 
inda, Euphoria, 334. 
indentanus, Phthinolophus, 219. 
Indian-meal Moth, 213. 
indiginella, Mineola, 212. 
inguinalis, Phthirius, 70, XXI. 
inimicella, Pseudogalleria, 218. 
innocuella, Anacampsis, 221. 
innumerabilis, Pulvinaria, 92. 
Inocellia, 478. 
inopinatus, Euchcetias, 169. 
inopis, Retinodiplosis, 458. 
inornata, Mecas, 361. 
inornatana, Cymolomia, 218. 
insectella, Setomorpha, 226. 
insiticiana, Ecdytolopha, 219. 
insularis, Psithyrus, 449. 
integer, Janus, 410. 
integerrina, Datana, 185. 
Integra, Formica, 423, 424. 
Interalar band, 449. 
intermedia, Deilephila, 148. 
inter medius, Prodoxus, 228. 
inter punctella, Plodia, 213. 
I interrogationis, Grapta, 120, 

487, XXX. 
interrupta, Arctocoria, XXV. 
interrupta, Lina, 368. 
interrupta, Phryganea, 57, XV. 
z'o, Auiomeris, 160, 496, XLV. 
io/e, Nathalis, 138, 491. 
Ipin.e, 404, 405. 
ipomoecB Cemolobus, 445. 
//>* 304. 
irritans, Hcematobia, 266, 268, 

LXIX. 
irritans, Pulex, 279, LXXI. 
isabella, Isia, 168, XLIX. 
Ischnoptera, 64. 
7«a. 168. 
Isodontia, 438. 
ISOPTERA, 76, 478, 479, 

482. 
Isosoma, 414- 
Ithycerin^e, 396. 
Ithycerus, 396. 
Itonida, 457, 458. 
ItonidiD/E, 232, 242, 457. 

j-album, Vanessa, 124, 487. 

Jalysus, 11 2. 

jamaicensis geminalus, Sphinx, 

150, 494- 
janthinum, Callidium, 342. 

Janus, 410. 

janus, Galerita, 287. 

Japanese Beetle. 510. 

aponica, Popillia, 510. 
jastninearum, Chlcenogramma, 
153. 495- 

JassiD/E, 86. 

Jassin^e, 81. 

Jerusalem Cricket, 73- 



Jigger, 279. 
Jigger-flea, 279- 
Joint-worms, 414. 
jorulla, Rothschildia, 154. 
jucunda, Terias, 138. 
juglandifoliella, Stigmella, 224. 
juqlandis, Cressonia, 153, 495. 
Jumping-beans, 218. 
Jumping-beetles, 372. 
Jumping Spiders, 38. 
juncta, Leptinotarsa, 369. 
juncticiliana, Eucosma, 218. 
June Bugs, 326, 330. 
juniperella, Recurvdria, 221. 
Junius, Anax, 46, IX. 
Junonia, 126, 487. 
juvenalis, Thanaos, 144, 492, 
XXXVII. 

kalmice, Hyloicus, 153, 495. 

kalmiella. Or nix, 225. 

kalmii, Lygceus, 112, XXVI. 

Katydid, 72. 

kearfottella, Phyllonoryter, 244. 

Kermes, 92. 

Key, How to use, 27. 

King Crab, 32. 

Kissing Bugs, 167. 

kuehniella, Ephestia, 212. 

Labella, 252, 266. 

Labia, 61. 

Labioderma, 369. 

Labium, 8. 

laboriosus, Psithyrus, 449, 452. 

Labrum, 417. 

lacca, Carteria, 91. 

Lace-bugs, no. 

Lachnoslerna, 331. 

Lacosomid^e, 199- 

ladon, Lyccena, 134, 490. 

XXXIII. 
Lady-beetle, 298, 499- 
Lady-bird, 298. 
Lcetilia, 212. . 
Icevis, Canthon, LXXX. 
Lagriid^e, 380, 384. 
Lamellicornia, 281,324. 
Lamiin^e, 337, 352. 
Lampyrid/e, 314. 315. 503. 

LAMPYRINiE, 315, 3l6. 

Lampyrini, 316. 

Zona, Awdrjcws, 462. 

Languria, 508. 

lanigera, Cotalpa, 332. LXXXI. 

lanigera, Schizoneura, 88, XXIV. 

Lantern-flies, 85. 

lanternaria, Fulgora, 85. 

Lapara, 153- 

lapella, Metzneria, 220. 

Laphygma, 175. 

lardarius, Dermestes, 302, 

LXXVI. 
Larder-beetle, 302. 
Largus, III. 

laricella, Coleophora, 222. 
Larva, 437. 
Larrida;, 433, 436. 



544 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



Larrin^e, 436. 
Larropsis, 437. 
Larva, 7. 

Lasiocampid/E, 191. 
Lasioderma, 322. 
lasiophthalmus, Tabanus, LXV. 
Lasioptera, 457, 468, 470, 472. 
Lassius, 88, 417, 421. 
Laspeyresia, 219. 
lateralis, Anthrax, LXVI. 
lateralis, Lycostc r mus, 315, 316. 
lateralis, Saperda, 359. 
Lathridiid^e, 305. 508. 
laticollis, Prionus, 338, 

LXXXII. 
latiferreana, Mellisopus, 219. 
latipes, Campylenchia, 483. 
Latreillimyia, 262. 
Latrodectus , 34. 
LaUXANIID/E, 275. 
Leaf-chafers, 333. 
Leaf-crumplers, 212. 
Leaf-cutters, 447. 
Leaf-folder, 214. 
Leaf-hoppers, 86. 
Leaf-miners, 220, 223, 224, 225, 

276, 278, 375- 
Leaf-rollers, 215. 
Leather-beetle, 302. 
Leather-jackets, 236. 
Lebia, 287. 
Lebiini, 284. 
lectularius, Cimex, 106. 
leguminicola, Dasyneura, 242. 
Lema, 364, 365, 392. 
lemniscata, Hippopsis, 353. 
Lemoniid.e, 130. 
lentella, Phyllonoryter, 225. 
lenticularis, Rkodites, 468. 
Leopard-moth, 202. 
lepida, Cincindella, 499. 
LEPIDOPTERA, 2, 60, 115, 

457, 477. 479. 481. 482. 
Lepidosaphes, 94. 
Lepisma, 39. 
Leptide:, 230, 233, 248. 
Leptinid^e, 506. 
Leptinotarsa, 362, 369- 
Leptis, 248. 
Leptocerid^e, 60. 
Leptogaster, 250. 
Leptoglossus, 1 13. 
Leptostylus, 356, 357. 
Leptothorax, 418, 420, 421. 
Leptura, 351, 352. 
Lepturges, 358. 
Lepturini, 337, 340, 349. 
Lepturoides, 339- 
lespedezcefoiella, Parectopa, 225. 
Lestes, 44, IX. 
Lethocerus, 99, 100. 
Leucania, 175. 

leucopterus, Blissus, in, XXVI. 
leucostigma, Hemerocampa, 186, 

LV. 
leucostoma, Ophyra, 263, 265. 
Leucozona, 255. 
Libellula, 48. 



Libellulid.e, 46. 
Libellulin.e, 48. 
Libythea, 130, 489. 
Libythein^e, 130. 
Lice, 78, 79, 480. 
lignaria, Osmia, XCIII. 
ligneus, Hylotrupes, 342. 
LlMACODID/E, 200. 
limata, Blepharomastix, 209. 
limbatus, Carabus, 284. 
Limenitis, 127. 
Limnobates, 104. 

LlMNOBATID^E, IO4. 
LlMXOPHILID^E, 58, 60. 

Limnoporus, 104. 

Limnotrechus, 103. 

limosipennella, Coleophora. 222. 

Lt'wa, 368. 

Linden-borer, 360. 

lineata, Buprestis, 313. 

lineata, Deilephila, 148, 493, 

XXXVIII. 
lineata, Hydrometra, 104. 
lineata, H'ypoderma, 260. 
lineatum, Rhagium, 350. 
lineatus, Pcecilocapsus, 105, 

XXV. 
lineola, Leptura, 351. 
lineolata, Cremastogaster, 420, 

LXXXIX. 
linteus, Elater, 309. 
Liopus, 357. 358. 
Liparid^e, 170, 186. 
liparops, Thecla, 132. 
Lipeurus, 78. 

liriodendrana, Polychrosis, 218. 
liriodendrella, Phyllocnistis, 226. 
liriodendri, Thecodiplosis, 466. 
Z*.sa, Terias, 138, 491, XXXV. 
Listronotus, 400. 
Lithocolletis, 224. 
Lithosiid^, 166. 
Lithurgus, 518. 
Lobster, 32. 
Locustid.e, 71. 
Locustin^e, 70. 
Locusts, 66, 82. 
Locust, Seventeen-year, 82. 
Lonxhopterid^e, 234. 
Long-horns, 337. 
Longicornes, 337. 
longicornis, Diabrotica, 371. 
longipes, Emesa, no. 
longipes, Melanophila, 313. 
longipes, Rhopalophora, 341. 
Longitudinal vein, 229, 269. 
Loopers, 179, 194. 
Loxostege. 209. 
Lubber Grasshopper, 71. 
lubricalis, Epizeuxis, 184, LV. 
Lucanid,e, 324, 504. 
Lucanus, 325. 

lucetiella, Phyllonoryter, 225. 
lucidicostella, Phyllonoryter, 224. 
Lucidota, 316. 

lucidus, Polycenlropus, 58, XV. 
lucidus, Polyergus, 424, 

LXXXIX. 



545 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



lucifluella, Coptodisca, 223. 
Lucilia, 258, 265, 267, 268, 272. 
lucilius, Thanaos, 143, 144, 

492. 
luctuosa, Libellula, 48, XII. 
lucublandus, Pierostichus, 287, 

LXXII. 
lugens, Mormidea, 114, XXVI. 
lugubris, Typocerus, 351. 
Luminous insects, 243, 308,314. 
luna, Actias, 158, 496, XLIII. 
Luna Moth, 158. 
lunata, Calligrapha, 369. 
lunator, Megarhyssa, 414. 
Lunule, apical, 282. 
Lunule, frontal, 230. 
Lunule, humeral, 282. 
lupinella, Anacampsis, 221. 
lusciliosa, Hyloicus, 153. 
luscus, Neodytus, 349. 
luteicornis, Strangalia, 351. 
luteola, Galerucella, 370, 

LXXXI. 
luteola, Nomada, XCIV. 
Luteva, 108. 
Lyccena, 133, 134, 490. 
Lyc<enid,e, ii6, 131, 134, 489. 
lycidas, Achalarus, 144, 492. 
Lycin^e, 315. 
Lycomorpha, 164. 
Lycosa, 33, VII. 
Lycosid^e, 38. 
Lycostomus, 315, 316. 
Lyctid^e, 323. 
Lyctus, 323. 

Lyg,eid<e, 98, in, 112. 
Lygceus, 112. 
Lygus, 105, 435. 
Lymexylon, 324. 
Lymexylonid^e, 324, 509. 
Lyroda, 437. 

macellaria, Chrysomyia, 266, 270, 

LXX. 
macer, Systropus, LXVII. 
Macrobasis, 391. 
macrocarpella, Phyllonoryter, 

224. 
Macrocephalus, no. 
Macrodactylus, 330, 331. 

MACROGLOSSINiE, 147. 

Macropid^e, 442. 
Macropis, 442, 521. 
Macros, 198. 
macrurum, Opinion, 412, 

LXXXVIII. 
mactans, Latrodectus, 34. 
macula, Lepiostylus, 357. 
maculata, Calopteryx, 45, X. 
maculata, Diaperis, 384. 
maculata, Graphomyia, 266, 270, 

LXIX. 
maculata, Halisidota, 170. 
maculata, Vespa, 430, 511, XC„ 

XCI. 
maculipennis. Anopheles, 238. 
maculipcnnis, Platycentropus, 57, 

XV. 



maculipennis, Plutella, 220. 
maculiventris, Podisus, XXVI. 
Maggots, 229. 
magnarius, Ennomos, 196, 

LVIII. 
magnoliana, Polychrosis, 218. 
magnus, Brachypeplus, 71. 
maidi-radicis, Aphis, 90. 
major, Bombylius, LXVI. 
Malachiid-e, 318, 509. 
Malacosoma, 168, 191, 192, 497- 
m-album, Thecla, 131. 
Malar space, 449. 
Malaria, 238. 
ma/j, Aphis, 88. 
malifoliella, Tischeria, 226. 
malimalifoliella, Phyllonoryter , 

225. 
malivorella, Coleophora, 222. 
MALLOPHAGA, 2, 78, 480. 
Mamara, 226. 
Mamestra, 172. 
mamma, Pachypsylla, 466. 
Mandibles, 8. 
Manomera, 65, XVII. 
Mantid^e, 64, 482. 
Mantis, 65. 
Mantispid^e, 54. 
Mantura, 373. 
Maple-moth, Rosy, 162. 
marcellus, Papilio, 142, 491. 
March Flies, 243. 
marcia, PhyciodeS, 119. 
Mar gar odes, 91. 
Margaropus, 476. 
Marginal cell, 229, 269, 406. 
Marginal vein, 229, 406. 
marginata, Bembecia, 206, 207. 
marginaia, Epicauta, 392, 

LXXXV. 
marginata, Mesogramma, 

LXVIII. 
marginatus, Chauliognathus, 317. 
marginatus, Gerris, 103, 104. 
marginatus, Necrophorus, 295, 

LXXV. 
marginatus, Spirobolus, VII. 
marginellus, Photinus, 316. 
marice, Dolichoderus, 421. 
mar ice, Spilochalcis, 415, 

LXXXVIII. 
maritima, Anisolabis, 61. 
maritima, Satyrus, 130. 
maritima, Trimerotropis, 70. 
marmorata, Scirtetica, 70. 
marmoreus, Euparius, 395. 
Marsh-treaders, 104. 
martini, Hydrometra, 104. 
Marumba, 150. 
Masarid^e, 426. 
Masked Bed-bug Hunter, 107. 
Masked Bees, 445. 
Mason-bees, 447. 
mauretanica, Tenebroides, 305, 

LXXVII. 
Maxillae, 8. 

May Beetles, 326, 415, 427. 
Mayetiola, 242. 



,546 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



May-flies, 40, 477, 478. 
Meadow-browns, 128. 
Meal Snouth-moth, 210. 
Meal-worms, 382. 
Mealy-bugs, 91. 92. 
Measuring-worms, 179, 194- 
Mecas, 361. 

MECOPTERA, 2, 56, 478, 482. 
Mecostethus, 69. 
Mecynotarsus, 386. 
Medeterus, 252. 
Median cell, 406. 
meditabunda, Myospila, 265, 

266, 267, 270, LXIX. 
Mediterranean Flour-moth, 212. 
Megar.hile, 440, 447, 512, 518. 
Megachilid^e, 440, 446, 518. 
Megacilissa, 512. 
MEGALOPTERA, 52, 54, 477, 

481. 
Megalopyge, 201. 
Megalopygid^e, 201. 
Meganostoma, 137, 491. 
Megarhyssa, 412, LXXXVIII. 
Megathymin^e, 146. 
Megathymus, 146. 
Megilla, 499, LXXV. 
Melanactes, 309. 
Melandryid^e, 380, 381,385. 
melanogaster, Drosophila, 265, 

276, LXX. 
Melanolestes, 107. 
Melanophila, 313. 
Mdanoplus, 66, 71, 387. 
Melanostoma, 255. 
Melanotics, 309. 
melanura, Nacerdes, 385, 

LXXXIV. 
melinus, Thecla, 131, 489, 

XXXIII. 
Melissodes, 445, 512, 515. 
Melitcza, 119, 120, 487. 
Melitara, 213. 
Melitoma, 444, 515. 
Melitta, 441. 
Melittia, 204. 
mellifera. Apis, 453, 512, 

XCIII. 
Mellinid.e,432. 
Mellisopus, 219. 
mellitus, Necydalis, 339. 
mellonella, Galleria, 2I2.LXI. 
Melo'e, 390. 
Meloid^e, 381, 387. 
Meloides, 387, 390. 
Meloin.e, 390. 
Melolonthix.e, 330. 
Melophagus, 279. 
Membracid^e, 81, 84, 483. 
Membrane, 95. 
Memythrus, 204. 
Menopon, 78. 
Mermiria, 68. 
Merium, 342. 
Mesogramma, 255. 
Mesothorax, 8. 
Mesovelia, 97. 
MESOVEUID<E, 97. 103- 



messoria, Euxoa, 172, LI. 

Metachroma, 367. 

Metal-marks, 130. 

metallica, Stenispa, 375. 

Metamorphosis, 6, 40. 

Metargiope, 36. 

Metatarsus, 8, 408. 

Metathorax, 8. 

Methini, 352. 

Methoca, 426. 

Methocid^e, 426, 427. 

Metopina, 253. 

Metrobates, 104. 

Metzneria, 220. 

Miastor, 242. 

micans, Morellia, 266, 271, 

LXIX. 
Micrathena, 36. 
Microbembex, 437. 
Microcentrus, 483. 
Microdon, 254. 
Micro-lepidoptera, 198, 220. 
microptera, Romalea, 71. 

MlCROPTERYGID/E, 228. 
MlCROPTERYGOIDEA, 228. 

Microrkopala, 375. 

Micros, 198. 

Midges, 241. 

milberti, Vamssa, 124, 487. 

Milesia, 256. 

Milliped, 32, 38. 

Milyas, 108. 

Mimicr y, 127, 203, 250. 

'Mineoia; vi'I. " 

Mine, blotch, 223. 

Mine, community, 224. 

Mine, linear, 223. 

Mine, serpentine, 223. 

Mine, tentiform, 223. 

Mine, tract, 223. 

Mine, trumpet, 223. 

miniata, Hypoprepia, 166. 

minimum, Monomorium, 420. 

minimus, Diaslrophus, 468. 

minislra, Datana, 185. LV. 

minor, Labia, 61, XVI. 

minuia, iiMi?5a^'5,394.LXXXVI. 

minuta, Peronea, 219. 

minulipennis, Hornia, 39 1 • 

minutus, Copris, 329. 

Miranda, 36. 

MiriDjE, 98, 105. 

Misumena, 36. 

Mites, 32, in, 279, 456, 476, 

480. 
Mixogaster, 254- 
mixtus, Pogonocherus, 359. 
modesta, Cicindela, 282. 
modesta, Pachvsphinx, 150, 493, 

494. XXXIX. 
modestus, Podabrus, 317- 
mcestum, Asemum, 341. 
Molanna, 57. 
Mole cricket, 73- 
molesta, Solenopsis. 420. 
molitor, Tenebrio, 382. 
Molorchus, 345. 
Molt. 6. 



547 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



Mompha, 223. 
Monarch, 116. 
Monobia, 429. 

monodonia, Microbembex, 437. 
Monohammini, 352, 353. 
Monohammus, 354. 
Monommid/E, 505. 
Mpnomorium, 418, 420. 
Mononyx, 95. 
Monophadnoides, 410. 
monostigma, Tetrops, 362. 
Monotomid^;, 306, 508. 
Monoxia, 371. 
montinus, Brenthis, 119. 
Monumetha, 519. 
monuste. Pier is, 136, 490 
Mordella, 386. 

MORDELLID^E, 381, 385, 393. 

Mordellistena, 385. 
Morellia, 266, 271. 
wort", Bombyx, 192. 
Mormidea, 114. 
Mosquito, 229. 238, 480. 
Moth Flies, 236. 
Moths, us. 146, 477. 482. 
Mourning Cloak, 122. 
mucronatum, Elaphidion, 345. 
Mud-dauber, 436, 439. 
Mule-killer, 65. 
mulsanti, Mesovelia, 97. 
multipunctata, Calligrapha, 370. 
Murgantia, 114. 
muscBorum, Anthrenus, 303. 
Musca, 263, 264, 265-268, 271. 
Muscid<e, 258, 259. 264. 
Muscina, 258, 265, 267, 271. 
Mustard White, 136. 
mutabilis, Leptura, 351. 
mutica, Saperda, 360. 
Mutilla, 428. 
Mutillid^e, 426, 427. 
Mycetophagid^:, 300. 
Mycetophilid^, 232, 242, 457 
MydaiD/E, 234, 250. 
Mydas, 250. 
Myiasis, 263. 
Myiochrysa, 247. 
Myiolepta, 254. 

MYODOCHID/E, III. 

Myodochus, 112. 

myops, Alaus, 308. 

myops, Calasymbolus, 152, 494« 

Myospila, 265-267, 270. 

myrina, Brenthis, 118, 486, 

XXIX. 
M^tnecocys/MS, 421. 
Myrmeleonid^e, 53. 54. XIV. 
Myrmica, 420, 421. 
Myrmicin^e, 418. 
Myrmosa, 426. 
Myrmosid^e, 426, 427. 
myron, Ampelophagus, 149. 493. 

XXXVIII. 
mystacea, Leptis, LXVII. 
mystic, Thymelicus, 144- 
Mytilaspis, 94. 

Nabidje, 98. 



Nabis, 98. 

Nacerdes, 385. 

ncevia, Agelena, 36, 248. 

waz's, Apantesis, 169, XLIX. 

nanus, Tachys, 286. 

wa£*\ Pieris, 136. 

wa£z oleracea, Pieris, XXXIV. 

Nathalis, 138, 491. 

Naucorid^e, 96. 

nebulifera, Prionapteryx, 210. 

nebulosa, Panorpa, XV. 

nebulosus, Diastrophus, 468. 

nebulosiiS; Graphops, 367. 

Necrobia, 320. 

Necrophorus, 295. 

Nectar, 440. 

Necydalini, 339. 

Necydalis, 339. 

Negro-bugs, 114. 

Neidid^e, 98, 112. 

Nematocera, 230, 231, 236. 

Nemobius, 73, 74, 437. 

Nemognatha, 391. 

Nemognathini, 391. 

nenuphar, Conotrachelus, 402, 

LXXXVI. 
Neoascia, 255. 
Neoclytus, 348, 349. 
Neoconocephalus, 72. 
Neolarra, 521. 
neoniger, Lasius, 422. 
Neonympka, 128, 488. 
Neopasites, 444, 520. 
Neotettix, 68. 
Nepa, 100. 

nephele, Satyrus, 130, XXXII. 
Nepid,e, 96, 100. 
Nerthra, 95. 
nervosa, Chalepus, 375. 
nessus, Amphion, 147, 493. 
NethridyE, 95. 
Neurigona, 252. 
NEUROPTERA, 2, 52, 53. 478, 

479. 482. 
Neuroterus, 457, 462, 464. 
Neurotoma, 410. 
Nicagus, 324, 326. 
nicippe, Terias, 138, 491. 
wiger americanus, Lasius, 421, 

LXXXIX. 
«*g<r, Chrysops, LXV. 
wz'ger, Diastrophus, 468. 
niger, Lasius, 90. 
niger, Melo'e, 390. 
m'ger neoniger, Lasius, 422. 
nigricana, Laspeyresia, 219. 
nigricollis, Elater, 309, LXXVII. 
nigricornis, Hcemonia, 364. 
nigripes, Attelabus, 399. 
nigripes, Cassida, 377. 
nigrofasciatum, Rulecanium, 93. 
nigrovittatus, Tabanus, LXVI. 
nigrum, Dorcaschema, 354. 
niphon, Thecla, 132. 
nisella, Eucosma, 218. 
nitela, Papaipema, 176, LII. 
NlTELIDjE, 430. 
nitens, Leptura, 35 T - 



548 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



nitida, Allorhina. 334, LXXXI. 
nitida, Megarhyssa. 414. 
nitidalis, Diaphania, 209. 
Nitidulid^e, 304, 505. 
nitidus, Xylotrechus, 347. 
Nits, 229. 

niveipila, Cecidomyia, 462. 
nobilis, Calloides, 347. 
noctilucus, Pyrophorus, 308, 
Noctua, 172. 
Noctuid/E, 172. 
Nodonota, 368. 
nodulosa, Lasioptera, 468. 
nodulus, Rhabdophaga, 458. 
nodus, Euura, 458. 
Nomada, 442, 445, 512, 516. 

NOMADID^E, 44O, 442, 512, Sl6, 
521, 

Nomia, 441, 517. 
Nomotettix, 68. 
Northern Metalmark, 130. 
Nortonia, 429. 
nortoni, Megarhyssa, 414. 
No-see-ums, 241. 
notata, Galerucella, 37i- 
notatum, Dianthidium, XCIII. 
notatus, Monohammus, 354- 
notatus, Slenosphenus, 341. 
Notched-wing Geometer, 196. 
Notidobia, 57. 

NOTODONTID^E, I 84. 

Notoglossa, 434. 

Notogonidea, 437. 

Notonecta, 102. 

Notonectid.e, 96, 99, 100. 

Notoxus, 386. 

Notozus, 425. 

Notum, 8. 

notulata, Galerucella, 371. 

novce-anglice, Halictoides, 520. 

noveboracensis, Ithycerus, 396. 

noveboracensis, Silpha, 296, 

LXXV. 
novem-notata ,Coccinella,'L'XX.V . 
noxiosus, Neuroterus, 464. 
nubila, Hoplosia, 359. 
nubilis, Euparthenos, 182, LIV. 
nubilalis, Pyrausta, 497. 
nucicola, Caryomyia, 460. 
numitor, Ancyloxypha, 144, 

XXXVII. 
Nut Weevil, 400. 
nuttalli, Trichodes.320,~LXXIX. 
nycteis, Phyciodes, 119, XXIX. 
Nycteribiid^e, 279. 
Nyctobates, 382. 
nymphcecB, Galerucella, 371. 
Nymphalid^e, 116, 130, 486. 
Nymphalin^:, 117. 
Nymph (young insect), 40. 
Nymphs, 128. 
Nymphula, 209. 
Nymphulin-e, 209 
Nysson, 433. 
Nyssonid^e, 433« 

• )fterea. 361, 362. 
o&esa, Rhagovelia, 103. 



obesa, Volucella, 256. 
obfuscana, Eucosma, 219. 
obliqua, Saperda, 360. 
obliquata, Penthe, 385. 
obliquistrigella, Recurvaria, 221. 
obliterans, Nymphula, 209. 
oblongifolia, Amblycorypha, 72, 

XIX. 
Obriini, 340. 
Obrium, 340. 
obscuriocostella, Phyllonoryler, 

225. 
obscurus, Nicagus, 326, LXXIX. 
obscurus, Tenebrio, 382, 

LXXXIV. 
obsoleta, Heliothis, 178. 
obsoleta, Lina, 369. 
obsoletus, Acanthocinus, 356. 
obtectus,Bruchus, 379. LXXXIV. 
obtusatus, Hydrocharis, 294. 
obtusus, Balaninus, 401. 
obtusus, Ips, 304. 
occidentalis, Mutilla. XC. 
occidentalis, Pachy sphinx, 150. 
Occiput, 449. 
ocellana, Spilonota, 219. 
ocellaris, Cecidomyia, 466. 
ocellata, Oberea, 361. 
ocellatus, Anacrabro, 435. 
Ocellus, 8. 
Ochterid^e, 95. 
Ochterus, 95. 

octomaculata, Alypia, 170, L. 
octomaculata, Perdita, XCIII. 
octopunctata,Mordella,'LXXXI\ T . 
Octotoma, 375. 
oculata, Goes, 354. 
oculatus, Alaus, 308, LXXVII. 
oculatus, Gelastocoris, XXV. 
ODONATA, 2, 42, 478, 480. 
Odontata, 375. 
Odontceus, 329. 
Odontomyia, 247. 
odora, Erebus, 182, LIV. 
Odynerus, 429. 
CEcanthus, 74, XIX. 
(Eciacus, 106. 
CEcophorid^e, 221. 
(Edaspis, 457, 472. 
CEdemerid^e, 380,385. 
CEdionychis, 372. 
CEdipodin^e, 69. 
cestrid^e, 258, 259. 
CEstrus, 260. '. 

Oiketicus, 199. 
Oil-beetles, 390. 
Okanagana, 84. 
Old-fashioned Potato-beetle, 364, 

392. 
oleracea, Pieris napi, XXXIV. 
Olethreutes, 218. 

OLETHREUTIN.E, 215- 

Olfersia, 279. 
Oligotrophus, 457. 
Omalus, 425. 
Ommatidium, 8. 
Omophron, 286. 
Omosita, 305. 



549 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



. Omus, 282. 
Oncideres, 353. 
Onciderini, 353. 
Oncopeltus, 112. 
Onion-maggot, Imported, 263. 
Onion-thrips, 79. 
Onthophagus, 328. 
opalescens, Sanninoidea, 207. 
operculella, Phthorimcea, 221. 
Ophion, 412. 
Ophyra, 263, 265. 
Opsebius, 248. 
Orange-dog, 138. 
Orange-tip, Falcate, 137. 
orbicollis, Necrophorus, 295. 
orbitalis, Euura, 458. 
Orchelimum, 72. 
Order, 5, 476 (Key). 
orientalis, Blatta, 64, XVI. 
orizaba, Rothschildia, 154. 
Orl-fly, 52. 

ornata, Celithemis, 50, XII. 
ornatus, Acrydium, 66, XVIII. 
ornatrix, Utetkeisa, 166. 
Omeodes, 215. 
Orneodid^e, 215. 
Or nix. 225. 
Orphulella, 69. 
1 Orsodachna, 364. 

Ortalidid^e, 263, 275. 
ORTHOPTERA, 2, 62, 479. 

482. 
Orthorrhapha, 230. 
Orthosoma, 338. 
Oryssid/e, 410. 
Orywws, 410. 

ory3«, Calandra, 404, LXXXVI. 
Osmia, 446, 519. 
OsMiiN^E, 519. 
Osmoderma, 335. 
ostensackenella, Phyllonoryier, 

225. 
ostreceformis, Aspidiotus, XXIV. 
ostryce, Coleophora, 222. 
ostrycefoliella, Coptodisca, 223. 
ostrycefoliella, Phyllonoryter, 225. 
ostrycefoliella, Stigmella, 224. 
ostryarella, Phyllonoryter, 225. 
Othinid^e, 505. 

OtiorhynchiN/E, 393, 398, 399- 
Otiorhynchus, 399. 
otiosana, Eucosma, 218. 
ovatus, Hydrophilus, 294. 
ovatus, Otiorhynchus, 400. 
ova/as, Pterocolus, 395- 
ovinus, Melophagus, 279. LXXI. 
Ovipositor, 72. 
ovt's, CEslrus, 260. 
ovum, Euura, 458. 
Owlet-moths, 172. 
Ox-beetle, 333^ 
Oxybelid,*, 432, 434. 
Oxybelus, 434. 
Oxyptilus, 214. 
Oyster-shell Scale, 94. 

pachycondylce, Metopina, 253. 
Pachygasler,2\l. 



Pachypsylla, 86, 456, 466. 
Pachyscelus, 314. 
P achy sphinx, 150, 493, 494. 
Painted Beauty, 124. 
Painted Lady, 126. 
Palamedes, Papilio, 142 , 49 1 . 
Paleacrita, 195, 196. 
palliatus, Desmocerus, 339, 

LXXXI. 
p alii de-f viva, Formica, 423. 424. 
pallidum, Menopon, 78, XXI. 
pallipes, Agonoderus, 288, 

LXXIII. 
pallipes, Polistes, 430. 
palmeri, Ceresa, 484. 
Palmer-worms, 166. 
Palps, 8, 33. 

palustris, Callirhytis, 462. 
PamphiliiD/E, 410. 
Pamphilin-e, 142, 143, 144, 492. 
Panchlora, 64, XIX. 
pandorus, Pholus, 149, 493, 

XXXVIII. 
Pangonia, 248. 

panicea,Sitodrepa, 321, LXXIX. 
Panorpa, 56. 
PANURGiDiE, 440, 442, 516, 517, 

520. 
Panurginus, 442, 521. 
Panurgus, 521. 
Paonis, 152. 
Papaipema, 176. 
Papilio, 138, 140, 141, 142, 485, 
t, 491. x 

PAPILIONID.E, Il6, 134. ^ 

Papilionin^e, 138, 491. 

Papillatus, Callirhytis, 462. 

Parandra, 336. 

Parandrena, 521. 

Paragus, 254. 

Paralechia, 221. 

parallelus, Dorcus, 325 

PARASITA, 79. 

Parasitica, 2. 

Paratenodera, 65. 

Paratettix, 68. 

Paraliphia, 427. 

Pareclopa, 225. 

Pareuchcetes, 169. 

Parnassius, 138. 

PARNiDiE, 305, 509. 

Parnopes, 425. 

Paroxya, 71. 

parvula, Epitrix, 374. 

parvus, Leplostylus, 357. 

Pasimachus, 285, 286. 

PASSALiDiE, 326. 

Passalcecus, 434- 

Passalus, 325, 326. 

patibulatus, Psilopodinus, LXVI. 

Pea Weevil, 379. 

Peach-tree Borer, 207. 

Peacock Flies, 275. 

Pear Midge, 242. 

Pear Psylla, 86. 

Pearly Eye, 128. 

Pecan Weevil, 401. 

Pectinate, 504. 



550 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



pectinicornis, Cladius, 410. 
Peddlers, 376. 
Pedicel, 407. 
Pediculus, 79. 483. 
Pegomyia, 263. 
Pepsis, 4, 8. 
Pelecinid^e, 407, 415. 
Pelecinus, 415. 
Pelecocera, 253- 
Pelecotoma, 381. 
Pelidnota, 332. 
pellex, Dasyneura, 472. 
pellionella, Tinea, 226, LXII. 
Pelocoris, 96. 

Pemphigus, 456, 458, 466. 
Pemphredon, 434- 
Pemphredonin/E, 434- 
penetrans, Dermatophilus, 279. 
penitalis, Pyrausta, 209. 
pennipes, Trichopoda, 262, 

LXVIII. 
Pennsylvanica, Epicaula, 392. 
pennsylvanica, Nyctobates, 382. 
pennsylvanica, Photuris, 317. 

LXXVIII. 
pennsylvanicum, Ammobia, 439- 
pennsylvanicus, Bombus, 451, 

452, XCIV. 
Pennsylvanicus, Camponetus, 

LXXXIX. 
Pennsylvanicus, Chauliognathus, 

317, LXXVIII. 
pennsylvanicus, Harpalus, 288. 
Pentaria, 386. 
Pentatomid^e, 98, 113. 
Pentatomin^;, 114. 
Penthe, 385. 
Pepsis, 428. 
Perdita, 442, 512, 520. 
Perditella, 520. 
Peridroma, 172. 
Periplaneta, 64. 
Periscelidactylus , Oxyptilus, 214, 

LXI. 
Perithemis, 48. 
Perlid^e, 50. 
perniciosus, Aspidiotus, 93. 

XXIV. 
Peronea, 219- 

Perplexus, Bombus, 450, 452. 
persicoides, Caryomyia, 460. 
personatus, Reduvius, 107, 

XXV. 
Petiole, 407. 

petiolicola, Andricus, 462. 
petiolicola, Asteromyia, 470. 
phaUon, Melitaa, 119, 487, 

XXIX. 
Phalacrid/E, 297. 
Pkanceus, 329. 
Phantom Larva, 241. 
pharaonis, Monomorium, 420, 

LXXXIX. 

PHASMIDiE, 65, 482. 

Pheidole, 420. 
Phsnacoccus, 92. 
Phengodes, 317. LXXVIII. 
phitadelphica, Calligrapha, 370. 



Philadelphia, Sapromyza 

LXVIII. 
Philanthid^e, 432, 435. 
Philanthus, 435. 436. 
philenor, Papilio, 141, 49 1. 

XXXVI. 
Phileremulus, 512. 
Phileremus, 521. 
philodice, Colias, 137, 491, 

XXXV. 
Philosamia, 153, 495. 
Phlegethontius, 150, 152, 493. 
Phobetron, 200. 

phocion, Neonympha, 128, 488. 
Pholisora, 144, 492. 
Pholus, 149, 493. 
pholus, Ampelophagus, 149, 494. 
pholus, Lycomorpha, 164, 

XLVIII. 
Phorbia, 263. 
Phorid/E, 233. 253. 
Phormia, 268, 273. 
Photinus, 314, 316. 
Photogenic plate, 314. 
Photuris, 316, 317. 
Phryganea, 57. 
Phryganeid^e, 60. 
Phthinolophus, 219. 
Phthirius, 79. 
Phthorimaa, 221. 
Phyciodes, 119, 120, 486. 
Phycitin^e, 212. 
phylcBus, Hylephila, 144, 

XXXVII. 
Phyllocnistis, 226. 
Phyllocoptes, 456, 466. 
Phyllodecta, 368. 
Phyllonoryter, 224. 
Phyllophaga, 330, 33L 415. 427. 

LXXX. 
Phyllotreta, 372. 373- 
Phylloxera, 88, 456, 460, 470. 
Phymata, no. _ 
PHYMATID.E, 95. 97. HO. 

Phymatodes, 342. 
Physocephala, 257. 
Physocnemum, 342. 
Physonota, 377. 
Phytoeciini, 353, 361. 
Phyton, 340. 
Phylonomus, 400. 
Phytophaga, 281, 336, 458. 
piceaella, Recurvaria, 221. 
piceafoliana, Enarmonia, 219. 
piceus, Attagenus, 302, LXXVI. 
piceus, Ceruchus, 326. 
piceus, Melanactes, 309. 
picipes, Euderces, 349. 
picipes, Melanolestes, 107. 
picta, Centrodera, 350. 
0/c/a, Mamestra, 172, LI. 
pictipes, Synanthedon, 208. 
pictus, Cyllene, 346. 
pictus, Trepobates, 104. 
Pierin,e, 138, 490. 
Pier is, 134, 136, 137. 179. 

490. 
Piesma, no. 



551 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



PlEMINLE, no, 
Pigeon Louse, 78. 
Pigeon Tremex, 411. 
piger, Andricus, 462. 
Piger, Trichius, 335. 
pilifera, Pheidole, 420. 
pilosula, Phylloxera, 460. 
pilosula, Viereckella, 516. 
pilules, Cincticornia, 462. 
pilumnus, Papilio, 142. 
Pinacate, 381. 
pinatubana, Eulia, 220. 
Pinching Bugs, 324. 
Pine-devil, 164. 
pinifoliella, Paralechia, 221. 
Pinipestis, 213. 
pini-rigidce, Cecidomyia, 458, 
Pink Insects, 72, 85. 
Piophila, 276, 278. 

PlOPHILAD^E, 276. 

pipiens, Culex, 240, LXIV. 
Pipiza, 254. 

PlPUNCULID<E, 235. 

pisorum, Bruchus, 379. 

LXXXIV. 
pisum, Cynips, 462. 
pisum, Pontania, 460. 
pithecium, Phobetrom, 200. 
Pityobius, 309, 
placidus,- Lucanus, 325. 
plagiatus, Dolichoderus, 421. 
Plagiodera, 368. 
Plagionotus, 347. 
Plant Galls, 455; see, a/50, Plant 

Index. 
Plant-lice, 86, 87, 132. 
Plasterer, 446. 
plalanana, Ancylis, 219. 
platanella, Stigmella, 224. 
platea, Stigmella, 224. 
Plateros, 316. 
Plathemis, 48. 
Platodora, 220. 
Platycentropus, 57. 
Platycerus, 325. 
Platychirus, 255. 
Platynus, 287. 
platypezid.e, 235. 
Platypodin^e, 404. 
platypsyllid/e, 507. 
PLATYPTERA, 2. 
Platypus, 404. 
P/ea, 95. 102. 
plebeius, Hyloicus, 153. 
PLE-COPTERA, 2, 50, 477. 480, 

XIII. 
PLECTOPTERA, 40, 477. 478, 

481. 
plejadellus, Chilo, 210. 
Plenoculus, 434. 
Pleura, 449. 
plexippus, Anosia, 116, 127. 486, 

XXVII. 
plicala, Coptocycla, 378, 
Plodia, 213. 
Ploiariola, 108. 
Plum Curculio, 402. 
plumbea, Rhagovelia, 103. 



Plume Moths, 214. 

plumosa, Tetanocera, LXVIII. 

Plusia, 179. 

Plutella, 220. 

Pocahontas, Atrytone, ' 146, 

XXXVII. 
pocularis, Prionus, 338. 
poculum, Cecidomyia, 462. 
Podabrus, 317. 
Podapion, 396. 
Podisus, 114. 
Podops, 114. 
Pcecilocapsus, 105. 
Pogonocherini, 353, 358. 
Pogonocherus, 359- 
Poison bait, 172. 
Polistes, 144, 204, 429, 430, si 1, 

XCI. 
polistiformis, Memythrus, 204, 

LX. 
polita, Dryophanta, 462. 
polita, Mesogramma, 255. 
polita, (Edaspis, 472. 
polita, Parandra, 336. 
Pollenia, 265, 267, 271. 
Polybia, 429. 
Polycentropus, 58. 
Polychrosis, 215, 218. 
Polyclasis, 316. 
polydamas, Papilio, 142. 
Polyergus, 417, 424. 
polygoni, Gastroidea, 368. 
Polyphemus, Telea, 158, 496, 

XLIV. 

POLYMORPHA, 280, 292. 
POLYSTOMID.E, 395- 

Polyturator, Pelecinus, 415, 

LXXXVIII. 
polyxenes, Papilio, 141, 491, 

XXXVI. 
Pomace-fly, 276. 
pometaria, Alsophila, 194, LVIII. 
pomivorella, Stigmella, 224. 
pomonella, ' Carpocapsa, 216, 

LXII. 
pomonella, Rhagoletis, 276, 

LXXI. 
pomorum Mytilaspis, 94. 
Pomphoplcea, 392. 
Pompilid<e, 428. 
pomum, Pontania, 460. 
pomum, Schizomyia, 470. 
Pond-skaters, 103. 
Ponera, 418. 
PoNERiNiE, 418. 
Pontania, 410, 457, 460. 
Pontia, 137. 
Popillia, 510. 
Poplar-borer, 360. 
populicaulis. Pemphigus, 458. 
populiella, Phyllonoryter, 225. 
populi-transversus, Pemphigus, 

458. 
populi-vena, Pemphigus, 458. 
Porthetria, 188. 
portlandia, Debis, 128, 488, 

XXXII. 
Posterior cell, 229. 269. 



552 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



Potato Beetle, Colorado, 364. 
Potato Beetle, Old fashioned, 

364. 392. 
Potato-stalk Borer, 402. 
potentillcB, Gonaspis, 468. 
Potter Wasps, 428. 
Powder-post Beetles, 323. 
prazcelsis, Calligrapha, 370. 
Prasocuris, 368. 
pratensis, Lygus, 105, XXV. 
Praying Mantis, 64, 108. 
preciosella, Ornix, 225. 
Predaceous Diving Beetles, 289. 
Prenolepis, 417, 421. 
princeps, Epicordulia, 48, XII. 
prinoides, Cynips, 462. 
Prionapteryx, 210. 

PRIONINiE, 337. 338. 

Priononyx, 438. 

Prionoxystus, 203. 

Prionus, 338. 

proboscideus, Balaninus, 400, 

LXXXVI. 
procera, Sphex, 439. 

PROCTOTRYPIDiE, 415. 

prodenialis, Melitara, 213. 

Prodoxus, 228. 

progne, Grapta, 122, 482, XXX. 

Proleucoptera, 226. 

promethea, Callosamia, 156, 

495, XXX. 
Pronotum, prosternum, etc., 8. 
Pronuba, 228. 
Prop legs, 8. 

Prosopid^e, 440, 44s, 517. 
Prosopis, 445, 512. 
Protandrena, 442, 517. 
Proteoteras, 219. 
proteus, Eudamus, 144, 492. 
Prothorax, 8. 
Protocalliphora, 266. 
protodice. Pier is, 136, 490, 

XXXIV. 
Protoparce, 150, 152, 494. 
Protophormia, 268, 273- 
Protoxcea, 514. 
proximo., Leptura, 351. 
prudens, Trypanisma, 221. 
pruiniella, Coleophora, 222. 
pruinifoliella, Stigmella, 224. 
pruiniramiella, Xylesthia, 226. 
pruinosa, Xenoglossa, 445, 

XCIII. 
pruinosum, Eulecanium, 93. 
Primer, 345. 

prunivora, Laspeyresia, 219. 
prunivorella, Ornix, 226. 
prunus, Amphibolips, 464. 

PSALLIDIID/E, 399. 

Psammochares, 428. 

PSAMMOCHARID^, 426, 428. 

Psammophila, 439. 

PSELAPHID^E, 296. 

Pselliopus, 108. 
Pserc, 434. 

PSENID^E, 432, 434. 

Psenin^:, 434. 
Psenocerini, 352. 



Psenocerus, 352. 

pseudargiolus, Lycana, 134, 490. 
Pseudococcus, 92. 
Pseudogalleria, 218. 
Pseudomelecta, 516. 
Pseudopanurgus, 521. 
Pseudopomala, 68. 
Pseudopyrellia, 265, 267, 272. 
Pseudoscorpion, 32. 
Psilocephala, 249. 
Psilopodinus, 250. 
Psilotreta, 57. 
Psinidia, 70. 
Psithyrus, 448, 449. 
Psocid^e, 76. 

PSYCHIDiE, 198. 

Psychodid.,e, 232, 236. 
Psychomorpha, 214. 
PsyHa. 86. 

psylloides, Gibbium, 322. 
Pterocolin^e, 395. 
Pterocolus, 395. 
pterodontinus, Opsebius, 248. 
Pteromalus, 415. 
Pteronidea, 410. 
Pterophorid^:, 214. 
Pterophylla, 72. 
Pterostichus, 287. 
Ptilinum, 230. 
Ptinid^e, 320. 
Ptinus, 321. 
pubera, Leptura, 352. 
i>«6e5c«»5, Chrysotoxum, 254. 
pulchella, Libellula, 48, X. 
pulchra, Andricus, 464. 
pulchra. Goes, 355- 
Pulex, 279. 

pulicaria, Chattocnema, 374. 
Pulicid^:, 279. 
pulsatoria. Atropos, 78. 
pulverulenta, Goes, 355- 
Pulvinaria, 92. 

pulvipennella, Agnopteryx, 221. 
punctata, Pelidnota, 332, LXXX. 
punctata, Hypera, 400. 
punctatus, Callirhytis, 464. 
punctatus, Liopus, 358. 
puncticollis, Saperda, 359. 
punctiventris, Myrmica, 421. 
punctulata, Cicindela, 282. 
punctulata, Dicerca, 313. 
Punkies, 24^. 
Pupa, 6. 
Puparium, 230. 
puparum, Pteromalus, 4i5> 
PUPIPARA, 231, 279. 480. 
Purple, Banded, 127. 
Purple, Red-spotted, 126. 
purpurata, Coptocycla, 377. 
purpureus, Pachyscelus, 314. 
Purpuricenus, 346. 
pusilla, Spilomena, 434. 
pustulatus, Necrophorus, 295. 
Pygmcea, Erythraspides, 410. 
pygmceus, Cephus, 410. 
pygmceus, Cyrtinus, 352. 
Pylades, Thorybes, 144, 492. 
Pyractomena, 316. 



553 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



Pyralid^e, 208. 
pyralin.e, 210 
Pyralis, 210. 

Pyrameis, 124, 126, 487, 488. 
Pyrausta, 209, 497. 
Pyraustin^;, 208. 
Pyrgota, 275. 
pyricola, Psylla, 86. 
pyricolana, Enarmonia, Z19. 
pyrina, Zeuzera, 202, LX. 
pyrivora, Contarinia, 242. 
Pyrochroid^e, 381, 386. 
Pyromorphid^e, 202. 
Pyrophcena, 255. 
Pyrophorus, 308. 
Pyropyga, 316. 
Pyrota, 392. 

Pyrrhocorid^;, 98, 111. 
pyrrhos, Corymbites, 300. 
Pythid^e, 380, 385. 

quadridens, Monobia, XC. 
quadrifasciata, Bicyrles, 438. 
quadrigeminata, Eburia, 344. 
quadrigibbus, Acanthoderes, 355 
quadrigibbus, Tachypterus, 401. 
quadrigutlatus, Ips, 304. 
quadrimaculatum, Bembidium, 

286. 
quadrimaculatus, Anopheles, 238, 

LXIV. 
quadrimaoulatus, Collops, 318, 

LXXIX. 
quadrimaculatus, Heterachthes, 

344- 
quadrimaculatus, Xylotrechus, 

347. 
quadripes, Phyllocoptes, 466. 
quadripunctella, Ornix, 226. 
quadripustulata, Brochymena, 

114. 
quadri-spinosus, Scolytus, 405. 
Queen, The, 116. 
querci, Lepturges, 358. 
querciella, Coleophora, 222. 
quercitella, Tischeria, 226. 
quercus, Platycerus, 325. 
quercus. Phylloxera, 88. 
Question Mark, 120. 
quindecim- punctata, Anatis, 

LXXV. 
quinque-cincta, Elis, XC. 
quinque-maculatus, Phlegethon- 

tius, 150. 

radiatus, Agapostemon, XCIV. 

radicum, Anthomyia, 263. 

radicum, Diastrophus, 468. 

radicum, Pipiza, 254. 

radicum, Rhodites, 468. 

Radish-worm, 263. 

Ranaira, 100. 

ra£<2, Ceutorhyncus, 402. 

ra/>«, Pieris, 134, 136, 179. 490, 

XXXIV. 
Raphidia, 478. 
RAPHIDIOIDEA, 478, 482. 
Raspberry Root-borer, 206. 



Raspberry Saw-fly, 410, 

Rat-flea, 279. 

Rat-tailed Maggot, 257. 

Rat-tails, 278. 

ratzeburgiana, Enarmonia, 219. 

rectangular is, Lestes, IX. 

rectus, Belaninus, 401. 

Recurrent veins, 406. 

Recurvaria, 221. 

Red Admiral, 124. 

Red-bugs, 11 1. 

Red-necked Cane-borer, 312. 

Reduviid.e, 97, 107, 108. 

Reduviolus, 98. 

Reduvius, 107. 

regalis, Cilheronia, 162, 496, 

XLVI. 
regina, Phormia, 268, 273XXIX. 
relicta, Catocala, 180, 181, LIU. 
religiosa. Mantis, 65. 
remigis, Aquarius, 104. 
remigis, Gerris, 103, XXV. 
repanda, Cicindela, 282. 
resinicola, Retinodi ptosis, 458. 
reticulatum, Calopteron, 315, 

LXXVIII. 
Retinodi ptosis, 457, 458. 
Rhabdophaga, 457, 458. 
Rhagium, 350. 
Rhagoletis, 276. 
Rhagovelia, 103. 
Rhingia. 255- 
Rhinoceros Beetle, 333. 
Rhinomacerin^e, 396. 
Rhinopsis, 433. 
Rhipicerid^e, 306, 509. 
Rhipiphorid/e, 381, 393. 
Rhipiphorus, 393. 
Rhizophagus, 505. 
rhoda, Calligrapha, 370. 
Rhodites, 457, 468. 
Rhodobcpnus, 403. 
rhodoides, Rhabdophaga, 458. 
rfcots, Attelabus, 398, 399, 

LXXXVI. 
r/jozs, Pemphigus, 466. 
Rhopalocera, 115. 116. 
Rhopalomyia, 457, 472. 
Rhopalophora, 341. 
Rhopalophorini, 341. 
Rhopclopus, 342. 
Rhopobola, 219. 
Rhyacionia, 218. 

RHYACOPHILIDiE, 60. 

Rhynchagrolis, 172. 
Rhynchites, 396. 
RhynchitiNjE, 396. 
Rhynchophora, 281, 379, 393, 

500, 506. 
Rhynchophorid^e. 403. 
Rhynchophorus, 403. 

RHYPHIDiE, 231. 

Rhyssodid^:, 299. 300. 
ribearia, Cymatophora, 195, 

LVIII. 
ribesi, Pteronidea, 410, 

LXXXVII. 
Rice Weevil, 404. 



554 



ENTOMOLOGICAL INDEX. 



rigida, Phytophaga, 458. 
riparia, Argiope, 36. 
Roaches, 62, 479, 482. 
Robber Flies, 250. * • 

Robertsonella, 520. 
robinice, Cyllene, 346, LXXXI. 
robinice, Prionoxystus, 203. 
robinice, Spermophagus, 379. 
robiniella, Agnopteryx, 221. 
robiniella, Recurvaria, 221. 
Rocky Mt. Locust, 66. 
Rocky Mt. Spotted Fever, 476. 
Romalea, 71. 
Romaleum, 344. 
rosce, Asteromyia, 472. 
rosce, Rhodites, 468. 
roscefoliella, Stigmella, 224. 
rosana, Archips, 219, LXII. 
Rose Beetles, 331. 
roseosuffusella, Aristotelia, 221. 
Rothschildia, 154. 
rotulata, Galerucella, 371. 
rotundicollis, Telephorus, 317- 
Round-headed Apple-borer, 359. 
Round-headed Borers, 337. 
Rove Beetles, 297. 
rudis, Pollenia, 267. 271. 
rtt&z, Monophadnoides, 410. 
rubicunda, Dryocampa, 162, 

496, XLV. 
rubifoliella, Stigmella, 224. 
rubivora, Phorbia, 263- 
ruftra, Chalepus, 375. LXXXIII. 
rubra, Samia, 156. 
rubrica, Leptura, 351. 
rubricollis, Elater, 309. 
rubrifasciella, Acrobasis, 213, 
rubrocinctum, Trypoxlon, 436. 
Ruby-spot, 44. 
Ruby Wasps, 424. 
rwaVs Pollenia, 265, 271, LXIX. 
r«/a, Formica, 184. 
rufibarbus, Erax, LXVII. 
ruficollis, Agrilus, 312. 
ruficollis, Necrobia, 320. 
ruficollis, Oberea, 362. 
rufipes, Crepidodera, 374. 
rufipes, Necrobia, 320, LXXIX. 
rufocinclus, Bombus, 449, 
rufosanguinea, Galerucella, 371. 
rufoscuiellatus, Limnoporus, 104. 
rufulum, Romaleum, 344. 
rugifrons, Cicindela, 282. 
rugulosus, Scolytus, 405, 

LXXXVI. 
ruricola, Clytanthus, 349. 
ruscarius, Elaphrus, 285. 
rustica, Phlegethontius, 152. 

RUTELIN^E, 332, 510. 

saccharella, Phyllonoryter, 225. 
saccharina, Lepisma, 39, VIII. 
sacer, Scarabceus, 328. 
Sacred Scarab, 326. 
Saddle-back, The, 200. 
saginella, Stigmella, 224. 
sagittaria, Physocephala, 257. 



sagittatus, Xylotrechus, 347. 
Sagrini, 363, 364. 
Saissetia, 93. 

SALDID.E, 97, 102. 

Saldula, 102. 

Salebria, 213. 

saliciella, Coptodisca, 223. 

salicifoliella, Phyllonoryter, 225. 

salicipomonella, Batrachedra, 223. 

salictella, Mamara, 226. 

Salmon-fly, 50. 

Salticus, 38. 

saltitans, Carpocapsa, 218. 

Salt-ma